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The Monthly Authority of the Trade 




Technical Journal Co., Inc. 
233 Broadway, New Yorfe 



JULY, 1916 



Volume 4>,-j, No. 
Subscription One 









CAUTION 



The genuine DURADUCT 
is trademarked with 
a black dotted line. 



Your jobber has it. 
Avoid Substitutes. 



ELECTRICAL AGE 




HOSPITAL LIGHTING 

There are 7,000 hospitals and kindred institutions in the United States. 

They are adding new buildings in this field at the rate of 700 a year. 

Consider the enormous lamp requirements of these 7000 hospitals ! 

Probably there is no other type of building which has such a pressing 
need for good light and plenty of it. Every ward should have lights over 
•each bed as well as general illumination. There should be an outlet wher- 
ever a doctor or nurse is likely to need one. Corridors should be adequately 
lighted for safety and sanitation. Every closet needs a light controlled by 
an automatic door switch. Diet kitchens, nurses' rest rooms and labora- 
tories need the best kind of light. In the operating room scientific lighting 
is a matter of life and death. 

And yet it is safe to say that but 10% of the hospitals in the country 
are properly lighted. We have the facts to substantiate this statement. 

There is an immense volume of profitable business for you in the hos- 
pital field. We can help you develop the lamp business with our adver- 
tising and selling organizations. Write for information. 




Guaranteed by the Name 



Westinghouse Lamp Company 



Atlanta 
Baltimore 
Boston 
Buffalo 



Chicago 

Cincinnati 

Cleveland 



'Dallas 
Denver 
Detroit 
Kansas City 



Los Angeles 
Milwaukee 
New Orleans 
New York 



Philadelphia 
Pittsburgh 
Portland 
St. Louis 



*Westinghouse Lamp Corporation 



Export Sales Dept. 165 Broadway, N. Y. C. 

For Canada — Canadian Westinghouse Co., Limited, Hamilton, Ont. 

Member Society for Electrical Develorrr ent 



Salt Lake City 
San Francisco 
Seaitle 
Syracuse 



"Do It Electrically' 




' ,■..,' h i ;;.i.::! ^^r:,!;, :::;i!:i!;iiii!, i:i,;ii, ii; ;i :,ii!. i.^:ni. !.■ , ,;.;:. ;■ .-l.m.. rr-; ; ;. , ■ .: , 



I 





The Monthly Authority of the Tirade 

Issued Monthly by Technical Journal Co., Inc. 

1@42 Woolworth Bldg. v New York 

Chas. B. Thompson, President Win. F. Eastman, Vice Pres. 



CHICAGO OFFICE, 1209 WESTMINISTER BLDC. 

Telephones: New \ork, Barclay 7448; Chicago, Central 3792 



Volume 49 



JULY, 1916 



Number 1 



0(S3 



Electrification of Chicago, Milwaukee & St. Paul Railway 

Electrical Equipment of the William Penn Hotel (concluded) 

N. E. L. A. Convention Papers: 

A New Service Box — Unit Packages for Cable-Joint Material 
Use of Power Trucks in Underground Work 
Economics of Central Station Power for Railways 

Public Utility Employees' Savings & Loan Plan 

Electrical Fathers — Lord Kelvin .... 

Editorial ......... 

Trade Literature ....... 

Book Reviews ........ 

Recent Electrical Patents of Interest .... 

Among the Associations — Personals — Obituary 

Review of the Month ...... 

The Metal Market 



Page 
INSTALLATION, OPERATION AND POWER AM- 
PLICATION: 



Lightning Protection for Transformers . 

The Station Operator 

A Modern Street Lightning System . 
Bare Grounded-Return Wiring System to be In- 
vestigated 

Electric Power for Seattle Bridges . 



37 
39 
40 

41 

41 



PROBLEMS IN ELECTRIC PRACTICE: 

Practical Calculation and Construction of Rheostats 42 

Braki/ig an Induction Motor with Direct Current 43 

Hitches, Knots, Loops and Ties .... 44 

A Wattmeter Reversal ...... 46 

T'nsatisfactory Bell-Ringing Transformer . . 47 

Slotting Commutators ...... 4? 

A Coil Taping Frame 48 

A Commutator Repair 48 

Questions and Answers 48 

COMMERCIAL: 

Municipal Ownership and the Contractor . . 49 

The Club Idea in Appliance Sales ... 50 

Monthly Window-Display Suggestion . 51 

UEMBER 



Page 
25 

29 

30 
3i 
32 
33 
34 
35 
63 
65 
66 
68 
69 
72 

Page 
52 
52 

54 



Rivals ......... 

Causes of Failure in the Electrical Business . 
Commercial Exploitation of Current for Cooking 
and Heating . . 

NEW PRODUCTS: 

Electric Lemon Squeezer ..... 56 

Waynelite Steadies Ford Lights .... 56 

Motor-Starting Knife-Switches . . . .56 

The Writerpress ....... 57 

A Strain Insulator for High Voltages ... 57 

Duplex Exciter Sets 58 

Diffuser for Pendant Lamps .... 58 

Multiple-Spindle Drilling Machine ... 58 

Automatic Lighting Switch for Automobiles . 59 

Liliput Arc Lamp ....... 59 

Uniflow Engines for Youngstown Sheet and Tube 

Co 59 

"The Electralogue" 60 

An Electric Welding Machine .... 60 

New Inexpensive Electric Ranges ... 61 

Spot-Lamp Dimmer ...... 61 

Motor-Driven A.r Compressor .... 61 

Pressed-Steel Vacuum Cleaner .... 62 

Pull-Chain Socket for Indirect Fixtures . . *52 



subscription PRICE— United States and Posessions, Mexico and Cuba $1.00 a year member 

Canada $1.50 a year. Foreign Countries in Postal Union $2.00. 

CAUTION — Do not pay solicitors, unless they present written authority, with date, from 

the publishers to collect money. 

NOTICE TO ADVERTISERS— To insure insertion, all copy, cuts, etc., for changes of 
regular advertisements in ELECTRICAL, AGE should reach us not later than the 25tb 
OF THE MONTH preceding date of publication; three days earlier if proof is de 
sired. The first advertising forms close promptly on this date. 

NEW or ADDITIONAL advertising not to occupy fixed position, can be inserted in » 
pecial form up to the 30th. -ooiraficiidouir; 

Mentha Audit Bureau of Circulation . 

E^ntere'l at the New'York Post Office as Second-class Mail Matter. Copyright 1916 by Technical Journal Co., Inc., New York, all rights reserved. 





118711 



ELECTRICAL AGE 



July, 1916 




rhis moto 



ets cnanges 



:W 



ocal conditions 



•-^ 



XT 



Jtist 
1 telegraph 



/^ 






\ 



If it is necessary to enclose an open RC motor for pro- 
tection against flying chips just order a set of semi-enclosing 
covers and clamp them on. 

A moderately dirty local condition is provided for by 
ordering RC motors enclosed and self-ventilated. Clean air 
can be drawn into the motor from within the room or by 
pipe from somewhere else. Air is discharged through screen 
in motor frame. 

Extremely dirty local conditions or dripping water re- 
quire a motor ordered enclosed and self-ventilated with 
involute attachment for fan end. Air is drawn into motor 
through one pipe and discharged into another. 

These motors are readily adapted to floor, wall or ceiling 
mounting and can be furnished for different voltages or any 
local conditions. 



Enclosed self -venti- 
lated without involute 
attachment. 



Enclosed self -venti. 
lated with involute 
attachment. 







This 

trade-mar* 

the guarantee of 

excellence on 
Goods Electrical 



ADDRESS 
NEAREST OFFICE 

Atlanta, Ga. 
Baltimore, Md. 
Birmingham, Ala. 
Boston, Mass. 
Buffalo, N. Y. 
Butte, Mout. 
Charleston, W. Va. 
Charlotte, N. C. 
Chattanooga, Tenn. 
Chicago, 111. 
Cincinnati, Ohio 
Cleveland, Ohio 
Columbus, Ohio 
Dayton, Ohio 
Denver, Colo. 
Des Moines, Iowa 
Duluth, Minn. 
Elmira, N. Y. 
Erie, Pa. 
Fort Wayne, Ind. 
Hartford, Conn. 
Indianapolis, Ind. 
Jacksonville, Fla. 
Jopliu, Mo. 
Kansas City, Mo. 
Knoxville, Tenn. 
Los Angeles, Cal. 
Louisville, Ky. 
Memphis, Tenn. 
Milwaukee, Wis. 
Minneapolis, Minn. 
Nashville, Tenn. 
New Haven, Conn. 
New Orleans, La. 
New York, N. \. 
Niagara Falls, N. Y. 
Omaha, Neb. 
Philadelphia, Pa. 
Pittsburgh, Pa. 
Portland, Ore. 
Providence, R. I. 
Richmond, Va. 
Rochester, N. Y. 
St. Louis, Mo. 
Salt Lake City, Utah 
San Francisco. Cal. 
Schenectady, N. Y. 
Seattle, Wnsh. 
Spokane. Wash. 
Springfield. Mass. 
Syracuse. N. Y. 
Toledo, Ohio 
Washington, D. C. 
Youngstown, Ohio. 

For Michigan business 
refer 'o General Elec- 
tric Company of Michi- 
gan, Detroit, Mich. 

For Texas, Oklahoma 
and Arizona business 
refer to Southwest 
General Electric Com- 
pany (formerly Hobson 
Electric Co.) Dallas, 
El Paso, Houston and 
Oklahoma City. 

For Canadian business 
refer to Canadian Gen- 
eral Electric Company, 
Ltd., Toronto, Ont. 



General Electric Company 



General Office: Schenectady, N. Y. 



6245 



IHIIOIIIIIli 



:" I ii -i' I' r 1 !'- 1 : "'M' i 1 '' !!' !i '' ! : ' :' :: :: I! iiMIMMIflllililll 1 llMltlMI! 1 !:!.!: i!' .!■:: 'I.:! '! :!■ ■ ! r 





Ssim<gil M©sa s £Mj lb j 'E'issllasaaisaa ^©uumal Co., Inc. 
3,©4i^ W®©31w©2l£3fo HSMg as , few If ©irk 

CIcia§, B. ^F3a-©2nps©m, Ps?@gM®jmft Wsea. IF. ESasftaman, Vice 

2Paaal IB, WJLm&l<Bj 9 mm.t®s 
CHICAGO OFFICE, 1209 WESTMINISTER BLDG. 

Telephones : New 1 ork, Barclay 7448; Chicago, Central 3792 



Volume 49 



AUGUST, 1916 



Number 2 



Electrical Wiring of a Steamship Pier - 
The Resistance Heater as a Load Builder 
"Water Power for the Farm - 
Industrial Leadership ".-.-'.- 
New York Convention, N. E. C. A. - 
Electrical Fathers — S. P. Thompson 
Editorial ------- 

Obituary ------- 

Trade Literature - 
Coming Conventions - 
Xew York Metal Prices - 



Page 

INSTALLATION, OPERATION, POWER APPLICA- 
TION 

37 

40 
4_> 

42 



Oroee Power Station No. 2 

Removing Moisture from Transil Oil . 

Mortorcycle Helped Light Town 

The Condenser Type Lightning Arrester 

PROBLEMS IN ELECTRIC PRACTICE 

Commutation of Direct-Current Motors . 
Voltage Control of Rotary Converters . 
Questions and Answers .... 



COMMERCIAL 

Selling Electrical Appliances by Telephone 
Our Monthly Window Display 



43 

44 
47 



40 



NEW PRODUCTS 

Cord-Retrieving Portable Lamp 
Truck-Type Switchboards. 
Electric Ash Hoist .... 
Condenser-Type Lightning Arresters 
Electrolytic Egg Cooker 

Fan Oscillator 

Auto Take-up Reel .... 
Novel Short-Circuiting Plug 
Electric Regulator Iron 
Permanent Soot Blower 
The "Motrola" ..... 
Two-Speed A. C. Elevator Motor . 
Illuminated Draft Gauges 
Tank Lifter for Oil Switches . 
Remote-Control Switch 



Tage 

28 
30 

3~ 
33 
34 
35 
53 
54 
61 
61 

Page 



00 
55 
56 
50 
56 
57 
57 
5S 
58 
58 
59 
58 
00 
(50 
00 



MEMBER 




SUBSCRIPTION PRICE — United States and Posessions, Mexico and Cuba $1.00 a year 
Canada $1.50 a year. Foreign Countries In Postal Union $2.00. 

CAUTION Do not pay solicitors, unless they present written authority, with date, from 

the publishers to collect money. 

NOTICE TO ADVERTISERS— To insure insertion, all copy, euts, etc., for changes of 

regular advertisements in ELECTRICAL AGE should reach us not later than the 2oth 

UK THE MONTH preceding date of publication; three days earlier if proof is ue 

sired. The first advertising forms close promptly on this date. 

NEW or ADDITIONAL advertising not to occupy fixed position, can be inserted in a 

special form up to the 30th. 

Membet Audit Bureau oj Circulation. 



MEMBER 




•OOtTOJEnKKAUSy 



EnUred at the Hew York Post Office as Second-class Mail Matter. Copyright 1916 by Technical Journal Co.. Inc.. AW York, all rights nw rwd. 



iiiii:iiiii:iii:!iiiiiiii!iniiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiuiiiiiiiiiii; iiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiuiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiii Hiiiiiiiiiiiii liitiiiiiimiutiim iiiiuuiiuiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiuiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiuiiiiiiiuiiiiitiiuiiiiiiiiiiiii 



:i!i!i,„ii:i 



.; it 



ELECTRICAL A C 1! 



August, 1916 




.■■ 






'■• ■■■■ .:..£^.:\J..;.^-£^mxk:'^:-/f.:i. 



General Electric Company 



Manufacturers of Steam Turbines 

Ranging in Capacity from 

1 to 50,000 Rw. 



A 





'flfll 








-■ 



<_ !« 






3500KW.Curtis SteamTurbine in a 
Large Light and Power Plant in 
Massachusetts. 




General Electric Company 



Atlanta, Ga. 
Baltimore, Md. , 
Birmingham, Ala, 
Boston, Mass. 
Puffalo, N. Y. 
Butte, Mont, 
Charleston, W. Va, 
Charlotte, N. C. 
Chattanooga, Tenn 
Chicago, 111. 
Cincinnati, Ohio> 



Cleveland, Ohio 
Columbus, Ohio 
Dayton, Ohio 
Denver, Colo. 
Des Moines, Iowa 
Duluth, Minn. 
Elmire, N. Y. 
Erie, Pa. 
Fort Wayne, Ind. 
Hartford, Conn. 
Indianapolis, Ind. 



._, , ^-v /v-» « >v '•*' \i -wr New Haven, Conn. 

General Office: Schenectady, N. Y. New Orleans, La. 



New York, N. Y. 



St. Louis, Mo. 

Salt Lake City, Utah 

San Francisco, Cal. 



ADDRESS NEAREST OFFICE 



Niagara Falls, N. Y. Schenectady, N. Y. 



iston, W. Va, Elmire, N. Y. Jacksonville, Fla. / 

jtte, N. C. ' Erie, Pa., Joplin, Mo. - f 

inooj/a, Tenn. Fort Wayne, Ind. Kansas City, Mo. I 

jo, 111. Hartford, Conn. Knoxville, Tenn. > 

nati, Ohio Indianapolis, Ind. Los Angeles, Cal. ' v ~r^' Nashville, Tenn. Rochester, N. Y. . Youngstown, Oh 

For Michigan Business refer to General Electric Company of Michigan, Detroit. 
For Texas, Oklahoma and Arizona business refer to Southwest General Electric Company (formerly Hobson Electric Co., ) Dallas, El Paso, 
Houston and Oklahoma City. For Canadian business refer to Canadian General Electric Company, Ltd., Toronto, Ont. 



, Ay., 
Memphis, Tenn. 
Milwaukee, Wis. 
Minneapolis, Minn. 
Nashville, Tenn. 



Omaha, Neb. 
Philadelphia, Pa. 
Pittsburgh, Pa. 
Portland, Ore. 
Providence, R. I. 
Richmond, Va. 
Rochester, N. Y. 



Seattle, Wash. 
Spokane; Wash. 
Springfield, Mass. 
Syracuse, N. Y. 
Toledo, Ohio 
Washington, D. C. 
Youngstown, Ohio 



Illlllllllllllllllllllllllllllll!l!llllllfllllllllllllll!!llllllllli 



fjm 





The Momtbly AtaflBaority ©S tSae Trade 



Chas. B. Thompois, 



m 



W&ml HB. iFSsmdllsji, BMfltes 1 



CHICAGO OFFICE, 1209 WESTMINISTER BLDG. 

Telephones: New iork, Barclay 1448; Chicago, Central 3792 



Volume 49 



SEPTEMBER, 1916 



Number 3 



In This Issue: 

Lighting Equipment for a Moving-Picture Studio : By Benjamin Gross 

Chief Engineer, L. K. Comstock & Company. 

Fundamental Aspects of Illumination Design By C. E. Clewell 

Assistant Professor, University of Pennsylvania. 

Illuminating Calculations By R. Thistlewhite 

Instructor, New York Electrical School. 

Stage-Lighting for an Amateur Performance By Glenn Marston 

Portable Electric Lamps : The Salesman's Opportunity. . . By John F. Duncan 

Patents and Inventions By Bayard H. Christy 

Patent Attorney, Pittsburg. 

Design of Electro-Magnets By Norman G. Meade 

Pumping Equipment of the Spring Lake Drainage and Levee District. 



Other Items of Interest: 



Installation, Operation, Power Application: 

Three-Wire Generators, by R. H. Willard; 
Seasonal Rating of Cables; Chart for Figur- 
ing Pumping Capacity, by.W. F. Schaphorst. 

Problems in Electric Practice: 

Difficulties that have come up in the prac- 
tical work of our readers. 
Commercial: 

Plans for America's Electrical Week— "Lit- 
tle Miss Mazda." 



New Products : 

Lightning Arresters for Pole Transformers; 
Induction Motor Starting Switch and Clutch; 
Small Industrial Oil Switch; The "Wynk-a- 
Lite"; Flexible Metallic Tubing; Six-in-One 
Fuse Plug; Improvements in Circuit Break- 
ers; Temperature-Control Switch; Portable 
Crane; New Pipe-Taplets; Duplex Sewage 
Ejector; Portable Air Compressor; New Met- 
al Molding; "Fan-Fire" Spark Plug; Steel 
Clad Heater; "Trancolet." 



MEMBER 




SUBSCRIPTION PRICE— United States and Posessions, Mexico and Cuba $1.00 a year 
Canada $1.50 a year. Foreign Countries in Postal Union $2.00. 

CAUTION — Do not pay solicitors, unless they present written authority, with date, from 
the publishers to collect money. 

NOTICE TO ADVERTISERS — To insure insertion, all copy, cuts, etc., for changes of 
regular advertisements in ELECTRICAL AGE should reach us not later than the 26th 
OF THE MONTH preceding date of publication; three days earlier if proof is de- 
sired. The first advertising forms close promptly on this date. 

NEW or ADDITIONAL advertising not to occupy fixed position, can be inserted in a 
special form up to the 30th. 



MEMBER 




rr atcttXAurp 



Membet Audit Bureau oj Circulation. 

Eyntered at the New York Post Office as Second-class Mail Matter. Copyright 1916 by Technical Journal Co., Inc., New York, all rights reserved. 



m 



llll!llilllllllllllllllllllllilllllllllll 



ELECTRICAL AGE 



September, 1916 





Transformers that have proven eminent- 
ly satisfactory for nearly a quarter cen- 
tury will stand the closest investigation 

— and those transformers are 

"KUHLMANS" 

— especially adaptable to the economical and 
efficient operation of the Type C Mazda 
(Nitrogen Filled) Street Lamp. 
The closest investigation of "KUHLMAN" Trans- 
formers under all manner of conditions proves 
them of greater effectiveness in maintaining con- 
tinuous lighting service, free from costly inter- 
ruption. 

KUHLMAN 

Series Multiple Transformer 

offer many advantages — this one especially: — 
instead of bringing a dangerous high voltage 
up through the pole a 20 volt 15-ampere circuit 
is led up to the lamp from the KUHLMAN 
Transformer. This advantage makes for a 
constant amperage and a continuity of service 
automatically taking care of lamp outages and 
keeping up reliable service up to 25 per cent 
of lamp discontinuances. 

KUHLMAN Transformers are manufactured to relieve 
troubles in all kinds of lighting and power conditions 
and are unconditionally guaranteed. We will gladly 
aid you in the solution of any of your lighting or 
power transmission problems. Write us 

Kuhlman Electric Co. 

Manufacturers of Transformers for over 20 years 

Bay City Michigan 






The Monthly taftflaoirlty ©i the Trade 
Issued Monthly by Technical Journal Co., Inc. 

313412 W©@Ilw©stSa Bldg., New York 

Chas. B. Thompsons PsresMeiit Wm. F. Eastsmaaa, Vice Pres. 



Volume 49 



OCTOBER, 1916 



Number 4 



/« 77? /s Issue: 

Bending and Installation of Conduit \ Benjamin Gross 

Chief Engineer, L. K. Comstock & Company. 

Flood-Lighting John A. Hoeveler 

Asst. Chief Engineer, National X-Ray Reflector Co. 

Telephone Subway Reconstruction in New York City Clifford M. Hartley 

Asst. Engineer, Empire City Subway Co. 

Obtaining a Patent Bayard H. Christy 

Patent Attorney, Pittsburgh. 

"America's Electrical Week," including a message by Gerard Swope 

Vice-President, Western Electric Co. 

Automobile Lamps and Lighting A. R. Dennington 

Engineer, Westinghouse Lamp Co. 



Other Items of Interest: 



Installation, Operation, Power Application: 

Manhole Covers for Power Houses, by M. 

M. Samuels; World's Largest Bake Oven; 

Delivery of Shop Mail by Electric Trucks; 

Locomotives for Hoosac Tunnel. 

Problems in Electric Practice: 

Testing of Switchboard Ammeters, by H. 
A. Cozzens, Jr.; Proper Fitting of Carbon 
Brushes, by H. H. Wikle; Practical Design 
and Construction of Electromagnets, by 
Norman G. Meade; An Effective Mine Signal 
System; Generator Would Not Pick Up, by 
E. C. Parham; Short Cuts and Minor Meth- 
ods; Questions and Answers. 



Commercial: 

The Monthly Bill as a Sight Draft, by G. 
D. Crain; Heating Rates; Monthly Window 
Display; News of the Associations. 

New Products : 

Sewing Machine Motor; Radiant Grill; 20,- 
000 Ampere Circuit Breaker; Portable Elec- 
tric Tools; Motor-driven Film Rewinder; 
Safety Switch; Pole-Changer for Bell Ring- 
ing; Induction Regulator; Faucet-type Water 
Heater; Fitting for Bell Ringing Transformer; 
"Geyser" Family Washer; Candle Lamp for 
Soldering; Choke Coils; Phantom Load Box; 
Electric Washer; Electrolytic Lightning Ar- 
rester; Tu-Way Flasher. 



MEMBER 



■ 




SUBSCRIPTION PRICE — United States and Posessions, Mexico and Cuba $1.00 a year. 

Canada $1.50 a year. Foreign Countries in Postal Union $2.00. 

CAUTION— Do not pay solicitors, unless they present written authority, with date, from 

the publishers to collect money. 

NOTICE TO ADVERTISERS— To insure insertion, all copy, cuts, etc., for changes of 

regular advertisements in ELECTRICAL AGE should reach us not later thai 1 the 25tD 

OF THE MONTH preceding date of publication; three days earlier if proof is de 

sired. The first advertising forma close promptly on this date. ,„ at >- ta A 1n » 

NEW or ADDITIONAL advertising not to occupy fixed position, can be inserted in a 

special form up to the 30th. 



MEMBER 




-oortDZCThJcwiry 



Membei Audit Bureau oj Circulation. 

Entered at the Hew York Post Office as Second-class Mail Matter. Copyright 1916 by Technical Journol Co.. Inc.. New York, all rights reserved. 



Illllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllliillllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllll 



ELECTRICAL AGE 



October, 191 6 




700 New York Garment Manufacturers Are 
Using the Reimers Regulator Electric Iron 

On all grades of work from dainty laces to heavy, wet pieces; hammering, pound- 
ing, smashing service that has failed to develop a single weakness. 

The Greatest Industrial Iron Ever Sold 
REGULATES THE HEAT 

Regulates the current consumption and heat supply, an adjustable range of 
heat up to 450 Watts. The merest movement of the finger tip, increases or de- 
creases the heat as desired. 

A 40% saving in current alone, and 30% greater efficiency of the operators is 

why the Reimers Regulator Electric Iron has met with immediate success, and why it 

is invaluable to Manufacturers, Laundries, Tailors and all others seeking economy 

and efficiency. A complete installation is the certainty that follows a trial Reimers Iron. 

SOLD WITH AN ABSOLUTE GUARANTEE 

REIMERS MANUFACTURING CO., 517-523 West 45th St., N. Y. City 



The 

REIMERS 

Regulator 
Electric Iron 



No Rheostat is used. 
The REIMERS heater 
unit, of graduated heats 
confines the current con- 
sumption to the actual 
heat in use. 

WRITE 
FOR BOOKLET 



Re*. U.S. Pat. Off. 



rade 



American Made 
for the Best 
American 
Trade 



With the Best 



The new $6,000,000 buildings of the Massa- 
chusetts Institute of Technology, W. W. Bos- 
worth, Architect, Stone & Webster Engineer- 
ing Corp., Builders, stand as an example of 
the best available in architectural design, con- 
struction and equipment. 

In these buildings, where quality was the 

first consideration, are installed 2680 Hygrade 
Gas-filled lamps and 2905 Hygrade Tungsten 
Lamps. 

Hygrade Lamp cq 



General Office 
and Factory 



Salem Mass 



iiiiiniiiiiiiiimiiiiiiiiiiiiiin 





The M©sr£My ^mffiaoirfity ©2 ftBae T^adl© 

Issued Monthly by Technical Journal Co., Inc. 

1642 Woolworth Bldg., New York 

Chas. B. Thompson, PsresMea&t Wma. F. Eastman, Vice Pres. 

Paual 3B« Bindley,, UMatoE' 



Volume 49 



NOVEMBER, 1916 



Number 5 



In This Issue: 

Between Company and Consumer John F. Duncan 

Decorative Lighting for the Home C. E. Clewell 

Asst. Professor of Electrical Engineering, University of Pennsylvania 

Telephone Subway Reconstruction in New York City (Concluded) Clifford M. Hartley 

Asst. Engineer, Empire City Subway Company'. 

Enjoyment of a Patented Invention Bayard H. Christy 

Patent Attorney, Pittsburgh 

Adventures of a Sales Manager H. A. Lemmon 

Sales Manager, Reno Power, Light & Water Co. 

Electrical Equipment for Automobiles • Frank Conrad 

Electrical Engineer, Westinghouse Electric & Mfg. Co. 
Selling More than Sockets and Wire William Dales 

The New York Electrical Show, being an interview with George F. Parker 

General Manager, Electrical Show Company 



Other Items of Interest: 



Installation, Operation, Power Application: 

Central Service for Refrigerating Plant, by 
H. N. Sessions; Two new Street-Lighting 
Systems. 
Problems in Electric Practice: 

Windings for Alternating Current Ma- 
chines, by T. Schutter; Wire Rope Tackle; 
Standard Wiring Diagrams; Questions and 
Answers; Short Cuts and Minor Methods. 

Commercial : 

Electrical Cooking Appliances and the Deal- 
ers, by J. E. Bullard; America's Electrical 
Week; Monthly Window Display. 



New Products : 

Deep Bowl Reflector; Magneto Lamp Re- 
gulator; Speed Reducing Gear; Fireproof Film 
Rewinder; "Economy" Tiering Machine; 
"Golden Glow" Projectors; Domestic Re- 
frigerating Machine; Improved Surface Heat- 
er Switch; Induction Relay for Selective Over- 
load Protection; Electric Engine Warmer; 
Overhead Relay for High Voltage Circuits; 
Reflectors for Show-Window Lighting; Bat- 
tery Charging Set; Electric Sewing Machine; 
Direct Current Automobile Meters; Electrol- 
ier Switch. 



MEMBER 




SUBSCRIPTION PRICE — United States and Posessions, Mexico and Cuba $1.00 a year 

Canada $1.50 a year. Foreign Countries in Postal Union $2.00. 

CACTION— Do not pay solicitors, unless they present written authority, with date, from 

the publishers to collect money. 

NOTICE TO ADVERTISERS— To insure insertion, all copy, cuts, etc., for changes of 

regular advertisements in ELECTRICAL AGE should reach us not later than the 25th 

OF THE MONTH preceding date of publication; three days earlier if proof is de 

sired. The first advertising forms close promptly on this date. 

NEW or ADDITIONAL advertising not to occupy fixed position, can be inserted in a 

special form up to the 30th. 



MEMBER 




•OOrTEtfaktCALOT 



Member Audit Bureau of Circulation. 

Enured at the New York Post Office as Second-class Mail Matter. Copyright 1916 by Technical Journal Co., Inc., New York, all rights reserved. 



Smmb 



ELECTRICAL AGE 



November, 1916 



iifiuiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiii 




"This New Hy-watt Battery a 0% 



Has the Selling Punch" 

1 

The livest dealer in each town can 
line up with the biggest selling propo- 
sition put on the market in a long 
time— the Hy-watt Battery. It is 
! absolutely new; nothing else like it 
on the market. 






"Hy-watt" is a battery which has the low 
internal resistance and consequent high dis- 
charge capacity of the storage cell, with a rug- 
gedness far greater than the dry cell. Each is 
put up in a sturdy metal container with only 
two binding posts, no matter what the capac- 
ity. There are no connections to loosen — no 
"jumpers" to break — no bits of paper to be 
wedged around the cells. The set is water- 
proof — that means less trouble for motorists 
and launch owners. For every portable bat- 
tery need there's a Hy-watt — from the 3-volt 
bell size to the big 12-volt fellow for special 
marine duty. (The 9-volt battery is just the 
thing for automobile starting.) 





Once you've sold a Hy-watt you've created \i 
booster who is going to want one again. Renewal's 
for the old fashioned kind can be had anywhere-j- 
for Hy-watts they'll have to come to you, for we're 

giving exclusive territories. j 

Shipments Are Being Made Now 

A fine margin of profit is yours if you 
go after it — and the territory you de- 
velop will be all your own. Discounts 
are especially attractive now. Write 
or wire us Today before that other 
fellow beats you to it. 






THE CLEVELAND BATTERY & ELECTRIC CO. 



1 1796 EAST 66th. STREET, 



CLEVELAND, OHIO 



ill: ■lH'MniMilliliM' 11 M I MM 1 ' lll!::HI'-i'^' H'l r, IHlM [HfHUnMI niMfllf]|lll!ll!lf; ll;l [!r 




The Monthly Authority of the Trade 

braecR M©2a3My hj TF®<g33aa&lca!l 3©wsm®l Co., Inc. 
1®Q& Woolworth Bldg., New York 

Chas. B. Thompson, President Wm. F. Eastman, Vice Pros. 



Volume 49 



DECEMBER, 1916 



Number 6 



In This Issue: 

Page 

23 The Generators (Poem) Charles Campbell Jones 

23 Handling Freight With Electric Stevedores H. C. Yost 

Power Bureau New York Edison Co. 

27 New Construction for Eastern Penna Railways Co M. M. Samuels 

Engineer, J. G. White Engineering Corporation. 

30 Liberty Illumination Opens A. E. W. 

31 Editorials — Cutting the Cost of Handling — Partners in Business — At Last-The Week. 

37 Essentials of Direct Current Armature Windings . T. Schutter 

43 Working Through the Children H. A. Lemmon 

Sales Manager, Reno Power, Water & Light Co. 

Other Items of Interest: 



Installation, Operation, Power Application: 

A Circuit-Breaker Alarm, by A. L. Gear; 
Liquid Rheostat Control for A. C. Motors; 
A Chart for Three-Phase Power; Under 
Water 36 Hours; Heating Molasses by Elec- 
tricity; A Portable Ice Plant; Flood Lighting 
Railroad Yards; Cost of Electric Cooking. 

Problems in Electric Practice: 

Conduit Spacing, by Benjamin Gross; A 
Home-made Tester; Short Cuts and Minor 
Methods; Questions & Answers; Standard 
Wiring Diagrams. 



Commercial: 

A Christmas Sales Letter; The Utility 
Holding Corporation; Our Monthly Window 
Display. 

New Products : 

'Automatic" Heating Pad; "Always Verti- 
cal" Suspension; Portable Conduit Bench; 
"Crescent" Industrial Truck; Outdoor Meter- 
ing Equipments; Disappearing Footlight; 
Wireless Battery Cabinet; Condensite-Cel- 
lulac; Feed-Through Switch; Porcelain Cleat 
Base; Handy Box Cutter; "Safety" Warming 
Pad; Safety Screw-base Flush Receptacles; 
Distribution Brackets; "Midget" Cloth-cut- 
ter; Timing Device for Motor Starter; Bake- 
lite-Micarta Gears. 



member 




SUBSCRIPTION PRICK— United States aud Posessions, Mexico and Cuba $1.00 a year 
Canada $1.50 a year. Foreign Countries In Postal Union $2.00. 

CAUTION — Do not pay solicitors, unless they present written authority, with date, from 
the publishers to collect money. 

NOTICE TO ADVEKTIHEKs— To insure insertion, all copy, «uts, etc., for changes of 
regular advertisement* in ELECTRICAL AOlO should reach us not later than the 25th 
OK THK MONTH preceding date of publication; three davs earlier if proof is de- 
sired. The first advertising forms close promptly on this date. 

NKW or ADDITIONAL advertising not to occupy fixed position, can be inserted in a 
special form up to the 30th. 




-Dorraecrraamv- 



M ember Audit Bureau of Circulation. 

Entered at the blew York Post Office as Second-class Mail Matter. Copyright 1916 by Technical Journal Co., Inc., New York, all rights reserved. 



R.LECTRICA.L AGE 



December, 1916 



Quality 



Throughout 





When you buy 



PEERLESS 



you are sure that the materials — coils, insulation, core — are all 
that careful selection and rigorous inspection can make them. 
They're out of sight below the oil, but if they are of poor quality, 
your repair and maintenance bill will show them up. Core type 
construction means low temperature rise, and no "hot spots." 
Impregnated coils are rugged, good radiators of heat, and almost 
"lightning proof". Efficiency, regulation and temperature 
rise are part of our guarantee. 

Price and delivery are right too — let us quote you. 



The Enterprise Electric Co, 

WARREN, OHIO 

"Transformers of all kinds for all purposes" 




The tracks of the mountain district of the Chicago, 
Milwaukee & St. Paul Railway, in surmounting the 
obstacles imposed by the Rocky Mountain and coast- 
wise ranges, represent the solution of one of the most 
difficult problems ever mastered by railway engineers. 
To provide adequate motive-power for the economical 
movement of freight and passenger trains over this 
section of rugged mountain railway, including many 
long grades and short-radius curves, has taxed the in- 
genuity of both railway men and locomotive designers. 
As nearly all trains cross the mountains intact, the 
longer they are the less is the labor-cost for moving 
them. The demand for larger and ever-larger engine- 
units led to the adoption of Mallet articulated locomo- 
tives, having a weight on driving-wheels of 325,500 
lbs. In cold weather the difficulty of making steam 
prevented the use of the full power of the locomotives 
and stalled trains were a frequent occurrence. Induc- 
ed by the growing traffic and the presence of many 
sources of hydro-electric power, officials of the railroad 
began to study the possibilities of electrification. De- 
cision was finally made in favor of a trolley-voltage of 
3,000, direct current, generated by synchronous motor- 
generator sets and converted into mechanical power 
by 1500-volt geared motors. The contract for the 
entire electrical equipment was let to the General Elec- 
tric Company. 

General Outlines 

Four steam engine divisions were selected for elec- 
trification, aggregating 440 miles in length. Steam en- 
gines were first abandoned on the Three Forks-Deer 
Lodge Division, 115 miles long, and crossing the main 
Continental Divide, thus giving the electrical equip- 
ment its initial tryout under the severest service condi- 
tions of the entire system. The first electric locomo- 
tives were placed in regular service on December 9, 
1915, and during the month of April, 1916, service was 

tended to Harlowton, making a total of 220 miles 
of electrically operated road. By the first of Novem- 
ber, 1916, is is expected that steam engines will be 
superseded over the entire distance of 440 miles from 
Harlowton, Montana, to Avery, Idaho. 



This project is the most extensive steam railway 
electrification in the world, the length of haul being 
nearly six times as great as any trunk line now operat- 
ing with electric locomotives. In crossing the three 
mountain ranges included in the electric zone, there 
are several grades of one per cent, or more, the most 
difficult of which is the 21 mile two per cent, grade 
between Piedmont and Donald, and the longest the 49 
mile one per cent, grade on the west slope of the Belt 
Mountains. The curvature is necessarily heavy, the 
maximum being 10 degrees. There are also numer- 
ous tunnels in the electric zone, 36 in all, of which the 
longest is the St. Paul Pass tunnel, over a mile and a 
half in length, through the ridge of the Bitter Root 
Mountains. 

The passenger service consists of two all-steel finely 
equipped transcontinental trains in each direction, the 
"Olympian" and "Columbian," and a local passenger 
train in each direction daily between Deer Lodge and 
Harlowton. Freight traffic through the electric zone 
comprises from four to six trains daily in each direc- 
tion. Westbound, the tonnage is made up of manufac- 
tured products and merchandise for Pacific Coast 
points and foreign shipment. Eastbound tonnage in- 
cludes grain, lumber, products of the mines and some 
live stock. As a larger part of the traffic is through 
freight, trains are made up of an assortment of foreign 
cars, including box and flat cars, coal and ore hoppers, 
stock cars, refrigerators, etc., varying in weight from 
11 to 25 tons empty and as high as 70 tons loaded. 
These cars being owned by mairy different railway 
systems are equipped with air brakes adjusted for dif- 
ferent conditions of operation, and in accordance with 
different standards as to braking power and type of 
equipment, thus making the problem of holding the 
long trains on the heavy down grades by air brakes, 
a most difficult one. 

Electrical Operation 

Electrification promises a material reduction in run- 
ning time. It has ben found, for example, that on the 
21 mile two per cent, grade from Piedmont to Donald, 
the electric locomotive can reduce the running time of 



26 



ELECTRICAI AGE 



July, 1916 



passenger trains from an hour and five minutes to ap- 
proximately 40 minutes. On the run from Deer Lodge 
to Butte which, under the steam locomotive 
schedule, required an hour and 20 minutes, a sav- 
ing of approximately 30 minutes can be made. In 
the freight service, it has been found that on the 
first division where the steam locomotives have requir- 
ed 10 to 12 hours to make 115 miles, electric locomo- 
tives can meet a schedule of from seven to eight hours 
for the same distance. The heavy grades and fre- 
uent curves at certain points offer serious obstacles 




Great Falls Dam and Power House 

to steam locomotive operation even in the summer 
time and with winter temperatures as low as 40 deg. F. 
and heavy snowfalls in the Bitter Root Mountains, 
serious delays have occurred, owing to engine failures 
or to inability to make steam. 

During a series of record-breaking temperatures in 
December, 191 5, Mallet engines were frozen up at dif- 
ferent points on the system and the new electric equip- 
ment was rapidly pressed into service to replace them. 
On several occasions electric locomotives hauled in 
disabled steam engines and trains which would other- 
wise have tied up the line. 

During the initial operation on the Rocky Mountain 
Division, the capacity of the new locomotives has been 
thoroughly tested. Trains of 3,000 tons trailing have 
been hauled east and 2,800 tons west, using a helper 
on the heavy grades. From the operating data obtain- 
ed on the first division, it is evident that much heavier 
trains can be hauled with the electric locomotives thati 
with steam engines, and all passing tracks are being 
lengthened to take advantage of longer trains. On 
some of the runs where the grades are less than one 
per cent, trains of as many as 130 cars and as heavy as 
4000 tons have been hauled with a single locomotive. 

The four through passenger trains, "Olympian" and 
"Columbian," are taken across the two mountain 
ranges by a single passenger locomotive. These trains 
at present consist of eight full vestibuled steel coaches, 
weighing approximately 650 tons. Instead of chang- 
ing locomotives at Three Forks, as has been the prac- 
tice under steam operation, the same locomotive is run 
through the 220 miles from Deer Lodge to Harlowton, 
changing crews midway. Passenger trains will travel 
over the entire electrified division in approximately 15 
hours, including all stops, and the tourist thus will 
have an opportunity of traversing by daylight some of 
the most beautiful scenic regions in the United States 
and without suffering the annoyance of cinders and 
smoke incident to the use of steam locomotives. The 
local passenger train operating in the electric zone 
between Deer Lodge and Harlowton is handled by a 



half unit weighing about 150 tons with equipment sim- 
ilar to the main line locomotives. 

The Electrical Equipment: Power Supply 

The scheme of electrification includes the generation 
of electricity from the several water power plants of 
the Montana Power Company ; transmission at 100,000 
volts, three-phase, 60 cycles ; conversion in substations 
to 3,000 volts direct current and distribution over 
catenary overhead construction to electric locomotives. 

Utmost precautions were taken by the Railway 
Company in making plans for this electrification to in- 
sure a reliable source of power. The Montana Power 
Company, with whom the contract was closed for elec- 
tric power, operates a network of transmission lines 
covering a large part of Montana, which are fed from 
a main plant at Great Falls, and- a number of other 
widely separated water power plants of adequate ca- 
pacity at all seasons of the year. 

The plants now in operation are : 

Capacity 
K. W. 

Great Falls, on Missouri River 60,000' 

Rainbow Falls, on Missouri River near Great 

Falls 27,000 

Black Eagle Falls, on Missouri River near Great 

Falls 3,000- 

Hauser Lake, on Missouri River, northeast of 

Helena 18,000 

Canyon Ferry, on Missouri River, northeast of 

Helena 7,500- 

Madison No. 1, on Madison River, 60 miles south- 
east of Butte 2,ooo> 

Madison No. 2, on Madison River, 60 miles south- 
east of Butte 10,000 

Big Hole, on Big Hole River, 22 miles southwest 

of Butte 3,000 

Livingston, on Yellowstone River . . 1,500- 

Billings No. 1, on Yellowstone River 1,080- 

Lewistown, on Spring Creek 450 

Steam Plants ] 5,020- 

Thompson Falls, on Clark's Fork of Columbia 

River 20,000 

159,450- 




Switchboard of Morel Substation 

The available capacity of the storage reservoirs- 
now in service is 447,150 acre-feet. Of this, more than 
325,000 feet is in the Hebgen reservoir on Madison 
River which is so located that it supplies in turn the 
installations on both the Madison and Missouri Rivers. 

As provisions for future need, there are available : 
Hydro-electric powers in course of develop- 
ment or definitely projected 50,000 

Power-sites undeveloped 121,500 

Total horsepower 171, 500* 



July, 1916 



ELECTRICAL AGE 



27 



Transmission Lines 
The Montana Power Company's transmission lines, 
which are carried in some cases on steel towers and in 
others on wooden poles, tap into the railway system 
ac seven different points where the power is most 
needed. The Railway Company's transmission line 
extends the entire length of the system on wood poles. 
In most cases this line is built on the company's right- 
of-way, although at several points there are cutoffs 
which make a considerable saving in the length of 
line. On January 1, 1916, there were in service: 

Steel tower lines, 100,000 volts 305 miles 

Steel tower lines, 50,000 volts 35 miles 

Pole lines, pin type, 11,000 to 60,000 volts... 635 miles 
Pole lines, suspension insulator type, 50,000 

to 100,000 512 miles 

Bridge type, 100,000 volts 341 miles 

Total 1,828 miles 

The Railway Company will pay 0.536 cents per 
kw.-hr., this very low rate being justified by the 
ample hydro-electric facilities available and the low 
cost of line-construction. Energy will be metered on 
the alternating-current side of the substations. It is 
expected that the power-cost will be lower for elec 
tricity than for coal for the former steam-locomotives. 
With this completely inter-connected transmission 
system, each substation may be fed from either direc- 
tion and also at the tie-in points from a third source of 
power. 

Railway Substations 
Fourteen substations are equipped for converting 
the 100,000-volt alternating current to 3,000 volts di- 

■ 



500-volt, direct current generators connected perman- 
ently in series, thus supplying 3,ooo-volt current for 
the locomotives. These generators are compound 
wound to maintain constant voltage up to 150 per cent. 





2 2500 kv.a. 3 phase J 00, 000 to 2300v. Transformers and 
Oil Switches in Morel Substation 

rect current. They are distributed along the route at 
average intervals of 32 miles. Each station contains 
p-down transformers, motor-generator sets, switch- 
board and the necessary controlling and switching 
equipment. The transformers receive the line current 
at 100,000 volts and supply the synchronous motors at 
2 f J00 volts. Each synchronous motor drives two 1,- 



2—2000 kw. Motor Generator Sets in Morel Substation 

load and will stand momentary loads of 300 per cenr. 
They are equipped with commutating poles and com- 
pensating pole-face windings. The fields of both the 
synchronous motors and the direct current genera- 
tors are separately excited by small direct current 
generators direct connected to each end of the motor- 
generator shafts. 

Overhead Construction 

The overhead construction is of the modified flexible 
catenary type designed by the General Electric Com- 
pany and installed under the direction of the Railway 
Company's engineers. 

As may be seen from the illustrations, the construc- 
tion comprises two 4-0 copper wires flexibly suspend- 
ed side by side from the same steel messenger by in- 
dependent hangers alternately connected to each wire. 
This is equally suitable to the collection of large cur- 
rents at low speed, and smaller currents at speeds up 
to 60 miles per hour. Bracket construction is used 
wherever the track alignment will permit, and cross 
span construction on passing tracks and in the switch- 
ing yards. All of this work is supported on 40-foot 
wooden poles suitably guyed and spaced. 

A 500,000 cm. feeder is installed the entire length 
of the electrification and a supplementary feeder on 
heavy grades. The feeder is tapped to the trolley wire 
at every seventh pole, or approximately every 1,000 
feet. On top of the poles is carried a supplementary 
4-0 negative feeder which is tapped to the middle 
point of every second reactance bond. These bonds 
are used for insulating the 60-cycle signal circuits and 
are installed at points averaging from 5,000 to 6,000 
feet apart. Each track is bonded with a 250,000 cm. 
bond on each joint and double bonded on the heavier 
grades. 

Locomotive Equipment 

The main line Chicago, Milwaukee & St. Paul elec- 
tric locomotives are constructed in two units perman- 
ently coupled together, the halves being duplicates 
and each capable of independent operation. There are 
42 of these main line locomotives (30 freight and 12 
passenger) and two switching locomotives. The loco- 
motives are the first to be used for railroad service 
with direct current motors operating at a potential as 



28 



-ELECTRIC A L A G E 



July, 1916 



high as 3,000 volts and the first to use direct current 
regeneration. The passenger locomotives are equip- 
ped with a gear ratio permitting the operation of 800 
ton trailing trains at speeds of approximately 60 miles 
per hour on tangent level track. The average pas- 
senger train weighs from 650 to 700 tons and is hauled 
dver the two per cent, grade without a helper. The 
fireight locomotives are designed to haul a 2,500 ton 
failing train at approximately 16 miles per hour on alJ 
grades up to and including one per cent. On two per 
cent, grades the trailing load was limited to 1,250 tons, 
although this figure has been exceeded in actual opera- 
tion. 




Typical Overhead Construction on a Curve 

' Each locomotive is equipped with eight Type GE- 
253-A, 1,500-volt motors, insulated for 3,000 volts to 
ground. This motor has a normal one hour rating of 
430 h.p. and a continuous rating of 375 h.p., so that the 
locomotive power plant has a normal one hour rating 
of 3,440 h.p. and a continuous rating of 3,000 h.p. 
Each motor is twin geared to its driving axle in the 
same manner as on the Butte, Ananconda & Pacific, 
the Detroit River Tunnel, and the Baltimore & Ohio 
locomotives, a pinion being mounted on each end of 
the armature shaft. Additional flexibility' is obtained 
by the use of a spring gear and a spring nose suspen- 
sion which minimize the effect of all shocks and also 
reduce gear wear to a minimum. The motor is of the 
commutating-pole type and is constructed with longi- 
tudinal ventilating ducts in the armature for forced 
ventilation from a blower in the cab. 

The control equipment is the well-known Sprague 
General Electric Type M arranged for multiple unit 
operation. The main control switches are mounted in 
steel compartments inside the locomotive cab with 
convenient aisle's for inspection and repairs. A motor- 
generator set in each half of the locomotive furnishes 
low-voltage current for the control circuits, headlights, 
cab lighting and for charging the storage batteries on 
the passenger coaches. Under steam operation, the 



charging current for these batteries is furnished by 
a steam turbo-generator set located on the locomotive. 
The blower for ventilating the traction motors is also 
direct connected to one end of this set. 

The pantograph collectors, one of which is mounted 
on each half of the locomotive, are of the double 
pan type with a working range of from 17 feet to 25 
feet above the rail. The contact elements are of the 
same metal as the trolley wires, so that current passes 
from copper to copper. 

The air brake equipment is practically the same as 
that used on steam locomotives except that motor 
driven air compressors are used to furnish compressed 
air. Aside from the air brakes, compressed air is also 
used for signals, whistles, bell-ringers, sanders, flange 
oilers, pantograph trolleys, part of the control equip- 
ment, and on the passenger locomotives for the oil- 
fired steam boilers. 

Data on the main line locomotives follows: 

Length overall 1 12 ft. 

Total wheel base 102 ft. 8 in. 

Rigid wheel base jo ft. 6 in. 

Total weight 564,000 lb. 

Weight on drivers 448,000 lb. 

Weight per driving axle 56,000 lb. 

Weight per guiding axle 29,000 lb. 

Diameter of driving wheel 52 in. 

Diameter of guiding wheel 36 in. 

Number of driving motors 8 

Gear ratio, freight service , 4.56 

Gear ratio, passenger service 2.45 

Total output (continuous rating) 3000 h.p. 

Total output (1 hour rating) 3440 h.p. 

Tractive effort (continuous rating) 71,000 lb. 

Per cent, of weight on drivers (trac| coef.) 15.83 

; ■ Speed at this tractive effort at 3000 volts. . . . 15.75 m.p.h. 

Tractive effort (1 hour rating) 85,000 lb. 

Per cent, of weight on drivers (trac. coef.) 19.00 

Speed at this tractive effort at 3000 volts. .15.25 m. p. h. 
p t Tractive effort available for starting 30% coef. 136,000 lb. 

Passenger and freight locomotives are identical, 
with the exception of gear ratio and the adoption of 
an oil-fired steam boiler in each half of the passenger 
locomotives for heating the trailing coaches. The two 
boilers are capable of evaporating 4,000 pounds of 



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Characteristics of a Main Line Freight Loco?notive 
Dia77ieter of Drivers 62 in. Gear Ratio 4.56 

water per hour and this equipment with tanks for oil 
and water brings the weight of the locomotive up to 
approximately 300 tons. The interchangeability of all 
electrical and mechanical parts of the locomotives is 
considered of great importance from the standpoint of 
operation and maintenance. 

{Co7itimted on page 64) 



July, 1916 



ELECTRICAL AGE 



29 



I^srMcgful HqimapimdiaS ®g the WIS 

{Continued from the June Issue) 



'ViT^i 



Quick communication is the essence of modern life. It 
goes without saying that every room has a telephone, but 
in addition to the thousand of these there are 150 more 
used in the various offices and departments of the hotel. 
They are served by a nine-position switchboard which 
requires the services of 27 operators. The equipment is 
installed and maintained by the Central District Tele- 
phone Co,, the local operating company of the Bell 
System. Fifty-five trunks connect the hotel with the 
nearby "Grant" central office. 

In many cases in hotel service a record must be made. 
For this the telautograph is used. There are 30 send- 
ing instruments and seventy receiving instruments in- 
stalled. Switching keys allow each sender to communi- 
cate with many receivers, either singly or in groups as 
needed. Thus the room clerk may tell both the telephone 
information operator, the nearest service station, and the 
credit clerk whenever a guest registers or "checks out," 
and orders for food and drink are transmitted from the 
service station directly to kitchen and bar. 

Electric Clocks 
The guest who forgets to wind his watch on retiring 
is not under the embarrassing necessity of asking "Cen- 
tral" for the time next day. Every bedroom contains a 
clock, operated electrically from a central station in the 
basement lobby. This system, which was furnished by 
Walker Brothers and Haviland, consists of two weight- 
driven master clocks which step the controlled clocks 
ahead by an impulse of current each minute. There are 
six circuits carrying 925 clocks operated by 24 volts 
through a relay for each circuit, and two circuits carrying 
35 time-stamps operated by no volts. One spare clock 
relay and one spare time-stamp relay are installed ; each 
have contacts sufficient to operate all circuits. On each 
circuit there is a clock on the control panel ; a glance will 



show whether any circuit is out of service. If master 
clock No. 1 should fail, its mate automatically takes up 




Low-voltage Switchboard and Battery 

its work; this, together with any failure of current auto- 
matically rings a bell in the engine room. 

Low-Voltage Supply 

Current for the electric clock system and for other 
low voltage apparatus is furnished by two Potentio- 
stats, built by the U. S. E. M. Co., of N. Y. Each of 
these Potentiostats, which are mounted side by side 
on slate panels, controls a set of 12 "Chloride" storage 
cells of 80 ampere hour capacity. The clocks are oper- 
ated from one set, and the other low voltage appar- 
atus in the hotel from the other set. The set for the 
clocks is charged from the 120 volt d-c supply, and the 
other set is charged by means of an automatically con- 
trolled motor generator driven from the no volt alter- 
nating current supply. These two sets are linked to- 
(Continued on page 67) 






3o 



ELECTRICAL AGE 



July, 1916 



A 





i& 



fis 



Report oS Committee @n UJjafi«rg« 



C« 



A New Service Box 

Methods of serving consumers from distribution lines are 
always changing to suit developments in building construction. 
Central-station men are always on the lookout for devices which 
if not exatly suited to their conditions, may yet suggest the 
solution to some perplexing problem. 

Underground construction when employed for service connec- 
tions of small capacity, usually requires an abnormal invest- 
ment in comparison with the business to be served. Where a 
number of customers in a single building are to be served by a 
single service, local municipal regulations usually require that 
the main service switch be placed in a location accessible at all 
times for the replacement of fuses, etc. This is usually ac- 
complished easily in a building one or more stories in height, 




Two Views of the New Box 

where there are no partitions or dividing walls to cut the build- 
ing vertically into several parts, by placing the service in the 
main entrance or in some position in the basement which is used 
in common by all tenants. 

In the case of a block of one-story buildings, constructed with 
or without basements and each having its own entrance, ic- 
course must be had to a separate service connections for each 
subdivision of the block. In many cases such services may have 
a load of only one-half kilowatt or less, thus involving a heavy 
and unwarranted expenditure for the business served. 

In an effort to reduce the cost of this form of construction, 
the Edison Electric Illuminating Co. of Boston has effected a 
material saving by the introduction of a service box adapted for 
the supply of an entire block or group of customers of the char- 
acter last described. This consists of a suitable weatherproof 
iron box built into the wall of the building at the street level 
in a manner to conform to the general architecture of the build- 
ing and in no way detract from its appearance. The company 
terminates its service in this box, installing a main switch proper- 
ly fused for the supply of the entire premises to be served. The 
owner of the building installs a common main from the service 



box, running this horizontally to connect with all the separate 
premises to be served-.- 

This main when installed in conduit, in strict accordance with 
the rules of the National Board of Fire Underwriters, intro- 
duces no hazard of any character, and simply duplicates the 
conditions under which .vertical mains or risers are installed 
to serve tenants in buildings of one or more stories in height. In 
both cases branch connections are taken from the main on each 
tenant's premises, thus giving the tenant access at all times to 
the devices controlling his service. 

The main service box, placed in the outside wall of the build- 
ing, is accessible at all times to the company's employees for re- 
fusing, inspection, etc., and also to firemen of other municipal 
agents who might desire to discontinue the service in the build- 
ing in emergencies. While the box is ordinarily locked, provi- 
sion is made for forcing the door without damage to the box 
itself. 

This form of construction, requiring but one service for a 
number of customers under the conditions described, has effected 
a reduction of at least 50 per cent, in the cost of service connec- 
tions for each customer when compared with the methods for- 
merly employed. Aside from the saving thus affected, this form 
of construction has had the unqualified approval of municipal 
authorities wherever it has been introduced. 

Unit Packages for Cable Joint Material 

This method is in line with the tendency to prepare material 
as fully as possible for installation before it leaves the store- 
room. Every company can use it to some extent as a "spare- 
time" activity for the store-room men which will obviate waste 
of time and material later. 

The New York Edison Company has used this method in the 
construction of joints for 3-conductor, 350,000-cm sector type 
25,000-volt cable feeders. The necessary material was delivered 
on the job in cans or packages, two cans being used, one for 
the filling compound and one for the paper tape and other 
miscellaneous insulating material. 

All of this insulating material was prepared at the cable fac- 
tory, submitted to 29 inch vacuum and impregnated with the 
same compound which was to be used in filling the joint. The 




insulating material is placed in the can in layers in the order 
required to make up the joint, so that all of the material in each 
layer has to be used in its entirety in each successive operation. 
The illustration shows all the material used to make one com- 
plete joint of this type. 



July, 1916 



ELECTRICAL AGE 



3i 



The Commonwealth Edison Company of Chicago reports the 
following practice : 

When the lead sleeve is three inches or larger in diameter, 
this sleeving is cut to the exact length required for the joint, 
jvooden end-plugs and through bolts are used to seal the ends, 
and the tape, solder, coppei sleeves and soldering paste are 
placed within the sleeve. If the package is sent out in advance 
of the work, the ends are sealed by dipping in melted paraffine. 

When the sleeve is smaller than three inches in diameter, a 
pasteboard or sheet metal container is used to hold the lead 
sleeve and other material. The material is placed in the paste- 
board container if it is to be used immediately, and in the sheet 
metal container if it is to remain on the job a day or two 
before being utilized. The latter is necessary in order to keep 
the tape dry. Each package made up for No. 6 and No. o single 
conductor cable contains material for four joints. 

As the exact quantity of material required is sent out in 
each package, joints that are uniform are secured. Less time is 
required on the job to get material ready for the joints, because 
the lead sleeve is cut to the proper length and all material is in 
a form convenient to handle. There is also considerable saving 
in the storeroom, as these packages can be made up during slack 
time and are more quickly and easily handled when delivered. 

•!♦ ♦ «S» 

Use of Power Trucks in Underground Work 
Where there is enough heavy outside work to keep it busy 
hauling supplies, a power truck is an excellent investment. At a 
moderate cost it can be equipped with a winch which will 
speed up heavy work to a remarkable extent. Relieved of the 
most fatiguing of their labors, the crews are encouraged to put 
all their energy into quicker and better work. This extract shows 
how several of the large companies make use of such trucks. 

Nearly all of the twelve large operating reporting companies 
use power trucks for hauling reels of cable to the job, deliver- 
ing material, pulling cable, and emergency work. One large 
member company is considering the replacing of horse-drawn 
vehicles with power trucks for the purpose of testing junct'on 
boxes, as the same men are used for emergency work, and a 
saving in time would be effected by the use of power vehicles. 
Nearly all use electric trucks ; three use both electric and gas- 
oline and one company uses gasoline engine driven trucks only. 




Truck Used by Public Service Electric Co., Newark, N. J. 

The truck most suitable for underground work should have 
a speed of ten to twelve miles an hour and be designed to run 
at least thirty-five miles on one charge. 

Of the twelve companies reporting only two have trucks with 
bodies specially designed with compartments for tools. The 
others place tool boxes under the seat or in some convenient 
place on the truck. One large company has a truck with a 
body specially designed for emergency work. Compartments are 
built along both sides of the truck to hold tools, fire extinguish- 
ers, sand buckets, etc. One pocket holds the records of the 
distribution system and the cover to the pocket forms a desk 



on which the records rest while being used by the emergency- 
man. This company also has a three and one-half ton cable-pul- 
ling truck designed with compartments along the side for hold- 
ing underground tools used for installing cable. A reel of cable 
can also be hauled to the job on this same truck. 





MILWAUKEE 



NEWARK 




PULL FROM FRONT 
OR REAR 




SPOOL OVERHUNG 



DETROIT 




PULLING FROM 

EITHER 

3I0E OR ENDS 



I WINC 



NEW YORK 



SAN FRANCISCO 





AN CHC R TO ROOF 



OHICAGO BROOKLYN 

METHODS OF PULLING CABLE 

ALL TRUCKS ARE ELECTRIC UNLESS OTHERWISE SPECIFIED 
MOTOR winch SHOWN SOLID 

Seven different methods of pulling cable have been described. 
These methods, however, fall into two classes : 

(1) By means of pulleys set on I-beam uprights. 

(2) By means of a pulley or snatch-block anchored in some 
manner in the manhole. 

An outline sketch is given of the various methods used by 
member companies. 

When manholes are near car tracks it is sometimes impossi- 
ble to use the I-beam upright method of pulling cable without 
interfering with street car traffic. For this reason it is a good 
plan to have the truck equipped with facilities for pulling cable 
with a rope leading from the rear or from the front. A New 
York Company has its trucks provided with facilities for pulling 
from either side as well. 

Some difficulty has been' encountered in maintaining the I- 
beam uprights in position when pulling heavy cable on account 
of the enormous strain. In order to obviate this difficulty the 
Chicago company has devised an anchor with wing bolts that 
may be adjusted to any manhole. This anchor holds the up- 
rights in position by a strain on the roof of the hole, as illus- 
trated. 

When the rope is passed through the hole in the floor of the 
truck the strain on the truck as well as on the winch is down- 
ward, and very little difficulty is experienced in holding the winch 
to its fastenings. When this method is used the truck is placed 
over the manhole, a position which takes up less working space 
in the street and eliminates the hazard of an unprotected open 
manhole. It may be difficult to design the truck so that the rope 
leading directly downward through the trap door will not inter- 
fere with the battery or running gear. A rolling spool for the 
rope on the side of the truck and an eye-bolt for a snatch-block 
in the center of the floor, a method which the New York com- 
pany uses, accomplishes the same results as the trap-door method 
without introducing its objectionable features. 



32 



ELECTRICAL AGE 



July, 191b 



A number of the member companies report that their elec- 
tric trucks are not equipped with facilities for lighting man- 
holes at night. It is recommended that trucks for underground 
work be wired with sockets for extension cords to both the 
front and rear. This will greatly facilitate trouble-hunting at 
night. For splicing cable at night however a portable storage 
battery outfit is more suitable and more efficient. The use of an 
outfit of this kind eliminates the hazard of candles or lanterns in 
gassy manholes, besides providing the better light needed for 
good jointing work. 

* ♦♦♦ *> 

m©©2a@isa<g=s ®S ©eaatr&l i>tMfi®i& IP@w^i" S< 



* 



This extract from the report of the Committee on Central 
Station Power for Railroads is of especial interest in connec- 
tion with the account of the Chicago, Milwaukee & St. Paul 
electrification which appears elsewhere in this issue. 

The underlying economic reason why central power com- 
panies have been successful in the supplying of power to railway 
companies is due to concentration of production in the hands 
of specialists in that line. The diversity in peak requirements 
for power and resulting improved load-factor; the large quan- 
tity production ; and the rapid aggregate annual increase in re- 
quirements on one system, making possible the purchase of one 
or two very large, and very economical units each year, all have 
permitted the central power company to sell power for less 
money than it cost the railway companies to manufacture it for 
themselves. Not only has more intensive use of generating, dis- 
tributing and substation facilities resulted, but more frequent 
substations, better transmission and more adequate facilities in 
every way have resulted. In other words, since less money 
has been wasted more has been available for improving the 
service, both of the railway company and the central power com- 
pany. 

In the smaller communities concentration of production has 
naturally existed from the early days of the electric railway 
business. It was obvious to the operators in some of the smaller 




Along the Electrified Section of the Pennsylvania Railroad, 

West of Philadelphia 

towns that the requirements of the community did not necessi- 
tate the building of two power houses and hence only one was 
built. Another case of concentration of production resulted na- 
turally enough in localities where larger water powers exist. In 
such cases the power company supplied the demands of all sorts 
of users. However, athough concentration worked well in the 
case of the small town and in the case of the large water power, 
it did not seem to occur to the operators that the same economic 
principles should govern the problem in larger cities, or in a 
group of cities and towns where steam plants supplied the pow- 
er. It was brought forcibly home to railway operators in some 
places when their original power houses, for one reason or 
another, become inadequate and oboslete and these railways were 



face to face with the problem of raising sufficient capital to 
build new plants. In some cases the lean earnings of the earlier 
years of electric railroading had not been conducive to the setting 
aside of proper reserve accounts to keep the power house abreast 
of the state of the industry. Hence the railroads logically turned 
to the central power company for power. 

This brought about a still closer analysis of the load condi- 
tions, which showed that there was usually considerable diver- 
sity in the peak requirements of the railway company as com- 
pared with the light and power demand. Obviously this resulted 



400.000 





c 

N 


0INCIDE 

0V. 29.1< 

147.30 


AXIMUM K.W. 
NT NON-COINCIDENT 
15 


1 30-3:00 PM 
















LIGHTS P0WE 


155.670 occ.22.i9is. 




RAILWAY 

TOTAL 

DIVERSITY 


190.600 203.560 J«.5.i9u. 
337.900 359.230 
21,330 


S 30-SOOPJI 








X 








<0 

t- 

< 












K ^y 











O 

2 






I 1 

1 1 


\ 

\ 








n 




> 
-i 
-1 

» 






/ 


1 


\ 
\ 
s 

' S.JUII »AY 


& 


\ 

\ 
\ 

\ 


\ 


\ 




\ 




J 


uSjnjJSS^ 














>\ 




a. 








TITAL 10/ DIAGRAN-CHI 


CAG0 




^ 




js 








M 


UIMUM 




V. 29.H 


15 

















100.000 



A.M. Flfi 1 P.M. 

in a decreased aggregate investment and furthermore in re- 
duced operating costs. 

One of the results of the concentration of railway and light 
and power load in Chicago so far as diversity is concerned, is 
best shown by the curve in Fig. I. The railway peak for the 
winter of 1915-1916 was 203,560 kw. and occurred between 5 130 
and 6:00 p. m. on January 6, 1916. The light and power peak 
amounted to 155,670 kw. and occurred between 4:30 and 5:00 
P. M. on December 22, 1915. The total of these two peaks, if 
at the same hour, would have been 359,230 kw. but the greatest 
load on the combined system amounted to only 337,900 kw. and 
occurred on the 29th of November, 1915. 

This shows a diversity of 21,330 kw. or nearly 6 per cent. If 
the two systems were operated separately, and allowing reason- 
able reserve on this diversity the total would be approximately 
26,000 kw. The result therefore of the combination is that the 
investment necessary to provide 26,000 kw. has been saved. 

The economics of this matter are fully treated in a paper 
by Mr. Samuel Insull before the American Institute of Electrical 
Engineers on April 5, 1912, entitled "The Relation of Central 
Station Generation to Railway Electrification." 

Another curve (Fig. 2) shows the effect of applying the esti- 
mated ower requirements for the electrification of the Chicago 
steam roads to the present output of the central power station 
company. These estimated requirements have been very carefully 
prepared by the Chicago Association of Commerce, Committee 
on Smoke Abatement and Electrification of Railway Terminals, 
and presented in its report recently published. . 

The load curve of the central power company has been 
taken for a typical October day, because of the fact, that such 
a day was chosen by the above mentioned committee for the 
plotting of power requirements for electrified steam railroads. 
The railroad peak amounts to not only about 30 per cent, of even 
the present combined peak. By the time such railroad terminals 
could possibly be electrified the combined peak would be much 
larger and this percentage much smaller. This railroad maxi- 
mum load occurs in the morning and we find a diversity as com- 
pared with the combined peak of 10,000 kw. The load-factor 
for the day based on the one-hour peak is 62^2 per cent, for 
the steam railroad requirements only, whereas the light and 
power and street and elevated railway requirements show a 
load-factor for the day of 59.3 per cent, and the combined sys- 



July, 191 6 



ELECTRICAL AGE 



33 



terns a load-factor of 62 per cent. This distinctly shows what 
the beneficial effect of the electrified steam railroad require- 
ments would be upon the present central power company load. 

It is interesting to note that the steam railroads, if electrified, 
would have considerably less peak load demand than the elevated 
and surface railways. The suburban service of the electrified 



*cc.ooo 



320.000 



;::::o 



mum 



































































































Tl 


PICAL 
0* 


OCTOBE 
If 


1 








— "I^OA 


rACTSR 


„r 






























09 

1— 










™t 




-T 




1 
1 
1 
1 


"1 
1 

f 






5 
P 
o 








O 

5 






1 ■ ■ 

1 

1 


1 


VTCEHTU 

^ LOAD 


lSTATIMK 

'ACTOR 50 


sad r~" 






1 




5 

-i 
~* 








r 


-- 




-i es 


(MATEO 5 


1 

I km fi •. i 


EQU1RENE 


t r 






1 

! 










1 




1 
1 






" ~~* 1 LOAD FACTOR «2.5JT f— 1 

TOTAL CENTRAL POWER 






















f si 

SUP 


[»* R0AI 
PLIU IT C 


s were e 

EITRAL PO 


ECTRIFIEt 

wen cohpj 


ADD 









400.000 



300.000 



200.000 



6 

».H. 



1ZN 

Fit 2 



8 

P.M. 



steam railroads in the Chicago district makes the annual load- 
factor less than would be the case in some smaller sized cities 
where the steam railroads do not have such a pronounced morn- 
ing and evening peak in suburban service. This pronounced sub- 
urban peak will of course be found in ten or twelve of the large 
cities in the country. 

♦ ♦ 4p 

nd 



An interesting and highly successful savings and loan or- 
ganization is being operated by the employes of the Postal 
Telegraph Cable Company, New York, under the name of 
the Mutual Investment Association. Organized seven years 
ago, this association is essentially a voluntary club for sys- 
tematic saving and thrift, having a limited charter member- 
ship of 150; all members must be employes of the company 
or its associated interests. 

The primary purpose of the organization, as explained by 
Mr. Edward Reynolds, treasurer, is to employ its funds, de- 
rived through monthly contributions, for investments in real 
estate, stock, bonds or other securities, affording conserva- 
tive returns with utmost safety. To encourage methodical 
saving, dividends declared from the proceeds of installments 
are placed to the credit of members instead of any immediate 
cash disbursement. 

A Mutual Stock Company 

The management of the funds of the association is under 
the jurisdiction of a finance committee of five members. 
Mutual benefit accures to members in proportion to the 
amount contributed by each one individually, a regular pay- 
ment of five dollars a month entitling the member to one 
share of stock, and upon which there is no fixed limit of 
value. Stock is now worth close to $500 per share, repre- 
senting paid up installments and interest earnings. It is in- 
teresting to note that employes have purchased stock to an 
amount of over $50,000, bearing a guaranteed annual dividend. 
These dividends with installments of members effect a total 
saving to date of about $80,000. 

Not only does the association inspire its members to save, 
but through operation in foreign investments affords an ad- 
ded value of membership, rendering this additional service 
without compensation. Thousands of dollars have been 
placed for members in worthy, interest-bearing securities; 
during the first fifteen months' activity of this feature, outside 



investments to an amount of $50,000 were made. The ac- 
quirement of homes is still another extension of the habit of 
thrift in this organization. Desirable arrangements have been 
made with a building and loan association for the purchase of 
individual shares by members interested, in order that they 
may obtain property and build homes on an attractive pay- 
ment plan. Company employes are not required to be mem- 
bers or shareholders to enjoy this privilage, and many "Pos- 
tal" workers are now living in their own homes derived 
through the features of this idea. 

Loans 

The benefits of the regular loan department also are ex- 
tended to all employes of the company, whether or not mem- 
bers of the association. All borrowers are placed upon their 
honor, loans being made solely upon personal notes and no 
other security requested or assignment of wages allowed. 
Accommodation is made at the rate of 6 per cent, a year, the 
borrower agreeing to repay the loan in weekly or monthly 
installments, as may be desired. For example, an employe 
obtaining a loan of $25 and paying back on the basis of one 
dollar a week, is charged a total interest for the accommo- 
dation of seventy-five cents. Practically no losses have been 
incurred through loaning money to employes on personal 
notes; even those who leave the company before fully re- 
paying their indebtedness and over whom no control is ex- 
ercised have, with a few minor exceptions and negligible re- 
sulting losses, paid their delinquencies in full. 

Merchandise Purchases 

Still another interesting feature of the association's opera- 
tions is the plan devised for the assistance of employes in the 
purchase of merchandise at the lowest price obtainable. In- 
vestigations revealed the fact that many employes were pur- 
chasing necessities upon the installment plan, usually a very 
costly practice, while it was shown also that many stores 
were loaning money to employes and entering it upon the 
books as merchandise purchased. In the operating depart- 
ment, where each employe must furnish his own typewriter, 
it was found that loans were being made for the purchase of 
these machines, and that many were renting them at an 
exorbitant rate from different typewriter dealers. 

To correct these conditions became part of the work of the 
association. Arrangements were made with various stores to 
furnish members and other employes of the company with 
merchandise at cash prices, charging to the account of the Mutual 
Investment Association. The organization in turn, derives a 
profit from the cash discount obtainable and, in certain cases, a 
commission from the retail establishment. The borrower and 
intending purchaser is supplied with a card of introduction to 
the store handling the particular goods desired, which sets forth 
that his bill is to be charged to the association to an amount not 
exceeding the total of his loan, as stipulated. It is not necessary 
for the buyer to show his card until after prices have been 
quoted and the purchase made, thus assuring the lowest cash 
price as would be obtained by any other individual. 

Typewriters 

In the case of typewriters, a particular departure has Deen 
made. The association now sells machines direct to company 
operators on the installment plan, with the same charge as on 
the regular cash price basis. Not only does the purchaser 
directly benefit but the advantage is reciprocal, the club deriv- 
ing the profit both on the sale of the machine and the loan, and 
which in turn accrues to the association fund for members. 

The operations of the Mutual Investment Association have 
proved so successful that similar organizations have been estab- 
lished by company employes in other large cities. All of these 
engage upon the same co-operative principles and are bringing 
equally notable attainments. 



ELECTRICAL AGE 



July, 1916 



From time to time at technical gatherings or in scientific 
journals there is talk of what should fix the dividing line 
between pure research and engineering analysis. Always 
the discussion is tinged by the prejudices of those who take 
part. The men of science are prone to sneer at anything 
which has a "practical" aspect, while the engineers contend 
that what has not the prospect of financial worth is a waste 
of time. Fortunately, the development of research organi- 
zations in the great industrial companies has brought men of 
both schools together in the search for common ends; the 
scientists to determine the fundamental relations, the en- 
gineers to make the economic applications to working con- 
ditions. It is therefore of much interest to turn to one of 
those pioneers who at the time of need showed the practical 
electricians how the mathematical theory of electricity could 
solve their problems. 




William Thomson was born in Belfast, Ireland, on June 
26, 1824. At the age of ten years, he entered the University 
of Glasgow, in which his father held the chair of Mathe- 
matics. In 1841 William entered Cambridge University, 
from which he obtained his bachelor's degree four years later. 
After a year's study in Paris under Regnault, the famous 
physicist, the University of Glasgow called him back in 
1846 to take the chair of Natural Philosophy, a title which 
included both Physics and Chemistry. This post he retained 
until his death, which occurred on December 17, 1907. 

While Thomson had a profound influence on his pupils 
during his sixty years of teaching yet in other fields are 
his chief contributions to our civilization. We seldom think 
nowadays as we read long cable-dispatches from across the 
seas, of the days when the calculations were being made for 
the first transatlantic cable and of how little was known of 
the propagation of electric waves along wires. William 
Thomson demonstrated that the' speed of signalling varied 
inversely as the square of the length of the cable and showed 
that it would be useless to try to help matters by increasing 
the impressed potential. So favorably did his theoretical 
work impress the directors of the transatlantic cable enter- 
prise that they made him their chief engineer. During the 
trying years which saw one failure after another pave the 



road to success, Thomson's scientific ability was of great 
value; the mirror galvanometer, by which signals were at 
first received was his invention, and later he developed the 
syphon recorder which is in use to this day. "Sir William," 
we must call him now, for his services won the recognition 
of knighthood at the hand of Queen Victoria. 

A characteristic trait of Sir William Thomson is shown in 
connection with his work on the mariner's compass. It had 
been the custom to use large heavily magnetized needles to 
actuate the card and correction against the effects of nearby 
iron was a difficult matter. In 1874 Sir William was asked 
by the editor of a popular monthly to contribute an article 
on the conipass. The preparation of this drew his attention 
to the deficiencies of the instrument, and when, five years 
later, a second article appeared, the author had re-designed 
the compass. His model, now in universal use, employs a 
light ring instead of the old card, and a number of small 
magnets fastened near the point of suspension. Correction 
against external fields is accomplished by a few permanent 
magnets, instead of by the huge iron spheres formerly used. 

In theoretical electricity, Sir William was the pioneer in the 
development of the theory of the ether. He laid down the 
hypothesis that all space- is permeated by a weightless, per- 
fectly elastic medium through which are transmitted electric 
and magnetic forces. As opposed to the former theory of 
"action at a distance" this gave men a means of applying 
mechanical analogies to electrical wave-phenomena, and later 
others developed the equations which relate all forms of 
wave-motion, whether of sound, of water, or of electro-mag- 
netic forces. 

We little think when we refer to the units of our pro- 
fession that there was once a time when there were no stand- 
ards of electrical measurement which were definitely related 
to the fundamental units of mass, length and time. Proposed 
first by Weber and Gauss, the absolute system of electrical 
units owes its adoption to the enthusiasm and interest of 
leaders such as Helmholtz and Thomson. The latter served 
on the committee of the British Association, which fixed 
the values of the electrical standards we now use. 

One of Thomson's inventions was the quadrant electro- 
meter. This instrument is particularly well suited to voltage 
measurements where current to operate a galvanometer is not 
available. Such a case would be the measurement of the 
no-load secondary e.m.f. of a transformer when the current 
drawn by a voltmeter would be comparatively so great as to 
be an appreciable load. With it Thomson made important 
determinations of the! dielectric strength of air, and of the in- 
sulation of cablts. Later the need of accurate standard in- 
struments for measuring heavy currents led Thomson to in- 
vent his famous ampere-balance. This consists of a light 
metal frame, usually about fifteen inches long, balanced upon 
knife-edges at its center, and carrying at each end a flat 
coiled conductor. Similar flat stationary coils are arranged 
above and below each moving coil and all are so connected 
that the current to be measured flows through all in series. 
The fields produced tend to lift one moving coil and depress 
the other. This force is counter-balanced by the addition of 
weights until the beam is again in its no-load position. The 
device is sometimes called a "current-weigher" and its 
utility lies in the fact that its calibration may be determined 
by calculation from its physical dimensions instead of by com- 
parison with another standard. By the substitution of high- 
resistance coils on the balance-arms, and connecting them 
across the supply line,, the instrument becomes a wattmeter 
whose constant also may be calculated from its dimensions. 

Nor did Thomson disdain the commercial side of invention. 
(Continued on page 65) 



L 



i^— yiiiiiMiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiii 



iliauiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiHlllliiliiiiiilllli 



iiiHiiiiiiiiiiiiHiiiiiiiiiiiiiiuiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiii 






1 



O R I A 




JN.S T&e S ©Stiffs Fills 

The President's call for the militia has set in motion 
the National Guard organizations of many states, and 
as we go to press trainloads of citizens, enthusiastic 
over the prospect of becoming real soldiers, are rolling 
toward the scene of action. Yet the daily traffic of our 
lines of communication goes on as usual ; no schedules 
are suspended nor shipments delayed to take care of 
mobilization. Probably the most serious inconven- 
ience is that suffered by the smaller business organi- 
zations, some of whom have lost a considerable per- 
centage of their force. The large corporations are test- 
ing the value of "diversity factor" given by their large 
staffs ; if one department is hard hit, it can call on the 
others for assistance. Moreover, the smaller concerns 
depend on this month's output for next month's in- 
come, while a cessation of activity in some depart- 
ments to provide men to operate others would mean 
only a small loss to a big company. But large or 
small employers are responding as liberally as then- 
means will allow in sharing the financial responsibili- 
ties of the men who represent them in the ranks. 
Almost every important central station and manufac- 
turing company has offered to continue full pay to 
its employees who are called out, and to give them 
their former positions on their return. A notable and 
a wise exception has been that of a telegraph company 
which, realizing the special value of expert operators, 
has discouraged the enlistment of its men in the ranks. 

Electrical men should make good soldiers. All of 
them have been trained to deal with things as they are, 
to accept the facts and make available facilities serve 
their needs. Construction men will find the transition 
an easy one; a soldier's field equipment is, to be sure, 
somewhat heavier than a belt full of tools, but use will 
soon make the burden but a part of the day's work. 
When it comes to making or breaking camp in a hurry, 
or throwing up some sort of cover from the enemy's 
fire, we are willing to back the electrical man against 
all comers. 

There is, of course, the possibility that the Constitu- 
tionalist government of Mexico may recognize the er- 
ror of its ways and come to terms, but the Mexican 
genius for political blunders may be counted against 
it. Whatever may be the event, we are going to see it 
through. The service of every man of us — at the desk, 
in the shop, before the switchboard, or along the trans- 
mission line — is at his country's call. While "the 
boys" march by, our throats are husky with some- 
thing more than the cheering and as the colors pass, 
our hats are off. 



E^BjmtaE ®3 Motors toy Central Stations 

One of the slogans of modern business is "Service." 
The whole spirit of commercial life is being changed 
to conform with the ideal of selling the customer sat- 
isfaction rather'than a mere product. That has been 
the guiding principle of the telephone industry, so that 
now everyone has come to think of the instrument 
on his desk as only his point of contact with a vast 
system. Power companies have been slow, however, 
to recognize the fact that what most of their customers 
want is mechanical power rather than electrical and 
that the user should be, and usually is, indifferent to 
the means whereby power reaches his shafting. 

One of the reasons for the phenomenal growth of the 
telephone systems has been the ease with which new 
subscribers can take on the service. No initial outlay 
is necessary on the part of the "prospect." Provided 
his credit rating is satisfactory the signing of a con- 
tract is enough and each month's bill is paid as part of 
his current expenses. On the other hand, the pros- 
pective user of electric drive has to be "sold" a wiring 
and motor installation for which he must pay out of 
capital. Few concerns there are which cannot at any 
time find a use for spare cash which will bring them 
ten per cent. When that and other fixed charges were 
added to the cost of electricity the proposition looks 
much less inviting. It is very likely that if central sta- 
tions would make a practice of renting motor equip- 
ment complete to their customers, the extension of 
motor drive would be much easier. 

It is of interest in this connection to note the results 
secured from renting motors by the Hawick, England, 
central station. The community chief industry is the 
manufacture of tweeds and hosiery, and as might be 
expected the horsepower of individual motors is small, 
being on the average six and three tenths. Of the 300 
installed at the end of 191 5, customers owned 174, ten 
were on a time-purchase plan and 116 were rented by 
the company. The rental rates range from $8.75 per 
year for one-fourth to $121.50 per year for 50 horse- 
power. On the signing of a contract the company in- 
stalls the motor complete with all accessories. The 
customer pays for the labor, and for the necessary 
belting. Thereafter the company maintains the motor 
in good condition, replaces worn-out brushes and 
makes any repairs necessary, even though these may 
be due to a fault of the user. The inevitable delay 
incident to a breakdown makes the user careful not to 
abuse the motor. When trouble occurs, the company 
sends a man, who reports the extent of the damage by 
telephone and starts the work while the shop crew are 



36 ELECTRICAL AGE July, 1916 

preparing the materials or a substitute motor. That ing devices for coolness; a sewing-machine motor to 

the plan is profitable is evident from these figures : get the work done earlier ; an electric iron to take 

Gross Rentals $3,900 per annum along when travelling; a flashlight for the wind-up of 

Less Maintenance 1,182 the twilight excursion; or an electric fan for half a 

dozen reasons. The locality will influence his choice; 

Net Rentals $2,718 in a "summer colony" the less expensive devices or 

This represents 14.4% on the capital invested, and rental Propositions will likely be most successful, while 

if 6% be deducted for depreciation, the'balance, 8.4% m the c[t y a hot J uly mornin g would be just the time 

is a satisfactory return. To this should be added, of to " close " Mrs - Housewife on that electric washing 

course, the indirect return from the electricity which machine tha * she had long wanted and managed to do 

might otherwise go unsold. without. For travellers, motor-driven devices should 

Every central-station man is familiar with the argu- be e q ui PPed with "universal" motors for while city 
ments in favor of his service as against that of an iso- SU PP^ lmes are generally alternating-current, the iso- 
lated plant. Most of these will apply equally well in lated P lants and small central-stations at resorts are 
superseding other power sources with electricity, if the more often for direct-current. 

central station accepts its whole duty of supplying When the device is one which can be sold in the 
mechanical power rather than electrical. A large or- home ^ a demonstrator, the summer is one of the 
ganization is better equipped to make repairs quicklv very best times to make the attempt. Almost all such 
and cheaply, and hence to give the sort of real power deyices have at bottom the Purpose of lightening do- 
service which will allow the manufacturer to concen- mestlc labors ' hence ^ are inherently timely. Many 
trate on that which he can do best— the turning out home-dwellers have more leisure m the summer, and 
of his product hence often that ennui which makes them the more 

~ w willing to listen to a demonstration. College vacations 

set free many young men and women who want em- 

The Midsummer Hlnnip ployment. They are ideally suited to the work, learn 

All through the month of June, the fan salesmen it quickly, and make a favorable impression on those 

have been "on edge." No sooner had a day or two of whom they approach. As they are willing to work on 

warm weather gladdened their hearts than along a commission basis, the expense can be more readily 

would come a spell of cold, dismal dampness, during borne than where a regular salary must be paid, 

which the mention of fans was as an offer of a refrig- For the wiring of existing houses there is no time 

erating system to an Esquimaux. But now the luck like th e summer. Most "prospects" will be away from 

has turned and we may expect real summer weather home for at least two weeks and by a careful schedul- 

from now on. m S °f work it is possible to have one job follow 

From time immemorial "the summer slump" has another without a break. To get this class of bust- 
been anticipated by a slowing down in merchandising ness, it is absolutely essential that the contractor 
activity. The curve of sales in most lines shows a should have a reputation for the honesty of himself 
falling off during July and August which amounts in and of his men and that he should give special atten- 
some cases to a practical cessation of activity. Par- tion to seeing that every article of furniture is left 
ticularly is this true in the retail field ; with regular exactly as he found it. Reputations grow slowly and 
customers out of town, with business slack in other it is good policy to feature reliability in all advertising, 
lines, what wonder that the salesman yields readily in ord er to forestall any objection to placing a house 
to his own lassitude and cuts the working day short and its contents in the hands of an outsider during the 
at both ends, and a good-sized chunk out of the mid- owners absence, 
die? But after all, the obstacles we have touched upon 

True it may be but it is none the less inconsistent, have been secondary ones. The big one lies so near 

Every man in the power-supply field knows that the home that it is sometimes overlooked in the first flush 

"valley" of his production-curve holds a sink-hole into of enthusiasm. The lack of "staying power" to fight 

which profits disappear. The filling of that valley is along in the face of heat and humidity to keep on 

his job, and it is up to the appliance man to learn "plugging" when the outdoors is calling is what kills 

wisdom and do likewise. It has been said by a noted many a campaign. Most men do routine work ninety 

statistician that the time to push sales hardest is per cent, of the time. The quick shifts necessary to a 

when there is the least business coming in; when real "campaign" — the throwing of a flying squadron 

business is good, there is less need of exertion, in into the office district with fans on a hot day — the 

other words, raise your "valleys" and let the "peaks" quick shifting of a wiring gang because Mrs. Smith is 

take care of themselves. coming home a week earlier than she — and you — had 

Like a good general, the merchandiser who plans a planned — is what tries your generalship. But there's 

summer campaign will take advantage of every point real money to be made, and that, to an American busi- 

which he can command. If he has the choice, he will ness man, means a quick start, a hard pull and a strong 

feature seasonable merchandise, such as electric cook- finish. 



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Mr. Roper is superintend- 
ent of the Street Depart- 
ment of the Commonwealth 
Edison Company of Chica- 
go. In this paper presented 
at the recent N. E. L. A. 
Convention he tells of two 
ways of protecting distribu- 
tion transformers from 
lightning — by removing the 
exposed high-tension ter- 
minal boards of the trans- 
formers, and by installing 
lightning arresters on the 
same poles as the trans- 
formers. 

At the time of starting the investigations which form the 
basis of this paper, the distributing system of the Common- 
wealth Edison Company, with which the writer is connected, 
included about 9,500 transformers and supplied service to 
about 100,000 customers. The maximum load on this system 
of distribution at that time was about 28,500 kilowatts. Since 
that time this system has been growing very rapidly, so that 
at the present time there are over 16,000 transformers sup- 
plying service to more than 240,000 customers, and the maxi- 
mum load during the past wintei was about 74,000 kilowatts. 
The transformer burn-outs due to lightning then amounted 
to about 1.2 per cent, per year, and the transformer fuses 
blown by lightning averaged about 12 or 15 per cent, of the 
number of transformers. 

The practice of the company, in matters regarding light- 
ning protection at the time of beginning this investigation, 
was briefly as follows: 

(a) Transformers were purchased and installed with 
primary terminal boards above the oil. 

(b) Lightning arresters were installed on the line 
poles, i. e., poles supporting wires only, and placed so 
that there was one arrester for about 2,000 feet of pri- 
mary line. 

(c) Different types of arresters were purchased in 
succeeding years and were placed on the lines so as to 
protect the additional primary wire installed during the 
preceding year, without any reference to the types of 
arresters installed in the same vicinity in other years. 



(d) No systematic detailed records were kept of all 
the troubles caused by lightning as such records were 
quite impossible with the methods of installation in use 
at that time. Occasional records were kept of the light- 
ning troubles on a few selected primary circuits. 
Our first step in the investigation of the causes of lightning 
troubles consisted in making a careful examination of all 
transformers whose fuses blew in several lightning storms. 
In about 80 per cent, of these we were able to find marks on 
the transformer case or on the primary board where the arc 
had jumped across between primary terminals or from pri- 
mary terminals to the cover, or around the primary bushings. 
We therefore selected an area which included several hun- 
dred transformers, removed all transformers within this area 
in which the primary terminal boards were above oil and 
substituted tansformers which had their primary terminal 
boards removed or submerged below the oil. The result of 
this investigation indicated a considerable improvement in the 
service, so that we therefore specified that all new trans- 
formers should have their primary terminal boards either re- 
moved or submerged. In addition we arranged that all 
transformers which were for any reason returned to the 
storeroom from the line, should have their primary terminal 
boards removed before being again sent out to be rein- 
stalled. 

Simultaneously with the above investigation we started to 
segregate the various types of arresters. For convenience 
we selected the primary circuit as our unit with the idea that 
this would be the simplest way of keeping the records. The 
arresters were installed so that there was only one type of 
arrester on any single primary circuit. 

About this time the theory was advanced that in order to 
be most effective, lightning arresters for the protection of 
transformers should be installed on the same pole with the 
transformer. Several additional areas were then selected for 
the purpose of giving this theory a trial, and in those areas 
a lightning arrester was installed on the same pole with each 
transformer. For convenience we called these areas "100 
per cent, protection areas." 

Lightning arresters had been considered a necessary evil 
by some line foremen as well as engineers, and had there- 
fore been relegated to the line poles where they would be 
out of the way. The problem of devising a method of con- 
struction with arresters on the transformer poles, while of- 
fering some difficulties was not insurmountable. Photo- 
graphs of several typical installations are shown in Figs, i 
and 2. The results of these two steps in the investigation 



38 



ELECTRICAL AGE 



July, 1916 



were presented in a paper before the Pittsfield meeting of 
the A. I. E. E. May 28 and 29, 1914. The results of the latter 
investigation, while indicating a considerable improvement, 
were not considered conclusive; so that in the following year 
the 100 per cent, areas were considerably enlarged. Again 
careful records were kept of the results in these areas and 
in the rest of the city, and as these indicated a considerable 
advantage in placing the arrester on the same pole with the 
transformer, we next moved all lightning arresters from line 
poles to transformer poles. 

About this time we began to find serious difficulties in 
using the circuit as our unit for the various types of ar- 
resters. As the load increased and additional circuits were' 





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Cross-arm Construction 

necessary, it was quite impossible to make an economical 
lay-out of the additional circuits without moving a large 
number of arresters each year. For this reason we abandon- 
ed the primary circuit as the unit and adopted certain streets 
as definite boundaries of the various areas in which the several 
types of arresters were segregated. Stated in another way, we 
abandoned the theory that a lightning arrester protected 
the transformers on any considerable amount of line, and 
instead adopted as our working theory, that the protection 
accorded to any transformer depended upon the arrester 
which was alongside of it and not on the arrester that was 
1,000 feet or more distant. This scheme of separating the 
various types of arresters by definite boundary lines greatly 
simplified the keeping of the records. After having once 
made certain that the proper type of arrester is installed at 
each location the type of arrester at any particular point can 
thereafter be determined by referring to an index map of the 
city which shows the districts assigned to the various types 
of arresters. 

At the time when we moved the lightning arresters from 
the line poles to the transformer poles and placed them 
within certain definite areas, it was also thought that some 
protection should be accorded to the more important cus- 
tomers outside these areas. A rule was therefore adopted 
calling for the installation of a lightning arrester on the 
same pole with each lightning transformer of 4-kw. capacity 
or larger, and on all power transformers regardless of size. 
Again careful records were kept of all of the transformer 
burn-outs and primary fuses blown by lightning, the results 
of which are shown in Table 1. 

Table 1 indicates that, other conditions being the same, 
the installation of lightning arresters on the transformer 
poles instead of on the line poles, reduces the number of 
transformer troubles due to lightning by about 75 per cent. 
This means that the value of a lightning arrester, as a device 
for protecting a transformer, is very considerably increased 
by installing it on the same pole with the transformer. 

Having determined the most favorable conditions for in- 
stalling lightning arresters, it then becomes pertinent to in- 
quire whether or not the reduction in the cost of repairing 



transformers which will follow the installation of the light- 
ning arresters is sufficient to warrant their use. An answer 
to this question can be secured by assuming, first, that none 
of the transformers in Chicago have an arrester on the same 
pole; and second, that all the transformers are protected by 
a lightning arrester on the same pole; and from the per- 
centages given in the last column of Table I calculate the 
number of cases of trouble that would have occurred for each 
of these two conditions. 

These calculations are given in Table II, which shows in 
the last column the reduction in transformer troubles that, 
according to the experience in Chicago in 1915, should follow 
such an installation of lightning arresters. Based on these 
figures, the saving in the cost of repairs and maintenance of 
transformers due to the installation of lightning arresters is 
estimated as follows: 

Replacing and repairing 201 burned out transformers 

@ $50.00 ; ;. .-. : $10,050 

Replacing 485 primary fuses @ $2.00 970 

Expense of replacing damaged primary cut-outs.... 300 
Supervision and use of tools, 15% of the above items 1,700 
Loss of revenue due to burn-outs, assumed at 5 kil- 
owatts for six hours @ 5 cents per kw-hr 302 

Loss of revenue due to blown primary fuses, assum- 
ed at 5 kilowatts for two hours at 5 cents per 
kw-hr 243 

Total , ;...: $13,575 

Assuming that the total cost of labor and material of 
the lightning arrester installations would aver- 
age about $7.50 for each transformer, the total 
cost of the installation would be 15,600 (trans- 
formers) @ $7.50 $116,500 

Assuming that the total annual charges for interest 
depreciation, maintenance, taxes, etc., would be 
18% of the cost, then the total annual charges 
would be 18% of $116,500. $21,000 

Net loss due to installation of arresters $7,4^5 

These figures show that, based on the experience in Chi- 
cago in 1915, an installation of lightning arresters for the pro- 
tection of transformers is not warranted by the saving in the 
cost of repairs alone, but that, instead, the total annual 
charges of a lightning arrester for each transformer are 
about 50 per cent, more than the savings that can reasonably 
be anticipated. 

In making the above calculations it has- been assumed that 
the installation of lightning arresters on the line poles 
amounted to practically no protection. While this statement 
is probably not quite in accord with the facts, the indications 
are that the protection accorded to transformers by arresters 
placed several hundred feet distant is very small. The error 
made in this assumption is probably more than offset by the 
fact that in the year 191 5, during which these records were 
obtained, the lighning storms were somewhat more severe 
than the average during the past ten years. 

We have still to consider the question of the effect of 
lightning arresters on the quality of the service. The in- 
stallation of a lightning arrester on the same pole with 
each transformer will increase the total cost of the trans- 
former installation about 10 per cent, and will increase the 
total annual charges for each transformer installation about 
53 cents per year. The question then to be determined is, 
whether this additional expense is warranted for the pur- 
pose of eliminating about 75 per cent of the interruptions to 
service that are caused by lightning. 

There are several factors that enter into this question, such 
as the financial condition of the company, the standard of 
quality of service that it has established, and the effect of the 
quality of the service upon securing new and retaining old 
business. In Chicago, where the demands for continuous 
service are quite exacting and constantly increasing,, it is 
thought that this expense is well warranted and it is now 



July, 1916 



ELECTRICAL AGE 



39 



our rule that a lightning arrester must be installed on the 
same pole with each transformer, regardless of its size or use. 
A general answer that will apply to other cities is not possi- 
ble, but it is thought that many companies are installing in 
their stations and substations various devices or apparatus, 
for the sole purpose of improving their service, which do not 
result in as great an improvement in the quality of the ser- 
vice in proportion to the money expended as would the instal- 




Side-arm Construction 

lation of a lightning arrester for each transformer. 

Statements are sometimes made that a trial installation of 
lightning arresters on comparatively few transformers has 
demonstrated that the arresters would save their cost in 
transformer repairs within a few years. The experience in 
Chicago indicates that while it is perfectly possible to select 
a single circuit or a certan small district and secure results 
which would amply justify such a statement, it would also be 
possible, and just as easy, to select a circuit or a small dis- 
trict entirely without arresters in which the difference in 
results in two succeeding years would be just as pronounced. 
Persons making such statements must assume that lightning 
storms are quite uniformly distributed and that they are very 
much the same year after year, both of which assumptions 
are very far from the truth. 

For the information and guidance of companies that may 
be intending to install lightning arresters for protecting their 
distributing transformers, the following suggestions, based 
on the experience in Chicago, are offered: 

(1) If the financial condition of the company does not 
permit the installation of lightning arresters on ail 
transformers, indicate on a map the boundaries of the 
territory within which continuity of service is most im- 
portant, and which includes such percentage of your 
transformers as you can afford to protect at one time. 
Install lightning arresters on these transformers and 
also on any additional transformers that are thereafter 
installed within the same area. 

(2) In the area outside of this boundary line, move 
all lightning arresters from the line poles to the trans- 



former poles, selecting for this purpose the transformers 
which supply the most important service. 

(3) Select some dividing line that will determine the 
size of the transformer on which the service, whatever 
its character, is of sufficient importance to warrant the 
extra cost of an arrester for the improvement of the 
service. 

(4) Each succeeding year increases the area within 
which all transformers are protected by lightning ar- 
resters, and at the same time reduce the size of the trans- 
formers above which all are protected by arresters re- 
gardless of location. 

(5) Keep careful records of the transformer troubles 
due to lightning, segregating the transformers that are 
protected by arresters on the same pole, so as to learn 
from your own experience how much improvement in the 
service is being secured by the installation of the ar- 
resters, and at what cost. 

(6) Make use of the information obtained from the 
records each year in determining the increase in the 
amount of lightning arrester protection that will be war- 
ranted during the following year. 

Table I 

Summary of Results for 1915 

Transformers 

protected by 

lightning 

arrester on 

same pole 

Number of' transformers 9307 

Transformers burned out, Number 25 

Transformers burned out, Percent. 0.27 

Primary fuses blown only, Number in 

Primary fuses blown only, Percent. 1.19 



Transformers 

not 

protected 

6298 

98 
1.56 
271 
4-30 



Table II 

Results Obtained by Applying the Percentage Figures from 

Table I to the Entire Installation of Distributing 

Transformers in Chicago 



Assumed Location of On Line 

Lightning Arresters Poles 

Transformers burned out 243 

Primary fuses blown 671 

Total cases of trouble... 914 



Number of Cases 
On Each Trans- 
former Pole Reduction 



42 
186 

228 



201 
485 

686 



By An "Ex-Operator" 
The switchboard operator is one of the most important fac- 
tors in the satisfactory and efficient running of an electrical pow- 
er supplying system. In some of our early plants, in which the 
station equipment was both complicated and bulky, the operator 
had sole control over the kind of power supplied to the cus- 
tomers. Only his steady eye on the voltmeter, the ammeter, on 
the brushes or on some other part of the equipment, kept the 
station running at the required notch. Even at the present time, 
when complicated hand operated mechanisms are being replaced 
with automatic controls, the operator has much to do with 
supplying satisfactory power. Several stations within my ac- 
quaintance rely almost entirely on their operators for satisfactory 
operation. In some of these stations the operator does anything 
from watching the switchboard to ordering supplies and clean- 
ing station equipment. He must be always on the job, for a little 
oversight on his part might result in damage to equipment and 
consequently, interruptions to service. Coolness, steady eye, 
good head, and a good working knowledge of the business 
should be constituents of every operator. These are the main 
points that the electrical engineer should look for, before em- 
ploying an operator, for they are positively essential to the good 
running of all plants of any size. F. Ed. Stier. 



40 



ELECTRICAL AGE 



July, 1916 



By J. H. Ross 

The gas filled lamp has been widely exploited, and justly 
so but there has been little or no date available as to how to 
install a practical, satisfactory, system, at least cost both for 
installation and operation. 

The system at Freeport, Texas, at the mouth of the his- 
toric Brazos River, has been in operation over one year. The 
equipment installed makes the little town the best lighted 
for its size, in the Southwest. 

The lighting system consists of 20 two hundred and fifty 
c.p., 6.6 ampere series gas filled lamps, and 14 pedestal lights 
consisting of two no volt, 60 watt Mazda lamps in series 



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Fig. 1 

across 220 volt underground mains. The series lights are 
used for lighting the residence portion of the town and the 
pedestal lights are placed in the business district. The light- 
ing system is fed from the primaries of the Freeport Light 
Water & Ice Co., the central station company of the town. 
They in turn, purchase their power from the Freeport Sul- 
phur Company. The current for the street lights is put 
through a Westinghouse constant current transformer, of 
sufficient size to take care of future needs, delivering cur- 
rent at 6.6 amperes. This transformer, and consequently the 
street lights, is controlled by a Campbell high voltage time 
switch. 

The pedestal lights are fed from two General Electric type 
SL constant current transformers of 1 k.w. capacity each, one 
feeding a network of six and the other a network of eight 
pedestal lights. The current is taken from the street series 
circuit through protective devices similar to film socket cut- 
out, shown in Feg. 1, just to the left of series lighting trans- 
former. The transformers are located on pole nearest the un- 
derground network they feed, the conduit being run up the 
pole to a point just below the transformer and the leads 
brought out through a Type "F" condulet, as shown in Fig. T. 
The usual method of connecting these pedestal lights in 
series was not carried out because it was desired to have the 
pedestal light circuit so that it could be connected on the 
secondary distribution system, should the series circuit be- 
come inoperative for any reason, for any length of time. 
Switch for this purpose can be seen in Fig. 1, on lower 
crossarm between transformer and end of conduit line. Each 



pedestal was connected in series-parallel and the secondary 
of the series lighting transformer, Fig. I, connected in par- 
allel and then the circuit from the SL transformer on the 
secondary side, so loaded as to give a voltage of 220 at the 
lamp, thus allowing two standard lamps to be used in series. 
Theoretically approximately 3.33 amperes load should pro- 
duce the 220 volts with 6.6 amperes on the primary side 
but experience showed that it was better to use a slightly 
heavier load and thus secure lower voltage with consequent 
longer life of lamps in pedestal, since ample light was fur- 
nished at the lower voltage. This also would tend to elim- 
. inate excessive voltage should one pedestal light burn out 
while in operation. Ordinary 60 watt, no volt Mazda lamps 
were used, two to each lamp. It was also found by experi- 
ence that the difference of- one pedestal light on the load 
made but little difference in voltage, not enough to burn out 
the remainder from excessive voltage, but where two pedes- 
tals on the same circuit were out the voltage began to rise 
sufficient to materially shorten lamp life of remainder. 

The pedestals themselves, Fig. 2, were strictly a home pro- 
duct. They had to be cheap and at the same time extra 
strong to withstand the gulf storms which often sweep the 
gulf coast. They were made of nine foot lengths of 6 in. 
second hand iron pipe secured from the Freeport Sulphur- 
Company at the cost of cutting plus their scrap value. The 
pipe was threaded on one end and a 6 in. to 2 in. reducer 
screwed on, then a 2 in. close nipple screwed in this reducer 
and the 2 in. fitter for holding the 12 in. C.R.I, ball screwed 
on to this nipple. The fijtter was tapped on the inside for 
54 in. pipe for holding the socket' fitting. This was utilized 
as such and a 54 in by 3 in. nipple screwed in making a 
watertight joint. Then the fitter was drilled at the lowest 
point to allow the water being blown into the fitter from the 
surface of the ball, to escape to the outside instead of going 
down the inside of the shaft. This made the shaft waterproof 
from above. A foundation of 2-3-5 
concrete was made 18 ins. deep by 36 
ins. square. Old 1 in. line pipe dis- 
carded for slight rust spots which 
made it unsafe to use in sulphur wells, 
was laid in a trench along the curb 
line, inside the curb, from one pedestal 
to the next, extending in a continuous 
piece to within 6 in. of the top of 
the pedestal shaft. This made each 
wireway independent and easily ac- 
cessible by removing the fitter on top 
of pedestal shaft. Iron wire was 
"fished in" at the same time for ease 
in installing the copper circuit. After 
this was done and before the concrete 
had time to "set" the 6 in. pedestal 
shaft was slipped over the 1 in. con- 
duit lines are embedded in the con- 
crete at the proper height above side- 
walk. It was lined up with a transit 
each way at the same time. After the 
foundation had set a concrete base, 
composed of one part cement and 
thre parts sand, 18 in. square and 12 
in. high was placed thereon, and on 
top of this base was placed a smaller 
base 12 in. square and 10 in. high. The 
lower base is not shown in Fig. 2 be- 
cause of height of sidewalk at that 
point, the smaller upper base only be- 
ing shown. The foundation came 
flush with the top of the sidewalk 
making the base extent for a height 
of 22 ins. above the sidewalk and the 
height of the pedestal 9 ft. 6 in. over all. 




Fig. 2 



July, 1916 



ELECTRICAL AGE 



41 



After all the concrete was firmly set the copper wire was 
pulled in with the leading in wire mentioned above. This 
wire was commercial, double braid, rubber covered, solid 
wire Xo. 14 new code. One reason for the 220 voltage 
used was to cut the size of this wire and still provide good 
distribution, since the distance from supply to farthest 
lamp was a distance of about 800 ft. It was thought that 
lead-covered wire would have to be used eventually but 
during the August 16-19, I0I 5. West Indian hurricane, water 
stood over the ground to a depth of 3 feet for two days and 
absolutely no damage was done to any of the underground 
circuits. The pedestal light system has given no trouble 
whatever other than the necessary maintenance of burned out 
lamps and globes broken by mischievous boys. The en- 
tire maintenance has not been over $1.00 per pedestal, per 
year. 

The resident lights consist of a Cutter porcelain body, 
Regent film socket, and 24 in. radial bowl reflector arranged 
for attaching diffuser, although the diffusers are not now 
attached on account of expense and lack of revenue from 
lighting circuit. These lights are placed on pole set just 
within curb line at each street intersection and at a height 
of 20 ft. above and 3 ft. out from the curb. They are sup- 
ported by a y$ in. pipe gooseneck which is, in turn, partially 
supported by the feeder wires of No. 8 weatherproof copper 
from the 2-pin standard arm at top of pole. The main light- 
ing and secondary leads are in the alley and break arms are 
used to "take off" the street lighting circuit at each intersec- 
tion. The street lighting leads are kept above the secondary 
leads as much as possible. 

Data was available to cover the connection and use of the 
series lighting circuit but nothing could be secured on con- 
struction of pedestal lights other than the manufactured ones 
which were too expensive to be considered. The pedestals, 
as outlined, Fig. 2, cost approximately $8.50 each, complete, 
including the installation of conduit and wire. There was but 
little data to be had on the use of the series lighting trans- 
formers in just this way so as to make available additional 
source of supply should the series circuit be out of order. 

While this system could be much better and several con- 
structions are not in strict accordance with the very best 
practice, the system has been working perfectly for almost 
two years and has never given the least trouble except dur- 
ing the West Indian hurricane when the no mile wind broke 
the overhead lines in one or two places. Often no attention 
is given for months at a time other than to wind and set the 
time clock once per week. For a system from which no 
revenue is obtained and much is expected in the way of light, 
it has proven entirely satisfactory, both to the management 
and the townspeople. It would lend itself admirablv to in- 
dustrial lighting. 

♦ ♦ ♦ 

Bare Grounded Return Wflrflaag ©yttteim 
to be Investigated 

The Committee on Electric Wiring Systems of the Electrical 
Industry has appointed the following sub-committee to investi- 
gate bare grounded return wiring systems : 

Chairman, C. E. Corrigan, Associated Manufacturers of 
Electrical Supplies, Pittsburgh, Pa. 

W. H. Flandreau, International Association of Municipal 
Electricians, Mt. Vernon, N. Y. 

J. C. Forsyth, American Institute of Electrical Engineers, 
New York, N. Y. 

' jr. S. Lawler, Associated Factory Mutual Fire Insurance 
Companies, Boston, Mass. 

C. Renshaw, Westirighouse Electric and Manufacturing Com- 
pany, East Pittsburgh, Pa. 

Secretary, Wm. S. Boyd, Western Association of Electrical 
Inspectors, 175 West Jackson Boulevard, Chicago. 



The committee desires the co-operation of the entire elect; 
industry in this work, and to that end requests that all informa- 
tion and data on wiring systems having a bare grounded con- 
ductor, be sent to the secretary. 

The committee will especially appreciate the following in- 
formation : 

(1) Safety, cost and reliability data based upon practical 
experience with concentric wiring, or any other type of wiring 
having one or more bare or partially covered conductors which 
are permanently connected to earth ; 

(2) Theoretical or tested installation details or protective 
features which will safeguard concentric wiring or other wiring 
systems having bare grounded conductors ; 

(3) Reliable methods of preventing meter setters or line- 
men from reversing the polarities of a two-wire system ; 

(4) A suitable definition of "ground" or "earth" as these 
words relate to electric wiring; 

(5) Practical experience with ground or earth connections: 

(a) Whether they have been found reliable, or unreliable ; 

(b) The proportion found to be unreliable, if any; 

(6) Adequate methods of establishing and maintaining a 
reliable ground or earth connection for safety purposes; 

(7) A simple method of test which will insure the detection 
of unreliable' ground or earth connections ; 

(8) Economies which may be practiced with safety in con- 
nection with any of the existing wiring methods ; 

(9) Estimates or actual figures as to the cost of any pro- 
tective features reported upon in response to the foregoing 
requests ; and 

(10) Any data or experience calculated to assist the commit- 
tee in reaching an accurate conclusion relative to the practicabili- 
ty of bare grounded return wiring systems. 



HHeetira© lP®w®w IP©!? gSsatSle Uriflgei 

Contracts for the complete electrical equipment of three 
large double-leaf bascule lift bridge for the City of Seattle, 
have been awarded to the Westinghouse Electric & Mfg. Co., 
of East Pittsburgh, Pa. These bridges will span the Lake 
Washington Canal and will be among the largest of their 
type yet built. Each bridge will have a total overall length 
of 291 feet, with a 200-foot span, and will be 60 feet above the 
water. Each bridge will be made to carry both vehicle 
traffic and a double track street railway, and will be con- 
structed of concrete piers with structural steel for the span. 
The electrical equipment for each bridge will consist of four, 
100 hp., main operating motors together with a smaller motor 
for operating the centerlock. Two main operating motors 
will be connected permanently in series on each leaf and 
will have switches so that if one motor fails it may be 
cut out and the other motor left to operate the bridge. Either 
motor alone will be capable of raising the leaf at reduced 
speed. The motors on each leaf will be controlled by a magnet 
switch controller regulated by a master switch located in 
an operating house on the leaf. There will be an operating 
house on each leaf, designated as "north" and "south" operat- 
ing house. Control panels and master switches will be in- 
stalled in each. Each main operating motor will have a 
weatherproof brake mounted on it. For the centerlock, a 
varying speed, series wound, direct current motor will be 
used, operated by a drum controller located in the "south" 
operating house. The installation and erection work will be 
done by local sub-contractors in Seattle. 

$ «$► »$► 

Among prominent electrical men in Chicago during the Re- 
publican National Convention, June 7-10, were Mr. Theodore 
N. Vail, president of the American Telephone & Telegraph 
Company, who was a delegate from Vermont; Mr. X. C. Kings- 
bury, vice-president of the same company; Xewcomb Carlton, 
vice-president of the Western Union Telegraph Company, and 
C. C. Adams, vice-president of the Postal Telegraph Company. 



■ipfigigillllllg 




ems m 

Electric Practice 



©w amd 'why 
imf i®s& 9 tzasis- 
a g is&stallat ion 



ai 




M©fi 



II. Motor-Starting Rheostats* 

Motor-starting rheostats must be constructed so that the start- 
ing current will not exceed predetermined limits, or a value 
that would be liable to injure the motor. Current sufficient to 
produce the necessary starting torque is designated as the mini- 
mum current, / m i n _, and the maximum current, / mas ., is gener- 
erally about 50 per cent, greater than the minimum current. 
When the rheostat arm is on the first point the total resistance, 
including that of the armature, should be proportioned so that 
about 50 per cent, normal starting current can be established. 
At the second point the resistance should be reduced sufficiently 
to allow normal starting current, / min-) to flow, and the motor 
should start from the third point and increase in speed for 
each succeeding step, generating a counter-electromotive force 
which will assist the ohmic resistance in reducing the current 
peaks to 7 min _ 

In rheostat calculations the first unit is determined by Ohm's 
law and the succeeding units are so designed that the rush of 
the current will not exceed I, 



max. 



Fig. 1 illustrates graphically an 
8-point rheostat designed for use in connection with a shunt- or 
a compound-wound direct-current motor having a constant field 




Fig. 1 

flux. At the first point of the rheostat a current of 50 per cent, 
normal, or one half 7 min is established, at the second point the 
current increases to / m j n . and at the third point to / max . , falling 
back to I min> and again increasing and decreasing at each suc- 



cessive step. In the illustration, 8, 7, 6... 1 represent dif- 
ferent resistance units connected to the contacts, a, b, c, etc. 
The unit Ri represents the armature resistance, and the succeed- 

Res/'stance 

mm 



A6C666 





{Motor 



Shunt Field 



Fig. 2 

ing. units should form a geometrical progression and have a 
constant multiplier, k, equal to / max . ■*•■ I min ., therefore R 2 = 
kRj, R 3 = kR 2 , Rt = kR s , and n = kR (n — 1). The calculations 
are simple if the armature resistance is known and the minimum 
and maximum currents determined. It is possible to determine 
the proper number of steps in the rheostat mathematically, but 
this involves considerable time and it is safe to adopt a number 
corresponding to standard starting rheostats which generally run 
from 7 to 12 points. Fig. 2 shows the rheostat connections witb 
the no-load release magnet. 

Assume that it is desired to design a starter with seven points- 
for a 10-horsepower, 220-volt, shunt-wound motor, h?ving an 
efficiency of 80 per cent., then the watts input will be 10 X 746- 
+ (.20 X 7460) = 8952 watts. The full-load current is found- 
by dividing the watts imput by the voltage, 8952/220 = 40 + 
amperes, = / min> Then 7 max . = 40 X 1.5 = 60 amperes and. 
k = 7 max- -*- I m i n . = 60 -r- 40 = 1.5. Assuming that the arma- 
ture resistance is 0.20 ohms, then, 

Ri = Armature resistance = 

R 2 = kR x = 1.5 X .2 = 

R, = kR, = 1.5 X .3 = 

R t = kR s = 1.5 X .45 = 
•675 = 



R, = kRi = 1,5 X 

R a = kR, = 1.5 X .1 - 

R-, = kR« = 1.5 X 1.5 



0.20 ohms, 

0.30 

0-45 

0.675 

1. 00 

1.50 
2.25 



July, 191 6 



ELECTRICAL AGE 



43 



Steps 1 to 5 inclusive must have a carrying capacity of 60 
amperes and. from the curve, Fig. 3, it is found that No 12 
wire has a carrying capacity a little in excess of this figure. 
Both Figs. 3 and 4 relate to German silver resistance wire. 
From Fig. 4 it is found that the resistance of No. 12 wire is 
35 ohms per thousand feet or .035 ohms per foot. The sixth 



required for any unit forms a coil in excess of tin; figure i 
must be divided. The manner of constructing resistances and 
frames was discussed in a previous article on the subj< 

It frequently occurs that to obtain the desired carrying 
pacity, two or more wires have to be connected in multiple and 
for determining the equivalent areas of wires, B. & S. gague, 



CD 

o 

(6 



: 


\ 


















































— 




\ 




















































- 


\ 


v 






















































\ 


















































-- 
































































































































































































































































































































: 






















































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































* 





















































10 20 3040 50 60 70 80 90 100 1 10 120 130 140 150 160 IT0 180 190200210 220230?40?50 260270 280 

Amperes 

Fig. 3 

step must have a carrying capacity of / min or 40 amperes, and 
by reference to Fig. 3 it will be found that No. 14 wire is 
required, which has a resistance, by Fig. 4, of 55 ohms per thou- 
sand feet or 0.055 ohms per foot. Unit 7 must carry 20 amperes, 
and from curve Fig. 3, it is found that No. 17 wire is re- 
quired, which has a resistance of 115 ohms a thousand feet, or 
.115 ohms per foot. Dividing the required resistance of each 
unit by the resistance per foot of its respective size of wire 
will give the number of feet required for each unit. 
Then, 



No. 



2 — 
3— 
4— 
5— 
6— 

7 — 



0.300/0.035 

0.450/0.035 

0.675/0.035 

1.00/0.035 

1.50/0.055 

2.25/0.1 15 



Figure 5 gives coil winding data. 



8.5 feet, 
12.8 
19.2 
27.6 
27.2 

19-5 

It shows that with 



a y A - 

seven 



inch mandrel there are 0.23 feet of wire per turn and 
turns to the inch, or there will be 0.23 X 7= 1.61 feet of wire 



21 

20 

19 

18 

17 

16 

& 15 

S M 

v> 13 

« 12 

ob 

■z 10 
9 



— .. — — == 


— — ' 


- ^-- ==! 


^•^*" 


^.^ 


^^ I 


~7 


7" 


.' 


r 


/ 


_j 


~J_ 


1 


_j 


1 



20 40 60 80 100 120 140 160 180 200 220 240 260 280 300 
Resistance Ohms per 1000 Fh 

Fig. 4 

per inch of coil. Now by dividing the length of wire required 
for each unit using No. 12 wire by the number of feet per inch 
in length of coil, the length of the coil in inches will be found. 
For example, No. 2 unit requires 8.5 feet of wire and 8.5/1.61 = 
5.27 inches. In a similar manner the other coils can be calcu- 
lated. It will be seen that the maximum length of the coils is 
given in Fig. 5 for each size of wire, and if the length of wire 



No. 


Diameter 






Max. length 


B &S 


of mandel 


Feet per 


Turns 


of coil 


Gauge 


in inches 


turn 


per inch 


in inch* 


6- 8 


125 


0.38 


4 


78 


9-11 


1. 00 


0.30 


4-5 


12 


12-14 


0-75 


0.23 


7 


12 


15-18 


0.50 


0.16 


9 


12 


19-21 


0.25 


0.082 
Fig- 5 


14 


6 



the table, Fig. 6 is given. It indicates the number of smaller 
wires required to give a sectional area equal to one larger wire, 
the figures between the horizontal line corresponding to each 
other. For example: It requires two wires, No. o, or four 
wires No. 3, etc., to give a sectional area equal to one wire, 
No. 0000. It requires two wires No. 13, or four wires No. 16; 
or two wires, one No. 12 plus one No. 14, to give a sectional 
area equal to one No. 10 wire. 



CSS 

s 
a 

<i 

OOOO 

OOO 

OO 

O 

I 

2 

3 

4 
5 
6 

7 
8 

9 
10 
11 
12 

13 
14 

15 






,*; 

2- O 
2- I 
2- 2 

2- 3 

2- 4 

2- 5 

2- 6 

2- 7 

2- 8 
2- 9 
2-10 
2-1 1 
2-12 

2-13 
2-14 

2-15 
2-l6 
2-17 
2-l8 









<-5 


<-3 


a 


3 O 












3 
4 
5 
6 

7 
8 



4- 
4- 
4- 

4- 

4- 

4" 

4- 9 

4-10 

4-1 1 

4-12 

4-13 

4-14 

4-15 
4-16 
4-17 
4-18 



8- 6 

8-7 
8- 8 
8- 9 
8-10 
8-1 1 
8-12 

8-13 
8-14 

8-15 
8-16 
8-17 
8-18 



o 
S5 

16- 9 
16-IO 
16-II 
16-12 
16-13 
16-14 
16-15 
16-16 
16-17 
16-18 









fe; 






N 



32-12 
32-13 
32-14 
32-15 
32-16 
32-17 
32-18 



> ^ 
64-15 

64-16 

64-17 

64-18 






e 
U 



I 
2 

3 
4 
5 
6 

7 
8 

9 
10 
11 
12 
13 
14 
15 
16 



and 






o 



3 

4 
5 
6 

7 
8 

9 
10 
11 
12 
13 
14 
15 
16 

17 
18 



Fig. 6 



♦> ♦ ♦ 

Bsralkta] sisa Haatocsaoaa Mcrto with Direct 

In a certain instance where it was desired to stop a two- 
phase, 440-volt induction motor as quickly as possible, it was 
found that it could be done by the use of a 220-volt, direct- 
current circuit with a resistance and a double-throw switch. 
The method of connection was as shown in the diagram. 

When the switch is thrown over to the direct-current side, 
the motor comes to a stop almost instantly, the current be- 
ing applied for only the fraction of a second. 

The question has arisen as to the exact nature of the 
electrical action that takes place in this case. Also, as to 
whether the action is injurious to the motor, and whether a 
12-volt direct-current circuit could be advantageously used to 
brake a no-volt direct-current motor and if not, what would 
be the proper direct-current voltage. 

(Continued on page 46) 



44 



ELECTRICAL AGE 



July, 1916 



July, 1916 



ELECTRICAL AGE 



45 




FIG. 13 



BEFORE describing those loops, knots or ties most frequently 
used, the definition of certain technical terms, which are 
applied in explaining them, is in order. 
"Bight"— A section of rope turned back on itself to form a loop. 
Figs. 1 and 2. 

"Cucold's Neck" — A second bight turned above the first as in 
making a bow-line knot. Fig. 1 i-a. 

"Loop" or "Turn" — A rope passed once around a pole and the 
ends brought together. 

"Round Turn" — A rope passed twice around a pole and the 
ends brought together. Fig. 23. . 

"Standing Part" — The section of rope leading away, which the 
round turn or hitch is made to hold; the part which takes the 
strain, as in Figs.' 12, 20, 22 and 24. 

TYING ROPE ENDS TOGETHER 
Flat Knot — The most common knot in use for tying together 
the ends of two ropes or cords is the flat knot. Figure 3 shows 
the knot before pulling tight, and clearly indicates its makeup. 
Figure 4 shows the .finished knot. While this knot is safe and 
excellent for ordinary use, it will jam under a strain, so that it 
cannot readily be undone. 

Flat Knot Over a Plug — When it is desirable to use the knot 
just described, jamming under a heavy strain can be prevented 
by making the knot over a tapered wood plug, Figures 5 and 6. 
When the strain is released and the plug driven out, the knot is 
easily undone. A second tie over the plug is a good "safety 
first" precaution. 

Granny Knot — This knot results from the failure to tie a flat 
knot properly. It should never be used, but is shown in Figure 
7 so that this incorrect way of making a flat knot may be avoided. 

Weaver's Hitch or Knot — Through the loop of a bight turned 
in the end of one rope, pass the end of the other rope. Then 
take a half hitch (first paragraph under Hitches) with the latter 
about both parts of the bight, Figure 8. 

If one of the two ropes to be joined is smaller than the other, 
the bight should be turned in the large rope, the small rope 
passed through the loop and two or more turns taken in the half 
hitch. Figure 9 shows this knot with two turns in the half hitch. 
This tie is preferable to the flat knot, as it will not jam, and can 
easily be undone by pushing back the loop of the bight. 

Linked Bow-Line Knots — A safe connection between two ropes, 
which will not jam under strain, is obtained by making a bow- 
line knot (Figure 12) in the end of one rope, passing the end of 
the other rope through this loop and tying it In the same way 
(Figure 10). One or both knots may be run out to take up any 
surplus rope. This method is especially adapted for use with 
heavy ropes. 

LOOPS, EYES OR SLINGS 
Bow-Line Knots — For forming a temporary loop or eye at the 
end of a rope or in a bight at any point on a rope, the bow-line 
knot is the best. There are three forms of bow-line knots, and 
if the workmen are taught only these forms they will more 
quickly become proficient in making safe loops which will not 
slip, jam or injure the ropes and which can easily be untied. 

Single Loop Bow-Line Knot — Take the end of the rope in the 
right hand and form a long bight by laying the end across the 
standing part, Figure 2. Then with the left hand turn a cucold's 
neck (Figure 1 i-a) over the end. Lead the end around the stand- 
ing part and back through the cucold's neck and pull tight, 
Figure 12. 

Single Loop Bow-Line Knot on a Bight— Using a bight instead 
of an end, lay the bight across the standing part and turn a 
cucold's neck over it, Figure 13. Lead the loop of the bight 
around the standing part and back through the cucold's neck 
and pull tight, Figure 14. The idle standing part may be used 
as a snub to hold the strain taken up by the loop. 

Safety Sling — (See illustrations in center of page). This is a 
modification of the knot described in Figures 15 and 16, and is 
of great use where it becomes necessary to send a man aloft to 
remove a helpless man or for similar emergency purposes. 
Make a double loop bow-line knot on a bight, but before pulling 
tight slip the loop of one of the large bights through the knot, 
thus forming one large and one small loop— the former to sit in 
and the latter to pass around the body under the arms, Figures 
17 and 18, 

In cases of emergency, where it is necessary to send a man aloft 
— e.g., to remove a helpless man from a pole — a knowledge of 
how to make this sling quickly will be found useful. 



HITCHES 
KNOTS 
LOOPS 

AND 

TIBS 

Courtesy of 
The Telephone News 

D. S. hJlBORN 

ASD 

C.L.BROWN 





■"■ Among the many ■■* 

stones that have 
come down to us from Ancient 
Greece none is more interest- 
ing than that of Gordius, 
who tied a knot so intricate 
that it was foretold that he 
who could undo it would 
become, master of the earth. 
The puzzle remained un- 
solved until Alexander the 
Great severed the knot with 
his sword. As we all know, 
he became the ruler of the 
then known world. 
This knot evidently answered 
its purpose, but it would 
never do to use such an in- 
tricate tie for rope and rigging 
work in telepjpne construc- 
tion. For joining ropes to 
each other, or attaching them 
to various objects to be held, 
hauled or lifte^ 1 , knots or ties 
must fulfill, in every-day 
practical work, three qualifi- 
cations, viz.: 

i\ They must have a strength 
at least equal to the rope. 
2. Thev must not jam —must 
be easily undone. 
3 They must not injure the 
rope. 

Many other types and kinds 
of bends, ties and hitches- 
some useful, some purely 
ornamental — besides those 
shown here are known and 
used, principally 
aboard ship. 



Double Loop Bow-Line Knot on a Bight— Using a bight of rope, 
as before, lay it across the two standing parts and turn a cucold's 
neck in both parts over the bight, Figure 15. This forms two 
large bights below and one small bight above the cucold's neck. 
Loop the small bight over the two large bights and pull tight 
Figure 16. One or both standing parts may be used against the 
double loop, but not in different directions, as with the single 
loop bow-line knot on a bight'. 

HITCHES 
Half Hitch — To make this hitch bend the end of the rope up 
and across the standing part, forming a bight. Lead the end 
around the standing part and through the bight, Figure 19. A 
half hitch in itself does not form a complete tie, but in conjunc- 
tion with other forms of securing rope it is the one most gener- 
ally used. 

Clove Hitch — Form a half hitch and then lead the end of the 
rope again around the standing part and under its own loop, 
Figure 20. The two half hitches thus formed are commonly 
known as a clove hitch. 

In general practice two half hitches are designated in this way. 
However, an additional half hitch would result in a tie which 
would be called three half hitches. 

Clove Hitch with a Half Hitch on the Standing Part — Take two 
half hitches about a pole, etc. — a clove hitch, Figure 21. Then 
take a half hitch about the. standing part and the resulting tie 
will appear as. in Figure 22. This is one of the best hitches. It 
is easily made and does not jam; nor will it injure the rope. It 
is adapted for tying to toggle blocks or any anchorage which 
would tend to roll out of a round turn under a strain. The 
ends of temporary rope guys may be secured with this hitch. 

Round Turn and Two Half Hitches — When it is desired to 
hold the slack as it is pulled, the rope is given two turns around 
a pole, forming a round turn, Figure 23. When the rope has 
been pulled up tight enough and it is desired to hold it this way 
for a time, lead the end under and around the standing part and 
down through the loop. Repeat this, pulling tight each time. 
Two half hitches are thus formed and the complete tie will 
appear as shown in Figure 24. This hitch is equal to the clove 
hitch for attaching to any rigid support. 

Half Hitch on the Bight of a Rope — In laying out a pennant or 
guy rope, any surplus or slack rope, which it is inconvenient to 
take out at the ends, may be taken up by bending a bight in a 
section of the rope and throwing a half hitch over each end of 
it, Figure 25. Although, if properly made, this hitch is perfectly 
safe, it is well to have those, not familiar with it, place two half 
hitches on each end. 

Timber Hitch — Take a turn around a pole or log, bend the end 
back over the standing part and pass two to four turns around 
its own part. Then slip up tight, Figure 26. 
This hitch is used principally in logging on the water, where the 
heavy wet ropes are difficult to secure. It should not be used 
for snaking poles on the ground, except in emergencies when a 
log chain cannot be obtained, as the dragging on the ground 
destroys the rope. 

Inverted Half Hitch on a Becket Thimble — After reaving off, 
pass the idle end of the fall rope through the becket— "a" in 
Figure 27 and "c" in Figure 29 — and around the thimble. Then 
bend it about the- standing part — "b" in Figure 27 — and over 
itself towards the thimble. Bend it again around the standing 
part and through the loop thus formed. It will be seen that this 
forms two half hitches, but the end or last hitch is on the inside, 
Figure 28. Pull the hitches tight and slip them snug against the 
thimble. If the hitch is to remain for some time, seize the end 
of the standing part — "a" in Figure 29. This is a standard 
method of attaching the idle end of a fall rope to a block. 

Blackwall Hitch on a Hook — Give one turn around the point of 
the hook, crossing the rope inside with the end on top. Slide 
the loop around to the back of the hook. This will bring the 
end beneath, where it will be held by the pressure of the standing 
part on it — "b" in Figure 29. This hitch should not be made 
with a small rope in a large hook, as there would be room for 
the hitch to upset and slip. Unless the crossed rope fills the 
hook fairly well, two half hicches should be taken on the standing 
part. 

This hitch should never be used for hoisting or for any 
work where the slipping of the hitch would result in damage or 
injury. For hauling a rope along the ground and the like, the 
quickness with which it can be made and undone makes it a 
very desirable method. 




46 



ELECTRICAL AGE 



July, 1916 



A study of the connection diagram shows that, on the dir- 
ect-current side, the phase windings of the motor are con- 
nected in multiple with a resistance in series with both wind- 
ings. Therefore, the amount of direct current that will flow 
throught the motor windings, after the first instant, or so, 
will depend on the resistance of the motor windings and on 
the amount of resistance in series with them. Neither of 
these are given, but from the effect noted it is safe to say- 
that the amount of direct current flowing is many times as 
great as the full load alternating current, for the ohmic re- 
sistance of the windings of an induction motor is usually 
quite small. 

D.R-D.T. Switch 



Phase A 
440 V.A.C. 
Phase B 




220V. D. C. 



2 - Phase Indue fion flofor 

The braking action produced is due to the formation of a 
set of intense fixed magnetic poles around the field of the 
motor by the heavy direct current in the stator windings. 
The braking effect is increased by the circulation of heavy in- 
duced currents in the rotor winding as long as the rotor con- 
tinues to move. The amount of the braking effect depends 
entirely on how much direct current is admitted into the wind- 
ings and it will be seen that with heavy currents it can be- 
come extremely powerful. In fact if the direct-current is 
twice as great as the starting current, under a constant re- 
sistance to rotation, the retarding effect will also be at least 
twice as great and the motor if the load is the same in both 
cases will come to a stop in half the time it takes it to start 
up. So by adjusting the direct current, any desired rapidity 
of stopping can be attained. 

Whether this procedure does any damage to the motor 
can hardly be stated without knowing definitely the amount 
of the currents in the windings and their resulting magnetic 
effect. If there is no considerable overheating and no dis- 
tortion of the end turn's of the windings, it would be hard to 
injure the motor in any other way. 

As to the effect of throwing 12-volt direct-current on to a 
120-volt alternating-current motor, while the time to stop 
cannot be predicted without knowing the data of the motor 
windings, it is safe to say that it will bring it to a stop more 
or less rapidly, provided there is plenty of current capacity 
behind the 12-volts to produce the necessary magnetizing 
effect. 

Calculation of the d.c. voltage to be applied to stop the 
motor in a given time would be difficult, as so many con- 
stants of the system would have to be determined. The 
best way to find out would be to vary the resistance R, using 
no-volt supply and find the value of the direct current which 
if applied continously would bring the motor and its load to 
a standstill in say three seconds. The voltage drop across 
the stator windings would be the voltage to apply without 
the resistance R in circuit. The low-voltage supply must of 
course have a capacity great enough to furnish the necessary 
current. 

W. K.— P. B. F. 
♦ ♦ ♦> 

The Westinghouse Electric & Mfg. Company, of East 
Pittsburgh, Pa., has sold to the Rochester Railway and Light 
Company, of Rochester, N. Y., for its new hydroelectric plant 
in that city, two, 12,500 k.v.a., 11,000 volt, 3 phase, 60 cycle, 
180 r.p.m., vertical alternating current generators with direct 
connected exciters. 



In our March issue, in answer to a question, the statement 
was made that on a single-phase circuit a wattmeter would al- 
ways indicate the true power. One of our readers calls attention 
to the fact that a watthour meter will sometimes reverse on low 
power-factor, even on a single-phase circuit : A large office and 
college building was supplied with lighting current from a-c. 
primaries 2300-volt, single-phase, three step-down transformer of 
30-kw. capacity over 230-volt, 3-wire secondaries. The distribu- 
tion was metered through two current transformers, ratio 60 — I, 
to a 5-amp. s.p., a-c. wattmeter with the higher voltage in the 
shunt, or potential circuit. Although wired for a large lighting 
load, the actual lighting demand was normally extremely small 
except on dark and cloudy days, very little lighting being re- 
quired normally at night. There was, however, a very large 
installation of single-phase desk and ceiling fans. 

The meter readings in this building were suspiciously low, 
and it became the duty of the writer to determine the reason 
therefor. For some time the problem was without apparent 
solution, first one likely clue and then another being run to 
cover without result. One bright, warm day, the writer having 
been called to the building for some reason, upon going out 
passed by the meter and glanced at it. His surprise was great 
when he saw the disc rotating backward. 

He knew that this wattmeter had been but a short time prev- 
iously calibrated to less than one per cent, error at fifty per cent, 
and J / 2 of one per cent, at full load. As he was young in the 
work then, he decided that he had inadvertently connected the 
meter wrongly after the calibration. A most painstaking in- 
vestigation determined that such was not the case. 

He, therefore, delibrately sat down before the meter and start- 
ed on the reasoning out operations. For some time he failed to 
take notice of the fans, some fifty or more, being operated at 
the time ; but the fact finally filtered through, and investigation 
proved that a condition of almost no lighting service but large 




Wattmeter 



Heutral 



Connections for One Transformer and Meter on ^-Wire Circuit 

fan service existed. On experimenting, it was found that with 
the fans working and no lighting at all, the metter cheated 
unconscionably; that but few'lights turned on simultaneously with 
the fans in operation served to cause the meter to "wobble" 
first forward, then backward ; that by cutting off all fans and 
light, it stood quiet, and only a few lights alone set it going to 
work honestly. Only one conclusion was possible — that the ab- 
normally large fan operation with its consequent known heavy 
wattless component in the system was sufficient to reverse the 
wattmeter, or if but few lights were burning at the same time, 
to cause it to stand still or "wobble." 

The experience gained in the above instance was amplified by 
later observations with polyphase wattmeters. In the first in- 
stance a three-phase wattmeter was used to check the power used 
by the motor of a railway motor-generator set, and was observed 
to frequently reverse. The writer, after carefully checking the 
connections, was forced to the only possible conclusion, that 
the reversal was due to momentary conditions of low power 
factor. As before, no power factor indicator was at hand. This 
same motor-generator set, temporarily installed in the above in- 
stance, was later permanently installed in the plant of a lighting 



lULV. lQl6 



ELECTRICAL AGE 



47 



and power company, where a power-factor indicator was per- 
manently connected to the buses. Here the same reversal of the 
wattmeter was observed, and as could now be determined, took 
place at times of power factor indications of less than fifty 
per cent., and at times of small lighting load. 

Junior Parrish. 

A probable explanation of the first case seems to be that the 
shading coil of the wattmeter was defective. The induction watt- 
meter consists of an aluminum disc which passes through fields 
generated by coils in series with the line and across it. In 
order that the meter may operate correctly, these fields must be 
90" out of phase at no-load. The shunt coil is highly inductive 
and therefore its current 7 S h lags by nearly 90 , but not quite, 



I/>. 



Slot in Magnet Core 



*'90' 




on account of the losses in the coil. Around the pole-top of 
the shunt-field magnet is a coil of wire called the shading coil 
which has a current I sc induced in it. The resultant magnetic 
flux from the main and shading coils is F S h, the resistance of 
the shading coil being so adjusted that F S h is exactly at 90 lag 
from E. If with the same line current the power-factor of the 
load becomes less, the vector I rotates toward F S h, thereby slow- 
ing the rotation. When the two coincide, at zero power-factor, 
there is no rotation. If now the shading-coil be open, F S h 
would lie along 7 S h and I would coincide with 
Fsh at a higher power-factor than zero. Data is not available to 
determine whether the power-factor of an induction motor load 
would be low enough to produce this effect; perhaps some of 
our readers may know. 

Concerning the reversal of the three-phase wattmeter, as no 
connection-diagram is given, it is impossible to say what might 
be the cause. Anyone who has had a similar experience is in- 
vited to contribute his explanation. P. B. F. 

♦ ♦ ♦ 

Unsatisfactory Bell Rflaagaaag Transformer 

A transformer for ringing bells, fed from no-volt, 60-cycle 
alternating-current and designed to give four volts on secondary 
side has been made according to sketch given below. 

4 Volt 

Secondary 
Ho. 20 Section 




Bell Ringing Transformer 

When in operation, however, there is an annoying variation 
in the sound of the buzzer which is quite different to the effect 
given when operating the same buzzer with a 4-volt dry cell. 
Can you suggest what the trouble is and how it can be rem- 
edied? C. K. 

0t€ : One answer to this question was given in our June 
issue. Those given below are also of interest.) 

One way of making a buzzer operate more smoothly on al- 
ternating current is to adjust the tension of the buzzer vibrator 
till the natural period of the buzzer is thrown out of time with 
the alternations in the current. If adjusting the tension does 
not give the desired result it will help matters to saw a slot 




ilHililll'iiliiiii 



German 
Silver Wire 

across the face of each of the buzzer magnets and enclose half 
the magnet face by a piece of german silver wire about Xo. 18 
soldered into a ring. This forms a shading coil on the magnet 
cores and gives a smoother pull. R. H. W. 

The current supplied by the dry cell is direct current, where- 
as, the current of the transformer is alternating. To make the 
buzzer operative with alternating current the vibrator screw 
must be screwed in until the spring does not break contact, op 
the contact device must be shunted. The buzzer will then operate 
at the frequency of the alternations of the current nearly. The 
vibrator is necessary with direct current in order to allow the 
armature to recede from the pole after being drawn up by the 
current flow. The reason for the variation in tone on alternat- 
ing current is that the vibrator and the alternating current do not 
operate with a synchronous action. H. E. W. 

(With a frequency of vibration as high as 60 cycles per 
second, we fear that the motion of the comparatively heavy arma- 
ture might be so small as not to give a loud enough sound. How- 
ever, the method is worth trying. — Ed.) 

* ♦ * 

By Kennedy G. Rockworth 

Slotting commutators has become quite a general prac- 
tice in the last few years. Those who have tried slotting 
their commutators like it, and do so thereafter wherever 
possible. Often slotting is done just for convenience, some- 
times because operating conditions necessitated doing so. 
Slotted commutators prevent high mica, which is usually 
accompanied by sparking of the brushes; enable longer life 
of the commutator since it is not necessary to turn down or 
grind the commutator merely to remove the high mica; 
longer life of the brushes; and increased output of the ma- 
chine, in many cases, and always where commutation imposes 
the limitation. It can be seen therefore that slotting of com- 
mutators is well worth while, the more so since it may be 
done with little trouble and practically no additional cost. 

Improvements in operation always accompanies slotting 
of commutators, that is to say in almost all cases. It mat- 
ters not what is the size of the machine whose commutator 
it is proposed to slot, and whether it have high or low voltage 
or be of small or large capacity. The only factors requiring 
attention is that the commutator rotates at sufficiently high 
peripheral speed. If the commutator of a slow speed ma- 
chine, such as a direct connected engine or gas engine ma- 
chine be slotted the peripheral speed of the commutator is so 
low that dirt and other foreign matter that has chanced to 
become lodged in between segments cannot be dislodged, 
and short circuits, sparking and other troubles are liable to 
develop. Any machine may have its commutator slotted to 
advantage therefore provided that the peripheral speed of the 
commutator is high enough to exert sufficient centrifugal 
force throw out foreign substances that have gotten in be- 
tween commutator bars. 

On the other hand there are several instances where it is 
almost necessary to slot commutators whether or not one 
cares to do so. One of these is in those machines using 
graphite brushes. These brushes are very soft and if the 
mica is not cut down there will soon be high mica all round 
the commutator. Another case where undercutting the mica 
is necessary is the large 60-cycle railway rotary converters. 
In the 60 cycle rotary converter the peripheral speed is far 
higher than in the 25 cycle unit, and the percentage of mica 



4 8 



ELECTRICAL AGE 



July, 1916 



to copper is greater. If the mica is not undercut or the com- 
mutator slotted commutation will surely soffer. 

Slotting may be done by the various machines upon the 
market, designed especially for this purpose, or it may be 
done by adopting tools that are already at hand. The sketch 
shows a simple, easily made tool that has been used in many 
stations for doing the initial cutting and for keeping the 
slots clear of dirt, etc. All that is needed is a hack saw 
blade, which is fixed in a wooded handle by means of two or 
three screws or bolts. The hack saw blade should be set so 
that it is impossible to cut down the mica more than is re- 







fe-_ — '=- 




— ___ ~~= — — --_— =4 


— __ — 


rg=- ^=~= — 




— ^3=^ ^=^==^41 


^\\\W > . .^ A \\\» \ *w » ' ^ ^\\«\\\\\\\\w * > v%\v.\\\\\v 



quired, namely from 1-16 to 1-8 of an inch. When first start- 
ing to undercut a commutator with this tool it will be found 
best to lay a piece of wood or other substance alongside the 
slot to be cut to act as a guide for the cutting tool. In start- 
ing press gently and evenly over the entire length of the 
tool with a smooth steady motion. After the tool has cut 
a path for itself the piece of wood that is being used as a 
guide may be removed. In cleaning commutators that have 
been slotted it is usually sufficient to merely blow them out 
with compressed air under pressure of from 40 to 80 pounds 
per square inch. The slots should be inspected from time 
to time to see that dirt is not collecting. It is not advisable 
to clean the slots too often, only when necessary. Oil should 
be kept away from all commutators because it has a very 
deleterious effect upon the mica. This is particularly true of 
commutators that have been slotted, for damage can go on 
unseen. Slotted commutators need less work upon them 
than commutators that have not been slotted. On the other 
hand they should receive careful attention at all times. 

V ■*♦* ""S* 

K Coll Taping Frame 

Tape Winding,, ^g!^:Z%%mmm 




When taping field coil it is often difficult to hold the coil in 
a convenient position so that the tape can be passed through the 
center opening. The wooden frame, shown in the sketch, fills 
the requirements for this job very satisfactorily. It has but a 
base and two sides to support the coil. — R. L. Hervey. 

ij? **♦ <fy 

§k Co3£ii3&nfate-r S&epaig' 

Here is a "kink" for someone who has to fill up a com- 
mutator slot without taking the commutator apart. A short 
circuit between bars of one of our machines burned the mica 
so badly that the armature was grounded. I cleaned the slot 
out, making sure that all burned particles were removed. 
I made a paste of plaster of paris, shellac and powdered mica 
with which I filled the hole, ramming it firmly into all cavities. 
As soon as it was hard, I cleaned the surface, sand-papered 
the commutator and put the machine back into service. The 
filling is still holding perfectly. Of course the mica is not 
essential, but it adds to the insulating qualities of the cement. 



£paei5ta@$ii 

Q. — What is the function of reactance in a mercury rectifier 
circuit ? 

A. — Reactance is used to store energy during part of the cycle 
which later is used to keep the arc alight while the line voltage 
is passing through the zero point. To get a better idea of what 
happens, consider the various events in a cycle. 

Bearing in mind the fact that current can flow through the 
tube in a downward direction only, then during one-half of the 
a-c. wave A will be positive to B and current will flow through 
this half of the winding, the tube, the reactance R, and the load 
L. On account of the reactance, this current will lag behind the 
empressed e.m.f. so that when the latter has reached zero the 
curent is still flowing. In other words, R is giving out a current 
which flows in the same direction as before, as long as any ener- 
gy is left in the magnetic circuit of R. 

When the line e.m.f. is at its zero point, there is obviously 
no difference of potential between A, B, and C. The current 
from R then divides at B, part flowing through A and part 
through C. As the line voltage increases negatively, the voltage 
across BC helps to continue this current, and it rapidly in- 

D E 




A C 

I Supply 

creases. The voltage across AB, however, is opposed to this 
current and it rapidly decreases to zero. Immediately the re- 
sistance to currents in an "upward" direction through the tube 
is set up, and no more current flows through the wire until the 
line e.m.f. again changes its direction. 

It is customary to provide reactance by so designing the auto- 
transformer ABC that there will be leakage between the wind- 
ings. This leakage flux acts as a reservoir of energy, for when 
the current in the coil begins to diminish, the flux diminishes 
also, and in so doing returns to the coil the current which created 
it. 

Q. — Somewhere I have seen a table giving the wave-lengths 
of electric waves which make light, and which are nsed in wire- 
less telegraphy. Will you please publish it in your columns? 

A. — The waves produced by electrical means, which are used 

in radio-telegraphy are identical in nature with those produced 

by luminous bodies, the only difference being in their length. 

Some of the more important wave-lengths are : 

Violet .000000004 cm. 

Yellow .0000000059 cm. 

Deep Red .0000000075 cm. 

Shortest waves about 1 cm. 

observable by electrical means 
Waves for amateur radio stations up to 200 cm. 

Longest waves generally used 2,000 cm. 

Between the two groups there is a great field for which we 

have no means of detection. J. S. F. 

♦*♦ ♦♦♦ ♦♦♦ 

Not to be outdone by New York, Chicago electrical workers 
turned out in full force for the "Preparedness Parade" held on 
June 3. With Samuel Insull, president of the Commonwealth 
Edison Company at its head, the Utilities' Division included 
20,000 marchers, of whom 7,900 were from the electric and gas 
companies and the city railway lines, and 7,400 from the 
telephone company (including operators). 



Eiasimss^ Fj?m©^a©@ amsl M©tS2a©<fls ©2 ©enattirall ^a^a®sagc, C©mtea©4©rs asa^l Manufacturer* 



M^iM^apiiIl ©waagffgM] 



ly ©Idsasn Mas'§t©aa 




Mr. Marston is a specialist in 
public relations of central sta- 
tions. For several years he has 
given much attention to the ques- 
tion of municipal ownership of 
public utilities, and has directed 
numerous campaigns of publicity. 
The conclusions of this article are 
drawn from investigations of the 
conditions in municipally operated 
plants here and abroad. 



That municipal ownership is detrimental to privately own- 
ed central stations is self-evident. That it is detrimental to 
the taxpayer at large has bene proven hundreds of times. 
But there are certain classes of people who believe that muni- 
cipal ownership will benefit them more than it will hurt them. 
Among these are frequently men who are familiar with the 
electrical industry and believe that municipal ownership offers 
opportunities for advancement. 

On first thought the electrical contractor might be expect- 
ed to advocate the erection of municipal plants on the ground 
that it would bring him more business. With the customers 
of two plants to cater to it would appear that business might 
be doubled. In the long run this benefit disappears and is 
replaced by disadvantages which far outweight it. 

In the first place there is never any doubling of business 
through the entrance of competition in the central station 
business. Sometimes there is a slight increase in the rate of 
growth of new customers, but frequently the chief activities of 
a municipal plant consist in taking over such customers of the 
old plant as we are willing to make a change. The 
creation of new customers is nearly always left to the private 
company. It is self-evident that the private company would 
try to get new customers anyway. But this municipal com- 
petition, on account of the false economics of the situation, 
where the municipal plant has the ever-ready taxpayer to 
foot the bills and the company can only spend what it makes, 
forces the company to retrench. This retrenchment usually 
makes itself first felt in the new business department, and 
the solicitation of new customers diminishes. Since the 
municipal plant has not any new business department (not 
ten of the 1500 municipal plants in America have new busi- 
ness solicitors) the rate of increase in new customers for 
the two plants has a tendency to decrease. If the competi- 
tion is so severe as to wipe out profit or surplus the quality 



of service deteriorates and the advantages of electricity do 
not make as quick an appeal to the possible new customer. 
The contractor should take a leaf out of the book of the large 
manufacturers, all of whom, while they sell equipment to 
municipal plants, do not encourage the erection of such 
plants. 

Private Ownership Stimulates Sales of Current 

This is not due, as many think, to the fact that the bulk 
of the business is done with private companies. The last 
census figures show us that the proportion of municipal 
plants was 29 per cent, of the total in this country, while the 
private plants were 71 per cent. The amount of energy sold, 
however, shows an entirely different condition. The private 
companies sold 96 per cent., while the municipal plants sold 
only 4 per cent, of the distributed energy. It is due to the 
fact that the manufacturers of electrical machinery and equip- 
ment are far-seeing enough to realize that any influence 
which interferes with the stability of the central station in- 
dustry will have, in the long run, an adverse effect on the 
expansion of that industry. What is the gain in selling a 
few hundred thousand dollars worth of generators this 
year if the sentiment for municipal ownership keeps investors 
from expanding or improving existing plants to the extent of 
a million next year? 

The same question holds equally with the contractor — 
why favor competition in the central station business of your 
city, when it will cripple both competitors to a point where 
electricity will not be popular because of its poor quality, 
and the contractor's business therefore suffer? In places 
where I have been called upon to deal with municipal owner- 
ship agitations I have always had the unqualified support of 
the electrical contractors, because they have realized that 
municipal ownership made for confusion in the industry, and 
was more than likely to injure them. Experience has also 
shown that it is easier for a contractor to deal with one 
central station, and that a private company, than to try to 
please two masters. Frequently where there is competition 
between central stations a contractor is likely to incur the 
enmity of one and therefore be dependent on the other for 
his business, thus cutting his prospects in two. 

The Attitude of Isolated-Plant Employees 
Frequently the employees of isolated plants are on the 
municipal ownership bandwagon, from a variety of reasons. 
One of the most frequent is also the most indefensible. 
The employee knows that the central station is trying to get 
the load of his plant, which may throw him out of work. 
This means that the employee of the isolated plant is not 
friendly to the central station. He knows a municipal plant 
will be injurious to the central station, and is sometimes 



5o 



ELECTRICAL AGE 



July, 1916 



small enough to advocate municipal ownership out of spite. 
He forgets, of course, that with two central stations in the 
field, the chances are increased that one or the other will get 
the load he is handling. Another reason is that officials who 
advocate ownership are addicted to dropping hints that the 
proposed municipal plant cannot recruit its force from the 
employees of the enemy central station and must therefore 
look to other local electrical men or go out of town for its 
staff. Too often the employee of the isolated plant lets his 
ambition get the better of his judgment in this way, for even 
if a municipal plant is put up, the politicians do not confine 
their appointments to men who have had experience in the 
electrical business, but take the men who have the strongest 
political pull. In a municipal plant in the middle west where 
the Socialists came into power they put a young man in as 
superintendent of the gas works who had no experience what- 
ever in the gas business. It took him a considerable time to 
learn, and his education was at the expense of the taxpayers. 
The Socialists have been expected to follow their declared 
principle of employing the people best fitted to do the work 
at hand, but they seem to be as much influenced by political 
considerations as are the leaders of the parties they wish to 
replace. There are a surprising number of municipal plants 
where the superintendent or manager has had no previous 
experience whatever with electricity in any form. That there 
are a few municipal plants where employees are hired and 
fired on their merits only serves to emphasize the fact that 
most of them are subject to spoils system politics. 

Municipal Employees Often Dissatisfied 

I have inspected several hundred municipal plants during 
the past few years, and have been very much surprised by 
the number of superintendents who have asked me if there 
was not an opportunity for them to tie up with some private 
company. I kept no record of the number, but in look- 
ing over some of my field notes I find that the proposition 
seems to be at least 50 per cent. They tell the same story 
of aldermanic interference to such an extent that their jobs 
ar next to unbearable. Councilmen who have never had 
any knowledge of electricity offer- and vote for resolutions 
which are directly against the interests of their own plant, 
and will not listen to the advice of the superintendent they 
have employed. And of course these plants are always 
the poor ones. 

The lot of the municipal superintendent is not a happy one. 
He not only has to do his work well enough so that he will 
not be dismissed for inefficiency, but he must keep his politi- 
cal fences strong enough so that some rival will not get in- 
fluence enough^ to have him ousted. Besides looking after 
his own political welfare, he is at the beck and call of his 
political superiors to do such political errands as they force 
upon him in their own interest. While the manner of a pri- 
vate plant must also mind his p's and q's in order to hold his 
job, his chief means of doing it consists in taking care of the 
electrical business; but the municipal man has to make his 
real job a secondary consideration, and devote time, labor, 
and money to the- kind of outside work which will keep 
him his job. 

Reasons Back of M. O. Agitation 

Contrary to general belief, municipal ownership agitations 
are not started because of anit-corporation spirit, though 
the advocates of municipal ownership usually, in the course 
of a campaign, take full advantage of the opportunity to cuss 
the corporation. Nor is an agitation for municipal owner- 
ship started because it is felt that municipal ownership will 
be good for the community. Municipal ownership agitations 
are invariably traceable to motives which are far removed 
from the broad principles of municipal vs. private ownership. 
Frequently it is due to some shortcoming of the local com- 
pany. Of all the cases with which I have been associated 



only one was started because its instigators truly believed 
in the principle of municipal ownership, and when the peo- 
ple at large voted on the question they defeated it by four 
to one. This indicates rather clearly that the well-behaved 
private company has little to fear from municipal owner- 
ship. It- is only when rates seem high, service is poor, or 
there is indifference to public needs on the part of the com- 
pany, that there is cause for real fear of municipal owner- 
ship. 



Y2aB CI 



IJS) 



By G. D. Crain, Jr. 

The instalment idea has been responsible for a tremendous 
increase in sales of all classes of goods. The divided-payment 
plan has increased the market for practically everything on the 
list, from clothing and furniture to automobiles and houses. 
Even jewelers have found that it is a good plan to place their 
merchandise in the hands of users while the latter are com- 
pleting their payments. 

To buy "on the instalment plan," however, does not appeal 
to a good many people. It suggests the collector from the fur- 
niture store, who makes his calls among the poorer classes ot 
people. Hence dealers who cater to those in better circum- 
stances have found it necessary, in order to bring this business- 
creating idea into play, to call it something else. The "some- 
thing else" is known as the club plan, and it is not essentially 
d'fferent from the old-fashioned instalment method, though the 
details are changed to suit the conditions. 

The electrical dealers of the country have been rather slow 
to see the advantage of selling "on time," because of the obvious 
necessity of carrying the business on their books for *a longer 
period. This is not an ideal situation, it is true, for the reason 
that it takes more capital to run a business of this kind, and 
the turn-over is not so rapid. 

Success Requires Adaptability 

But the big successes in business have been won by adapting 
methods to the requirements of the market, and in order to in- 
crease the volume of appliance business, the dealer must arrange 
the terms so as to attract as many as possible of those who are 
in a position to use his goods to advantage. If he does not do 
this, the chances are that while he will get some business, he 
will lose a lot which he ought to have. 

The central stations have led the way in the direction of 
instalment selling by arranging to do house-wiring, the cost to 
be divided into small" amounts and paid with the bills for cur- 
rent. This has put the use of electricity into the homes of 
thousands who would not have been able to pay for wiring 
installations in a lump sum. And after the wiring was com- 
pleted, all of these people became prospects for electric fans, 
sewing machine motors, washing-machines, vacuum cleaners and 
all of the other appliances which are to be found in the stock 
of the up-to-date electrical store. 

The Installment Plan's Appeal 

It is an interesting fact, also, that the people to whom the 
electrical appliances appeal most strongly are those who belong 
to what, for want of a better term, is generally called the middle 
class. They are those who though not held down by poverty, 
do not live in houses maintained by servants, and who ride not 
in limousines but in the lowly Ford. 

The woman who does her own sewing, for instance, can 
appreciate the value of a motor for her machine more than 
one who calls in a seamstress when she wants any work of 
this kind done. And the former would find it more difficult to 
lay down on the dealer's counter the $15 which he may be 
asking for the motor than the latter, and inasmuch as it is the 
first who is the potential customer of the electrical concern, it 
should proceed to study her financial arrangements and put 
forward a proposition that will appeal to her from every angle. 



July, 1916 



ELECTRICAL AGE 



5* 



The woman of the type referred to is often "sold" on an 
article long before she actually gets it. This is a fact which 
should not be lost sight of. Much stress is laid in selling dis- 
cussions on the necessity of getting the interest of the customer, 
creating the desire for the goods, etc., but what about making a 
sale when the customer would like to buy but feels that she can't 
afford it? Here all the clever salesmanship in the world is 
worthless — unless the sort of terms which will enable the cus- 
tomer to convert desire into action is being offered. 

The wife of a prosperous mechanic, who owns his own home 
and is comfortably fixed, may pass the store of the electrical 
man. She sees a sewing machine, driven by a motor, in opera- 
tion, and when she thinks of the labor which is required in 
operating the machine at home, she promptly decides that the 
motor is just what she wants. But when she sees the price card, 
"S15," she shakes her head and tells herself that she can't afford 
it. 

But just then she sees another card in the window — "Take 
this motor home with you for $1.50," with the further explana- 
tion that the machine is being sold on monthly payments of 
equal amount. 

"I can surely afford that," she tells herself, "and I'll have the 
motor paid for before I know it." 

She goes into the store, gets a further demonstration of the 
motor, and has it sent out to her house. She leaves proud of 



the possession of the appliance, and without feeling that she has 
been extravagant. The earning power of the future has simply 
been called on to provide something which is going to Le used 
in the future, as well as in the present. 

One Sale Makes Another 

And this suggests another idea. A woman of this kind, who 
is a good housekeeper and is industrious in her household work, 
likes her friends to know of her acquisitions in the line of home 
equipment. You may be sure that any woman who adds a 
motor-driven sewing machine to her possessions is going to let 
her neighbors know all about it, and when they come in to see 
her in the afternoon, she is going to give demonstrations of the 
ease with which the machine may be operated. Driving -a sew- 
ing-machine, while a great improvement over the old days of 
hand-sewing, is nevertheless back-breaking work for a woman, 
and the addition of a motor makes it child's play to most of 
them. Those who hear about the easy terms on which the Blank 
Electric Company has sold the motor will be interested, and 
every sale of this kind will cause a regular procession of in- 
terested inquiries to start in the direction of the store. This is 
the only "chain" proposition the writer knows anything about 
that really gets results. 

An electric washing-machine appeals to the same class of 
customers. The woman who is a little further up in the world 
has servants to take care of her laundry work, and while the 



Hot Weather and Vacations Make These Pieces of "Copy" Timely 




(Courtesy of The Society for Electrical Development) 



ELECTRICAL AGE 



July, 1916 



servant who has influence with her mistress may be able to 
secure the purchase of labor-saving machinery of this kind, it 
is the house-wife herself, who has to wrestle with Blue Monday, 
to whom the idea of installing an electric washing-machine is 
going to make the strongest appeal. 

All of these facts simply emphasize the proposition that un- 
less the dealer has made an arrangement providing for divided 
payments he is not going- to get the business of the people to 
whom he ought to be able to sell the largest number of ap- 
pliances He is cutting himself off from his biggest and surest 
mark if he decides that he will sell for cash, or on open account 
to those who are known to be able to take care of their obliga- 
tions, even to a substantial amount. 

As a straight business proposition, therefore, the electrical 
concern which is endeavoring to work up appliance business 
should study the club plan, which has proven so successful in 
other lines. One feature of this idea, which distinguishes it 
from the instalment plan, is that while the latter involves an 
increase in the price as compared with the cash question, to 
cover the cost of bookkeeping and collection, the club price is 
usually the same, but a small percentage of the price, usually (j 
per cent., is charged when the account is opened. The customer 
would rather pay this in the form of a club fee, it has been 
found, than to feel that she is being asked to pay more than 



the cash customer. She feels ' that under the latter plan she 
is being discriminated against, while the club idea is rather at- 
tractive than otherwise. 

A book is usually issued to the club member, who is informed 
regarding the dates of payments, and in practically all cases 
these are made without effort on the part of the dealer. The 
sort of people who are appealed to by the club plan do not need 
to have collectors sent after them, but mailing a notice that the 
payment is due will usually result either in a personal call with 
the book and the amount due, or the book is mailed in and 
the payment made by check. 

It should be added that many young married people buy most 
of their house furnishings in this way, and their purchasing 
capacity is immensely increased by the convenience with which 
good merchandise may be acquired through the use of the club 
plan. If they have to pay cash, they buy little, and the little 
they buy is generally of inferior quality, whereas on the club 
plan they get good stuff at corresponding prices. Mrs. Newly- 
wed is thus a good prospect for an electric toaster, electric 
percolator, electric curling-iron, electric vacuum cleaner and 
other goods — including electric fans — which she might hesitate 
to purchase if she had to pay cash. 

All in all, the club plan is the dealer's best bet, and it is up to 
him to make use of it. 




Above — New York Harbor 
At Left — Athens, Georgia 
(Courtesy The Doherty 
News) 



Great interest throughout the country is being taken in the - 
project of flood-lighting the Statue of Liberty in New York 
Harbor. On a recent evening Miss Lil. Hodgson, said to be 
the most beautiful girl in Athens, Georgia, posed in costume 
on the top of the Court House in her home city. Spot-light- 
ing effects were produced by projectors installed on the roof. 

H$» <g> $ 

Cans^g of Failure im Slcctitcal Evtincss 

By a Jobber 

There never has been a gathering of electrical men in 
which the subject of the remarkable "death rate" in the 
business has not been discussed. Many reasons have been 
advanced for this mortality, but as yet no remedy which will 
lessen it to any appreciable extent has been found. 

Having handled dealers' lists for some time and having 
been on the "firing line" myself, I have had occasion to inves- 
tigate the subject rather thoroughly. In my opinion the 
more important reasons for the disappearance of so many 
new ones are: 

I. — The electrician's lack of knowledge of the fundamentals 
of the business. 

2. — The presence of so many "floaters." 

3. — Unintelligent competition on the part of the electrical 
contractors. 

4. — Unfair competition between central stations and con- 
tractors. 

The lack of practical knowledge on the part of the man in 
the field is almost appalling. This is evident from the results 
of license-board examinations which under the new building 
code of New York City, every contractor and electrician who 
does electrical wiring work must pass. In order to qualify 
for licenses the applicants must obtain a mark of 70 or over 
on their answers to the questions asked. Unlike the pro- 
visions of other state and city electrical license laws, the 
New York ordinance allows no exemptions from examina- 
tions on the point of mere experience in electrical work. 
Since this ordinance went into effect last October, the board 
has received over 3,000 applications for examination and has 
granted a trifle over 1,700 licenses. Over 40 per cent, of the 
men taking the examinations, therefore, were found unfit. 

Not being permitted to practice' in New York, the man 
who fails there often drifts to another city where the rules 



July, 1916 



ELECTRICAL AGE 



53 



are not so strict and opens a small shop where he im- 
mediately commences to cut prices right and left in order 
to secure work. This is, of course, in direct competition 
with the established firms who have, after consistent and 
modern business methods, brought prices up to a good aver- 
age. Though he gets along for a while at the expense of the 
first-class contractors, he soon realizes that with material 
high in price, work not too plentiful at the start, and not 
enough capital, he cannot withstand a period of temporary- 
idleness, the journeyman-contractor is soon forced to give up 
his shop and to become a job hunter. That is one of the 
kinds that makes up the class familiarly known as "floaters." 
Another is the electrician's helper who is anxious to go into 
business for himself. While talking with a well-known elec- 
trical contractor the other day, he said that "almost every 
ten-dollar-a-week helper with enough pride in him who can 
afford to have 500 letterheads and cards printed, adds the 
words "electric company" to his name and solicits business." 
These helpers in most cases find the cost of carrying on 
their business much higher than they had anticipated, and it 
isn't very long before they are again looking over the "help 
wanted" columns of the newspapers in search of positions. 

"Knifing" by Competitors 

Another reason for the great number of contractors going 
out of business, which, to a certain extent is an outgrowth of 
the two cases mentioned above, is unintelligent competition 
among the dealers. 

When a man is ready to have his house wired, he calls in 
an electrician and asks for an estimate. Several days later he 
calls another one and says, "John Jones will wire my home 
for $75.00." Then Bill Smith, the man he has just called in, 
says, "well, if John Jones can do it for $75.00, I'll do it for 
$60.00." And so whoever the electrician is who puts in the 
lowest bid, gets the contract and does the work, although he 
didn't even figure out what his cost might be. After the 
job is completed and his bills are settled, the contractor finds 
that instead of making the profit he had counted on, he has 
made barely enough to pay for the fixtures, the other ma- 
terial, and the help, and is indeed lucky if he hasn't lost 
money on the transaction. 

When Bill Smith "estimated" on the job he didn't take 
into consideration the fact that in figuring, John Jones rea- 
lized that the work could not be done at a profit for less 
than $75.00. And so the man who got the job came out on 
the wrong side of the ledger. This is true even in cases 
where large contracts are given out. — I have often heard an 
electrician say, "it was a big job, but it didn't pay." 

Central-Station Competition 
Another thing which contributes to the fact that so many 
contractors go out of business is the unfair competition of 
the electric service companies with them. The main idea of 
the electric company in any locality is to sell current. In 
order to get the people of the city to use more current, the 
company offers for sale, at practically cost prices, electrical 
appliances — toasters, vacuum cleaners, irons, etc., all of 
which aid in running up the monthly bill. When the ser- 
vice station heavily advertises and sell a $4.25 toaster at 
$3.19, the contractor who handles this article has little 
chance to get the public to trade at his store for such 
merchandise. There is an illuminating company in the east 
which offers each month as a "special" some appliance at a 
trifle more than half the retail price. The electrical dealers 
in this city have all suffered considerably on this account, 
in their business not only on appliances, but on fixtures, 
wiring, and other branches of their work. In the face of 
such competition, which ranges especially in the smaller 
towns, the electrician has little opportunity to get the "ex- 
tras" which follow a wiring job. This added to the other 
causes does its share in forcing the contractor to the wall. 
From experience in the field and conversations with elec- 



tricians, I believe that the most logical remedies would be 
first, the passage of a law somewhat similar to the New 
York City ordinance, making the qualifications for an elec- 
trician's license the same throughout the country. 

Under such a regulation, every man practicing as an elec- 
trician would be qualified to take on responsible electrical 
work, and this would aid considerably in doing away with the 
first two causes mentioned in this article. Practically all the 
men who have passed the New York examination are making 
good progress as electrical contractors, because they came 
up to certain high standards. 

We would recommend, secondly, the organization of as- 
sociations of the smaller dealers. There are some associa- 
tions in the country now but they do not really benefit the 
electrical contractors. They benefit the central stations, for 
they are practically run by them. With the coming of com- 
munity organizations the associations could take up matters 
intelligently for the betterment of "the man in the over- 
alls," and could force the appliance manufacturers ip give the 
small electrical man protection in regard to prices on their 
material — something which has up to this time enabled the 
service stations to greatly undersell the contractors. Such 
associations would also aid in ridding the field of unprofitable 
competition, for they would show the electricians the folly of 
underbidding to get a job. 

* * * 

Business Office Tot CSaarity gales 

Following the successful work of Manager Coffy of the Ever- 
ett, Washington, Gas Company, in inducing benevolent organiza- 
tions to hold sales in the company's business office, the Louis- 
ville Gas & Electric Company, of Louisville, Ky., has sent out 
circulars to many local churches, hospitals, societies, etc. The 
company offers to install in its office a gas range and any other 
gas or electric appliances which may be necessary, and to fur- 
nish the use of the space and facilities, and the services of a 
porter without charge. 



* 



* 



Leaves Independent Telephone Field 

The Western Electric Company has withdrawn its sales- 
men from the Independent telephone field. Shortage in raw 
materials is given as the reason for the company's unwillingness 
to seek new telephone business; orders received from Bell 
and Independent customers will have the same attention as 
formerly. The Western Electric's activity as a jobber of 
other lines of electrical merchandise will, of course be un- 
affected. 

* * 4» 

A contract for fifty-four ranges to be installed in the Im- 
perial Arms Apartment at Portland, Ore., has just been se- 
cured by the Hughes Electric Heating Company, Chicago, 
111. The ranges sold are of two types, namely, forty-two 
of the C-4 type and twelve of the No. 50 type, the latter be- 
ing placed in the higher-priced apartments and the plainer 
ranges being used for the others. These ranges will repre- 
sent a connected load of 317 kw. This is to be one of the 
largest apartment houses in Portland to be equipped for 
electric cooking, taking service from the lines of the Portland 
Railway, Light & Power Company. 

* * * 

A motion picture devoted to the electric washing machine and 
iron has made its appearance under the attractive title "The 
Education of Mrs. Drudge." This film devotes its 1,000 feet 
to show how a woman shackled to the old fashioned wash tub 
is emancipated and made happy by the purchase of an electric 
washing machine and iron. The picture has been produced by the 
Western Electric Company and is furnished to central stations 
and electrical dealers to further their sales of the commodities 
shown. The reels are in big demand and are well received 
wherever shown. Western electric offices are booking them for 
advance production. 



54 ELECTRICAL AGE 

Imwmmwmml H^pJMS at mm of Electric Ci 



July, 1916 



D&a 



JL JL EDmpg^ 



This paper was presented at the recent Convention 
of the Southwestern Gas & Electric Association. Mr. 
Dupree is manager of the Electric Appliance De- 
partment of the Corpus Christi, Texas, Railway and 
Light Company. 

The first move in utilizing electric current for cooking 
and heating is to induce the public to realize the advantages 
of electricity over all other methods. This has to be ac- 
complished by much "missionary work," demonstrations and 
judicious advertising. 

When the writer began to introduce electric ranges to the 
customers of the Corpus Christi Railway and Light Company, 
among the first questions asked was, "Docs electricity actu- 
ally cook as well as other fuels?" It was no small task to 
establish the fact that it does. We answered that question 
by making a proposition of a thirty-day trial, stating that if, 
at the end of that period, cooking electrically had proven 
unsuccessful, we would remove the range. This plan sold 
several ranges. After a number had been in use for one or 
two months, interest in electric cooking began to increase, 
and then we were confronted with the greatest problem 
with which all central stations engaged in selling electric 
ranges will have to deal, that is, the question of rates. When 
approached on the subject of cooking with electricity, the 
prospect would say, "Yes, I know electric cooking in clean 
and safe; but isn't it very expensive?" 

When we began our cooking campaign, we made a rate 
of s l / 2 cents per K. W. H., with a minimum monthly bill of 
$4.00, which was perhaps "discriminatory," as our initial 
power rate is 6 cents per K. W. H. 

We found that some families were able to cook for an 
amount very near the minimum, while others used as much 
as 400 K. W. H. per month, and the big users were the 
most extensive advertisers of electric cooking; but, un- 
fortunately, the advertising they did was not the kind we 
wanted. 

Not Expensive if Carefully Operated 

As an illustration of this: Two next-door neighbors were 
each sold a range on thirty days' trial. After the ranges 
were installed we instructed both housewives in their use, 
and endeavored to make clear to them the economical way 
of operating the ranges. Both users were enthusiastic over 
the way cooking could be done on the electric range, and 
told us of the perfection accomplished in making fruit cake, 
roasting turkey, etc. Both employed servants to do the cook- 
ing, but one housewife gave her personal attention to the pre- 
paration of all meals. These respective servants were both 
Mexican girls. This, in passing, is of particular interest in 
this locality, for the reason that some have been doubtful 
of the possibility of training servants to efficiently operate 
electric ranges. We found, in watching these installations, 
that after the food was removed from the range, in one 
household the residual heat was utilized for heating water 
for the dishwashing, and in the other case a kettle of water 
was kept boiling on the range at all times during any cooking 
operation. Attention was tactfully railed to this, and the 
method of makinp use of residual heat was suggested, but 
notwithstanding, at the expiration of the thirty days the 
meter reading in this ease was 345 K \V H, and the other 
meter for the same period read 131 K. W. H. Attention is 
called to the fart that these ranges were both of the same 
make and size. 



Needless to state, the customer whose current consump- 
tion was the lower accepted the range and sent his check 
covering the purchase price of same, together with the 
amount for current used, expressing himself as being well 
satisfied in every way regarding the excellent performance 
of the range, and also with the amount of his bill for current 
consumed. The other man wrote a letter asking us to re- 
move the range, stating that they could not keep it because 
the current consumption was too great; outside of that they 
thought the stove was very "nice." We then offered to ex- 
tend the trial for another thirty days, with the services of our 
demonstrator, stating that considerable current had undoubt- 
edly^been used in becoming acquainted with the working of 
the range, and that we were thoroughly convinced that cook- 
ing with electricity was by no means extravagant when the 
range was properly operated. He replied that no amount of 
argument could convince him that electricity was a practical 
fuel, and that if he or his wife should have to watch the 
cooking and resort to all sorts of devices to economize cur- 
rent, that the electric range ceased to be a convenience and 
defeated the very object for which it was installed. 

This case, we believe, is an exception, however, for we have 
found that in most instances users of electric ranges are will- 
ing and eager to follow instructions enabling them to pro- 
duce the best results with the minimum amount of current 
consumption. 

Ordinary cooking usually in itself requires comparatively 
small current consumption. In our experience, the current 
wasted in water heating is a large portion of the total amount 
used by the consumer. This suggested the installation of an 
auxiliary water heater. In one instance where this was done, 
the customer's consumption dropped from 103 kw-hr. to 65 
kw.hr. for the succeeding month. 

Consumers Give Data on Usage 

Several of our customers have given us the benefit of their 
experience in cooking certain foods, even calling us over the 
telephone to tell of some particular success and how it was 
accomplished. One customer found that cooking rice and 
other cereals in the oven rendered the food more palatable 
than when cooked by the ordinary use of the hot plate 
burners. Another found that bread could be baked in the 
oven with the current turned on at full heat for only fifteen 
minutes, the cooking being continued by stored heat after the 
current was turned off altogether. 

Tests of cooking various foods made in a laboratory, com- 
paring the amount of electricity in watt hours to units re- 
quired of other fuels, have not the same practical value af- 
forded by actual experience. However, these laboratory 
tests should not be discredited, for they furnish a working 
basis which can govern the practical operation of nearly all 
types of electric ranges. 

Different makes of ranges, in actual practice, will not give 
the same absolute results, hence no arbitrary rule can apply, 
determining in exact watt hours the amount of current to be 
expended in cooking certain articles of food, which will hold 
true for every type of range. The General Manager of our 
Company has determined that for every pound of roast beef 
cooked in a certain make and type of range, it requires the 
expenditure of .25 kilowatt hours; nevertheless, this need not 
be an exact rule in operating other types of electric ovens. 

The writer has found by actual test in his own home that 
four large loaves of bread can be baked in one make of elec- 



July, 1916 



ELECTRICAL AGE 



trie fireless cooker, with an expenditure of 450 watt hours, 
but this does not imply that the same results can be produced 
with a like expenditure of current in every type of electric 
fireless cooker. 

Therefore, practice is necessary to acquaint the customer 
with his particular installation of electric cooking apparatus, 
and no set code of rules regarding length of time for every 
cooking operation should he be expected to follow. 
Schedules for Cooking and Water Heating 

Not without experience dearly bought, and with undoubt- 
edly a great deal more yet to be gained, have we advanced 
thus far in the use of electricity for cooking. After exhaus- 
tive experiments in selling ranges and in an effort to obtain 
a rate which would be both satisfactory to the company and 
to the consumer alike, we finally adopted a plan of selling 
ranges at list prices, making no additional charge for wiring 
and connecting same, and the rate we have finally adopted 
for electric cooking has been successfully employed in the 
Eastern States. It is termed a flat demand rate. Consumer 
is charged at the rate of $2.00 per kilowatt, according to his 
"active load," or "rate of taking." Sixty per cent, of the 
connected load, we find, is sufficient under ordinary condi- 
tions to operate an electric range for an average size family. 
We contract to supply current for a year for cooking and 
heating water, holding ourselves in readiness to serve an 
amount equivalent to or above his active load, making the 
charge for service according to his rate of taking. For ex- 
ample, should his active demand be 2 kilowatts, he pays a 
flat rate of $4.00 per month. Should he use current in ex- 
cess of his rate of taking, this current is charged to consumer 
in addition to his amount of flat rate. This plan does not 
conflict with our power rate, hence no cause for complaint 
from a motor user that discrimination is being made in the 
sale of electricity for cooking and water heating. A number 
of water heaters have been installed by consumers who have 
ranges. Formerly current supplied for water heating was 
sold at a rate per kilowatt hour; we are now allowing the 
use of a 2 kilowatt water heater in conjunction with a 
range, for $1,000 per month, in addition to the demand 
rate on the range, installing a double throw switch which al- 
lows the use of either the range or the water heater separate- 
ly as desired, meaning that both cannot be operated at the 
same time. 

Types of Water Heaters 

We have found the immersion type water heater very effi- 
cient when installed according to our specifications, which 
comprise a 10 or 15-gallon tank, usually covered with asbes- 
tos insulation and the water connection made in a manner 
which permits a limited quantity of hot water being drawn 
within one minute after current is turned on. By this method 
enough water for a bath can be heated in less than fifteen 
minutes. 

We encourage the use of the immersion type water heater 
for the reason that it is more direct in its action than other 
types and quicker results are obtained. For a like reason 
we encourage the use of the open-coil type range, believing 
that it is best suited to the use of a people who have long 
been accustomed to seeing evidence of the heat used in cook- 
ing, and as the burners of this type are, so to speak, "self- 
indicating," this inherent quality facilitates any cooking opera- 
tions, eliminating the necessity of having to notice the indi- 
cations of the three-heat snap switch which is generally sup- 
plied on all ranges, reading, "Full," "Medium," "Low" and 
"Off." This self-indicating feature of the heating elements 
also renders the range especially adapted to the use of illiter- 
ate servants. 

We are of the opinion that a demand rate cannot success- 
fully be applied to current used for air-heating. White cur- 
rent so utilized is in a large measure an off-peak load, the 
demand is practically constant during all hours of the day; 
whereas, the time demand for current used in cooking and 



water heating is limited. Our cooking rate is based on the 
fact that during off-peak hours there is available a surplus 
amount of current, necessitating no appreciable increase in 
fuel consumption under our boilers. In fact, a slight varia- 
tion in load will not require the readjustment of the oil burn- 
ers. This surplus is, of course, greater or smaller according 
to the capacity of the central station's generating units. 
This enables us to proportion to each consumer, for cooking 
purposes, a relatively small part of the surplus, pro-rating 
the charge accordingly. 

A Drug-Store User 
One drug store makes its hot drinks with electricity, cook- 
ing chocolate on an electric hot plate rated at 880 watts 
keeping it hot in an urn such as is used by restaurants and 
soda fountains, to which has been attached a 660-watt im- 
mersion water heater arranged in a manner causing the water 
to circulate, bringing the three quarts of water, which is the 
content of the water jacket, from ordinary faucet temperature 
of around 60 degrees, to the boiling point, within about 
thirty minutes, the current being turned on and off from time 
to time, maintaining a temperature near 212 degrees Fahr. 
The proprietor states that electricity in this case is cheap- 
er than any fuel formerly used for this purpose. 

Heating the Store Electrically 

This store has two radiators which take current through 
the same meter, and which together are rated at 2,100 watts. 
One is a luminous and the other a radiant type. These are 
used without auxiliary means for heating the store. The fol- 
lowing shows the current consumption of this installation: 
Month: K. W. H. 

December 219 

January 326 

February 293 

March 100 

From this it is evident that a flat rate for current used 
for air heating, however remunerative to the company, would 
not satisfy the consumer. A flat rate charge for air heating 
could not in our opinion prove satisfactory, particularly in 
this climate, where the consumer would be averse to signing 
a year's contract for current supply. The period of cold 
weather here is of such short duration that the charge for 
current furnished for air heating service, made on a flat rate 
basis, would be impracticable. We have a few customers 
who use electricity as their only means for air heating; 
this current is registered in kilowatt hours and sold at the 
power rate. 

The stage of electric cooking of to-day may be compared 
with the stage of telephone of twenty-five years ago, when 
the business was obtained by much hard work and in the 
face of many difficulties. The telephone, to-day, is ranked 
as a necessity, and just so do we believe electric cooking will 
be considered within the near future. 

A big field is being opened to the central station for the 
sale of its product, and the prospects seem inviting. Let us 
work to make cooking with electricity the method house- 
wives will recognize as the accepted standard. 

* * <* 

Movement to Honor Iswesator o2 Electro- 

saagsaet 

Progress is being made in the effort to raise $30,000 with 
which to erect a granite and bronze monument to Prof. Jos- 
eph Henry, inventor of the electro-magnet. The monument 
will grace the little swarded and shaded park fronting the 
Albany (N. Y.) Academy where Professor Henry taught 
during the years of his experiments, 1827-1831. A general 
committee of which Prof. Henry P. Warren, headmaster of 
the Albany Academy, is chairman, is engaged in interesting 
local professional and business men to the extent of making 
contributions to the extent of $15,000; Prof. M. I. Pupin has 
volunteered to raise the balance. 



Ill 



IIP 'If 



New Prodncl 




W IO 



A Mosmttal^ M<bw^.®w ®f Sf ®w M^jpmsmtm^ lE^wa^w&mmt naatffl gp®<siiiMti«ss ®S l£m©wn Value 



UlaiitffiG 3L@Mi@sa U^pa©©^©!? 

The electrically operated fruit juice extractor illustrated, has 
recently bee developed by Thomas Mills & Bros. Company, of 
Philadelphia, Pa. This outfit is suitable for restaurants, soda 

fountains and other places 
where it is necessary to ex- 
tract the juice from large 
numbers of lemons or oranges. 
It consists of a motor driven 
hemisphere provided with ribs 
similar to the ordinary hand 
operated glass extractor. The 
lemon or orange is halved and 
held against this semispherical 
part. The juice is caught in a 
reflector at the back and runs 
down through a spout at the 
bottom. A clamp is provided 
for attaching the outfit to a 
table or counter and a ring is 
attached below the spout to 
support the glass. The outfit 
is equipped with a i/io horse- 
power universal A.C.-D.C, 
3,000 r. p. m. motor made by 
The Robbins & Myers Com- 
pany, Springfield, Ohio. 
* * ♦> 

ys&elite St® acta© g IPwdl LigSatts 

The steady headlight illumination that Ford drivers al- 
ways have wanted is available now at low cost by the use of 
a specially designed transformer, the "Waynelite." It has 
been impossible to get this kind of light on the Fords as 
electrically equipped at the Factory because the current sup- 
plied by the magneto naturally varies with the motor speed. 
The revolutions of the motor are influenced by every factor 
of the constantly shifting motor load and the driver's man- 




5WITCH 



® 



MAGNETO 




LAMPS 

Or-Ch 



GROUND 



ipulation of the control levers. At low speeds on high gear 
when bad roads, danger or congested traffic emphasized the 
need of a bright light it was not to be had. The magneto 
did not turn over fast enough to supply the necessary cur- 
rent. Not until the motor speed approximated 12 miles per 



hour was the light really useful. With the higher speeds the 
illumination was unnecessarily bright, lamps were frequently 
burned out and their lives shortened in any event. 

The "Waynelite" is a small transformer, perfected by the 
General Electric Company. It receives current from the 
magneto included in the motor and delivers current to the 
headlight lamps which are wired in multiple instead of in 
series as is the Ford factory practice. With the series wir- 
ing if either lamp fails, both go out, to the driver's annoyance 
and perhaps peril. This is prevented by the multiple wiring 
of the new method. Installation is simple. The only 
changes from "standard equipment" of the Ford are adding 
the transformer, partial rewiring and substitution of 6 volt 
lamps for those of 9 volts supplied on the Ford. From 
magneto to switch the wiring is unchanged. At the switch 
the present headlight wire is attached to one of the "magneto 
terminals of the transformer while the other "magneto ter- 
minal" is grounded to the engine frame. A pair of wires 
lead from the two terminals on the "lamp side" of the 
"Waynelight." Each wire is connected to one side of each 
headlight. The replacement of lamps should be made with 
the Mazda B, G 16^2, 6-8 volt 15 candle power double con- 
tact bayonet base lamp or the Mazda C, G 12, 6-8 volts 21 
candle power lamps. This recommendation is made because 
the G i6>4 conforms with the present size Ford lamp. The 
over all dimensions of the transformer are: 2>Va inches wide, 
Z%, inches high and 4% inches deep. As it is practically 
water-proof it may be placed on the dash or under the hood 
or floor boards with perfect assurance that it will operate at 
all time desired. "Waynelite" transformers to be sold at 
retail for $4.00. 

▼ V *t* 



For use as a simple and inexpensive method of starting rotary 
converters from the direct-current end and direct-current motors 
of large capacity having starting conditions that will permit cut- 
ting out the starting resistance in four steps, the Westinghouse 
Electric & Mfg. Co., East Pittsburgh, Pa., has developed a line 




of motor starting knife switches of which the one illustrated is 
typical. These switches are for use on circuits up to 600 volts, 
and are made in two types for starting capacities from 300 to 
3600 amperes. They are intended for starting conditions only, 
being rated in terms of the starting current. They will, how- 
ever, carry one-fourth their rated current continuously. Unless 
the full-load current is only one-fourth of the starting current 
rating, a short-circuiting line switch or circuit-breaker should 
be used to carry the running load. 

These motor-starting switches have four sets of contacts of 
such length that the switch blade makes contact with each set 



July, 191 6 



ELECTRICAL AGE 



57 



in succession. Each switch has four blades, a construction that 
allows of ample ventilation and reduces the depth of the switch 
from the switchboard. 

To prevent large machines from being started too quickly by 
throwing the switch through all the positions without stopping 
on any one position, a ratchet device is provided on the switches 
for starting capacities of from 1200 to 3600 amperes. This de- 
vice has a stop for each position, and it is necessary to release 
this stop before passing to the next position, thus insuring that 
the machine being started has time to accelerate as the resistance 
is cut out. 

These switches are furnished with terminal lugs and are ar- 
ranged for mounting on panels of from 1% to 2 inches thick. 

*> ♦:♦ «|» 

The Wrltespre^s 

The only practicable method of reaching a large number of 
prospective customers at a reasonable cost is through form let- 
ters. It has long been well known that the principal difficulty 
encountered in making these pass as personal is in putting on 
the names and addresses. Formerly two operations were neces- 
sary and if a personal signature was to be added, a third opera- 
tion was required. 




In any process requiring two operations, variations almost 
insurmountable are encountered. These variations are in color 
and shade of machine and matching ribbons — pressure of ma- 
chine and touch of operator filling in — difference in exhaustion 
of ribbons, and in copying from lists of cards, errors in spelling 
or addressing occur and at least half of the labor cost is in 
filling in and addressing envelopes. A new machine has been 
designed to provide for these things. The body or form portion 
of the letter is set up in type made to exactly reproduce type- 
writing, in interchangeable chases or forms. 

Name plates or address plates containing card indexes are 
set up in type having exactly the same face as the type in the 
set form — for convenience this type is cast on a short body to 
save space and to permit assembling in the name plates but it 
is cast in the same face molds as the body type. 

In action, the name plates are successively fed by the move- 
ment of the machine into position in the bed of the machine and 
one letter after another is printed, each containing a different 



name and address. Inasmuch as the form and the nai e and 
address are absolutely the same, both printed at one stroke 
through the same ribbon and by the same pressure, all variation 
is eliminated and as one operator can turn out 600 to 800 letters 
per hour, practically all of the expense of filling in is saved. 
All chance of error in spelling or addressing is eliminated and 
form letters that receive the same attention as letters typed one 
at a time are obtained. 

The model illustrated is motor-driven and has automatic feed 
for address plates. This makes it suitable for addressing cus- 
tomers' bills. The name-plates are of sheet-metal, with slots 
which hold the type. It is thus a simple matter to change names 
or addresses without re-making the plate. Enough space on the 
plate is provided for a card on which the name is printed, and 
which may carry other information of use either for follow-up 
work or concerning the customer's account. 

The chase which holds the type for the body of the letter will 
also take ordinary type, so that forms, letter-heads, diagrams, 
handbook sheets, etc. Thus the owner of one of these devices 
has practically a complete printing-plant at his disposal. 

* ♦ ♦ 

A Strain Insulator for High Voltages 

Identical metal electrodes at the top and bottom of a new strain 
insulator are claimed to produce a very desirable balancing of 
the electrostatic fields through and over the dielectric. The 
dielectric thickness is 2]/^ in., which is claimed to be much great- 
er than that of any other single-piece unit now in use and the 
stress on the porcelain under all operating conditions is said to 
be correspondingly lower than on the thinner types. The usual 
rigid malleable-iron caps and solid pins are replaced by two 
spider-shaped caps, the legs of which are set into the porcelain 




to a depth of 1 in. on the upper and lower sides of the insulator. 
Each leg is cast with a foot ; by giving the cap a slight turn 
after placing in the holes provided in the insulator, these feet 
clamp into the porcelain and the space around the legs is filled 
with a special alloy similar to that used in die casting. No 
cement is used on the insulator. This alloy, as applied, does not 
shrink away from the porcelain, and has a very low coefficient of 
expansion. It is asserted that the insulator can be plunged from 
boiling to ice water without harm. The flexibility of the legs 
prevents expansion and contraction strains on the porcelain, and 
this construction is intended to absorb shocks and distribute the 
tensile strain uniformly. 

The ultimate mechanical strength of the insulators is claimed 
to be from 8,000 to 10,000 lbs., and the electrical properties are 
said not to be affected in the least up to the full breaking strain, 
the electrical and mechanical strains occurring at entirely dif- 
ferent parts of the porcelain. 

Authorities have proved that insulating materials gradually 
fail under stresses which cause corona. The critical stress varies 
with the specific inductive capacity of the material, and for por- 
celain, the safe potential gradient is about 40,000 volts per inch 
of thickness. Tests of this insulator have shown that on both 
normal and high frequency, corona is avoided up to 90,000 volts 
and even 110,000 volts, due to the unusual thickness of dielectric. 
It is also claimed that the balanced field is very important in 
securing the full value of the insulating material. 



58 



ELECTRICAL AGE 



July, 1916 



©impilsss Haceiter Itets 

One of the most important pieces of apparatus in the power 
plant is the exciter. The exciter bears to the main generator the 
same relation that the boiler feed pump does to the boiler. A 
failure of exciting current means immediate failure of the main 
units, so that reliability in this piece of apparatus is of para- 
mount importance. From the standpoint of reliability, the ideal 
exciter drive is a steam drive, as the boiler is usually the last 
piece of apparatus in a power house to go out of commission. 

For steam-driven exciters the turbine has proved to be much 
more reliable and flexible than the reciprocating engine. Fur- 
thermore, the maintenance cost is very much less. For obvious 
reasons small turbine exciter sets are run non-condensing and 
where. the load characteristics of the station are such that all 




the exhaust steam can be used in the heater, this makes a most 
economical proposition. There are many stations, however, where 
the load-factor is low and all the exhaust steam from the ex- 
citer cannot be used. This results in a direct loss by blowing 
off steam from the heater. 

From an economical standpoint, therefore, the motor driven 
exciter is well often more efficient than a steam-drive. The 
serious objection to this type of auxiliary, however, is that 
when anything happens to interrupt the current supply to the 
exciter motor, the excitation is immediately lost, and the main 
unit is out of commission until some auxiliary exciter can be 
started up. 

Duplex exciter sets, combine all advantages of a motor-driven 
exciter with the reliability of the steam-driven exciter. These 
sets consist of an exciter-generator coupled to a motor at one 
end, and to a steam . turbine at the other end. For normal 
operation the set runs as a motor-generator set. Should anything 
happen to interrupt the supply of current to t he motor, or 
should anything happen to the motor itself, the seed will drop 
slightly, the governor of the turbine will immediately take 
hold, and the machine from then on runs as a direct-connected 
turbo-exciter set. The action of the special governor that is 
fitted to these sets is so sensitive that when the switch controlling 
the motor is pulled, the turbine will instantly take hold of the 
load without any appreciable fluctuation in voltage. 

The turbine governor is also fitted with a speed-changing de- 
vice that is used during normal operation to divide the load 
between the turbine and the motor, so that the unit can be 
operated at its maximum efficiency at all times. With this de- 
vice, as the station load increased and with it the demand for 
exhaust steam for the feed water heater, the load can be gradu- 
ally shifted from the motor end to the turbine end. The pro- 
portion of the load carried by the turbine can be varied at 
will from zero to 100 per cent., to supply exactly the amount of 
exhaust steam needed to maintain proper heat balance in the 
heater. 

This device does not affect the operation of the unit under 
emergency conditions. 

The advantages of the duplex exciter are: 

1. It obviates the need for both motor-driven and steam- 
driven exciter sets, such as are now installed in many stations, 
and thereby saves both in first cost and in floor space. 

2. It gives absolute certainty that excitation will not be lost 
as long as there is steam at the turbine. 

3. When anything goes wrong in the station, all available 
help can be used elsewhere, as the exciter set can be depended 
upon to take care of itself. 



4. The set can be driven economically from the turbine 
end when exhaust steam is needed at the heater, and the switch- 
board operator can, without leaving the switchboard, instantly 
shift the drive from motor to turbine. 

5. In normal operation a better all-day efficiency can be ob- 
tained (by shifting the exciter load from the motor-end to the 
turbine-end of the unit as the demand for exhaust steam in- 
creases), than can be attained with either a straight motor drive 
or a straight turbine drive. 

6. The main generating units are relieved from carrying the 
exciter load during peak periods, because during these periods 
turbine drive for the exciter unit is much more efficient than 
motor drive. 

* *• * 

BiSi®^®! 1 f ©f Pesidant Za&mps 

Those whose eyes are troubled by the white light of electric 
incandescent lamps will be glad to know that a diffuser and 
softener has been placed on the market for their benefit. This/ 
is made of pyralin, tinted amber, so as to remove the irritating 
rays at the violet end of the spectrum. The device is conical 
in shape, and is held below the lamp by two wires, as shown in 
the accompanying illustration. The price is 25 cents, and the 
trade-name is "Amberlite." 




The same company manufactures two diffusers for electric 
headlights. The "Simplex" is similar to the "Amberlite," having 
in addition a sheet of pyralin which nearly fills the front of 
the reflector-opening. Another form, the "Melolite," has either 
a green or an orange center, the remainder being a disk of 
frosted pyralin. The price of these devices ranges from 50c to 
$1.50 per pair. 



Mmltlpl® 



lie Djrfl&Msag Machine 



For drilling all the holes in an automobile transmission case 
at one setting the Baush Machine Tool Company, of Spring- 
field, Mass., has perfected the multiple spindle drilling machine 
shown in the accompanying illustration. This machine is 
unique in that there are 46 holes in each transmission case 
and the drilling is done regardless of the fact that some of the 
holes' are on an angle and vary in size from 3-16 to I 11-16 
inch. Each drill runs at the same speed and each group of 
drills has independent feed. 

The machine is operated by a 25-horsepower, 230-volt, 1400 
r.p.m., commutating pole, direct-current, Westinghouse motor, 
through a main driving shaft placed at the rear of the machine, 
connected to the horizontal heads by steel gears and cloth pin- 
ions, and connected to the vertical head by bevel gears. The 
motor operates equally as well in either direction of rotation 
and can be reversed without changing the position of the brush- 
es. 



July, 1916 



ELECTRICAL AGE 



59 



The bed of the machine is supported on feet, providing ample 
space for cleaning under the machine and preventing the floor 
from becoming water soaked if drilling compound is used. All 
reciprocating parts are enclosed in cast guards, effectually pro- 
tecting the operator from injury. Various spindle speeds are 
obtained through gear reductions encased in oil tight boxes on 
the heads. The spindles are equipped with ball thrust bearings 




and Baush universal ball joints. An improved type of arm 
allows a center distance between holes equal to the diameter 
of spindle. Spindles may be adjusted for different lengths of 
drills by operating but one screw at the outer end of arm. The 
horizontal heads have standard belt driven feed with automatic 
control and quick traverse by hand wheel. Vertical head and 
cluster box slides are automatically controlled by left hand 
head through trip rod and bell crank which operate jaw clutch 
on reversing gears in gear box. These gears control shaft 
operating pinion and racks attached to vertical head and slide. 

In operation the left hand head is brought forward, auto- 
matically engaging feed of vertical head and cluster box slide, 
which travel the required distance and automatically return 
to neutral position. The feed for right and left hand head is 
now engaged by levers. At the same time a spindle on the 
box jig drills the hole. Feed is automatically tripped by stops 
and heads return to neutral position, completing operation. 

* 4» * 

An Automatic Lighting Switch for Auto- 
mobiles 

This Automatic Lighting Switch combines the functions of 
a switch and overload circuit breaker and in the latter capac- 
ity takes the place of the usual fuse block. As a protective 

device it is far more re- 
liable than the fuse and 
it gives this protection 
to the electrical system 
with minimum incon- 
venience to the motor- 
ist. The blowing of a 
fuse always causes a 
certain amount of an- 
noyance and inconven- 
ience. Generally the 
fuse blows as a result 
of a momentary, acci- 
dental ground, occur- 
ring while some repair 
or adjustment is being 
made. It is then nec- 
essary to hunt around for the fuse block, which is often 
placed where it is hard to get at, locate the fuse which has 
blown ("which is not always an easy matter) and put in a new 
fuse, providing one is available. With the automatic switch 
installed, all that is necessary in order to re-establish the 
circuit is to push a button. In a new line of these switches 
we have incorporated the device with the lighting switch, 
the combination requiring no more space on the instrument 




board than the usual lighting switch. The circuit breaker is 
operated by means of a push button which normally is flush 
with the face plate, but when the circuit breaker opens, the 
button projects slightly, as shown in the figure and thus 
positively indicates the open circuit condition. 

The lighting switch is operated by means of a key. Where 
double bulb headlamps are used, a turn to the left lights the 
small bulbs and tail lamp. A turn to the right lights the 
large bulbs and tail lamp. In like manner where a dimmer 
is used, a turn to the left connects through the dimmer coil, 
which is mounted on the switch base. Turning the key to 
the right gives the full candle power of the headlamp bulbs. 
The key can be withdrawn in either of these positions, there- 
by preventing any tampering with the lights in the owner's 
absence. This switch lists at $3.00 without the dimmer-coil. 

* ♦ ♦ 

The LUiput Arc Lamp 

This portable lighting unit for motion picture work has 
recently been brought out by a New York firm. It is designed 
for use in the studio, or away from the studio, wherever an 
artificial light is required for motion pic- 
ture photography. The light is said to be 
identical in quality to daylight. The lamp 
works on either alternating or direct-cur- 
rent, and at pressures from no to 125 
volts. The arm lamp, rheostat, and hood 
are combined into a complete unit. 

The lamp is 33 inches high with the 
stand. It can be adjusted for any normal 
working height. It has two pairs of car- 
bons with automatic feed, and consumes 
15 amperes at no volts. A groove or 
slide is provided on the front of the re- 
flector for a diffusing screen. 

The top carbon holder has a swinging 
joint which permits the carbons to take 
the correct position as soon as the cur- 
rent is applied. All live parts are enclosed 
in the hood. The rheostat is fastened at 
the bottom of the lamp, and acts as a 
base for the lamp when it is used without 
the adjustable stand. Twenty-five feet 
of No. 1 flexible stage cable is supplied 
with the lamp. The total weight of the 
lamp with stand and 25 ft of cable is 
30 lbs. 

♦> * * 

ILarge PM2H®w Usagjiaids 2©r Youngstown 
I>Sa<§<8t usadl Tmlb© Company 

The uniflow engine, as is now generally appreciated, owes its 
efficiency to the reduction of the loss by initial steam conden- 
sation. The ends of the cylinder are not cooled by the rush of 
exhausting steam since this flow occurs at the farthest point 
from the ends, through the ports in the centre of the cylin- 
der, which are uncovered by the piston. The uniflow engine is, 
therefore, suitable for wide temperature ranges. Expansion 
from boiler pressure down to condenser pressure may De car- 
ried out in one cylinder and the engine is found to be equivalent 
in steam economy to a tandem compound engine. 

Although the increase in efficiency is of importance, the pre- 
dominant advantage of the uniflow engine, which is often over- 
looked, is its capacity for extreme overloads with a flat steam 
consumption curve. Tests have shown that 200 per cent, load 
can be carried with only 10 per cent, increase in steam con- 
sumption. The uniflow engine is therefore pre-eminently fitted 
for severely fluctuating loads with high peaks, such as driving a 
rolling mill and similar power services or for electrical loads 
of a fluctuating nature. 

In this country the first uniflow engines for rolling mill 




6o 



ELECTRICAL 



AGE 



July, 1916 



work are those now under construction by the Nordberg Manu- 
facturing Company, Milwaukee, Wisconsin, for the Youngstown 
Sheet & Tube Company, Youngstown, Ohio, the larger to drive 
a 12-inch rod mill, the smaller a 9-inch rod mill. The general 
design of the cylinders is shown by the longitudinal section in 
the figure. The cylinder is a plain cylindrical casting, all valve 
chambers and steam passages being contained in the heads, 
bolted to the ends of the cylinder. This prevents distortion and 
strains due to expansion and contraction with the use of high 
pressures and superheats. The steam valves are of the poppet 
type, the valve cages being separate castings which are ground 
into the heads with a steam tight joint. The valves are of the 
double heat, balanced poppet type and no packing is required for 
the valve stems, which are accurately ground and polished and 
work in ground and lapped bushings. The valves are operated 
from lay shaft by a releasing valve gear with spring dashpots, the 
cut-off being under control of the governor through the wide 
range of loads. The steam enters the cylinder at the bottom, 
sweeping up over the heads and jacketing them before entering 
the valve at the top. The exhaust is through the ports in the 
center of the cylinder uncovered by the piston near the end of 
its stroke. Relief valves of the poppet type with cataract damp- 
ening device are located near the bottom of the heads. In case 
of loss of vacuum and over-compression these valves auto- 




matically open and connect the clearance space of the cylinder 
with the steam space in the head and the communicating steam 
piping. The steam conditions will be approximately 170 lbs. 
pressure, 75 , deg. superheat, and 20 in. vacuum, steam being 
condensed by barometric jet condensers. The larger engine is 
44 by 50 in., no rev. and will have a capacity from 700 hp. to 
between 3,000 and 4,000 hp. The weight, including 110,000 lbs., 
10 ft. flywheel, will be 480,000 lbs. The second engine is a 
37 by 48 in. at no rev. and its weight, including a 90,000-lb. 
flywheel, will be 360,000 lbs. 



A syndicated house organ for central stations known as "The 
Electralogue," in which each company maintains its individuality 
to such an extent that it may be said to be issuing its own house 
organ, has resulted from the general demand among lighting 
companies for this most effective and dignified form of adver- 
tising. The Electralogue aggregates, with cover, forty pages. 
Twenty-four of these are devoted to syndicated reading matter 
consisting of articles gathered from every field of the electrical 
industry and presented in a popular and attractive style. They 
tell what is being done with electric light, heat and power, in both 
the industrial nad domestic fields. The text is primarily sales- 
stimulating, and presented with the human interest element em- 
phasized, thus making a strong appeal to consumers and pros- 
pective consumers of central station service. 

Bound in with these pages are four devoted exclusively to 
reading matter of the subscribing company. Here the central 
station can conduct its own selling campaigns as it sees fit, or 
it can tell in detail the news of the local field. 



J/ie EW*°&Jj}« 




Added to this, a separate cover and an inside cover page ad- 
vertisement is reserved to the subscribing company, completing 
the individual features of the magazine. The remaining ten pages 
are devoted to advertisements of appliance companies, who thus 
canvass the local field for business that is bound to add current 
consuming devices to the central station's lines. 

The same syndicate is planning the issuance of a miniature 
edition of The Electralogue to be used by central stations in 
small communities. In this, too, the subscribing companies may 
maintain their individuality by utilizing special pages for sales 
campaigns and news of interest to the community which they 
serve. The miniature "Electralogue" will make its initial appear- 
ance with an October issue, and will serve, in every respect, 
the same purposes, as the house organ of the larger companies. 
For this edition, the price will be $775 for 250 copies or $25.00 
per thousand completely printed. 

♦♦* 4» 4» 

Jim iUlsBiTle Wslfliimf) la^Mid 



As an instance of the extent to which electric welding can 
be developed, the accompanying illustration of a special spot 
welder is of considerable interest. This welder is used in as- 
sembling a V-i Section in an Eastern plant which makes a 
specialty of pressed steel forms. The fact that the machine is 
wholly automatic in its operation will convey some idea of the 
high degree of mechanical and electrical skill involved in its 
construction. 

Power is delivered through a train of gears from a 2-hp. 
motor mounted on the machine base and operating at 1200 r.p.m. 
The work is run through the machine in 12 ft. lengths, the spot 
welds on each side being automatically made at the same time 



July, 1916 



ELECTRICAL AGE 



61 



and at the rate of 40 per minute. A cam (shown just to the left 
side of the second large gear) operates a ratchet gear (shown 
to the left of the top of the second large gear) which in turn 
operates the friction rollers which carry the section through the 
machine. During the intervals between the ratchet gear move- 




ments, the welding points are brought into contact with the work 
by means of the cam shown between the uprights of the frame 
just below the water hose. The welding points are water-cooled, 
the temperature and flow of the water being indicated in the drip 
cup through which the water passes as it flows from the cooling 
system into the waste pipe. Despite the seeming complication 
of parts the machine is exceedingly simple in working prin- 
ciple, so much so in fact that it would require actual abuse to 
impair its efficiency. The possibility of such abuse is provided 
for by unusual sturdiness of construction and liberal provision 
for emergency overloads. This special machine will take the 
place of several riveting machines which will be utilized for 
work on which electric welding is not economically practical. 

♦ ♦ * 

New Inexpensive Types of Electric 

Ranges 

In many localities the central stations and electric range 
salesmen found that the cost of their standard line was too 
high for certain classes of the inhabitants and that there were 
great sales possibilities in a lower priced range. In accordance 
with this waiting business, a Chicago company is now manufac- 
turing a new line of all black enameled ranges which are much 
lower in cost owing to the omission of fancy nickel plated legs 
and trimmings white enameled splashers and others costly fea- 
tures. Another reason why these ranges can be priced so much 
lower is because their legs are not cast but formed from angle 
iron. 

The lowest priced range of this new line is the "C 18" which 
sells for $39.50. This range has a two-burner cooking surface, 
one unit with a maximum of 1500 watts, the other 880; aiso a 
two-burner oven, each unit having a maximum of 880 watts. 

The highest priced stove of this group is the "C 4" which is of 
the cabinet type and sells for $70.00. It has a three burner 
cooking surface, two burner oven, outside elevated warming shelf 
and outside lower shelf. The maximums of the cooking burn- 



ers are: 1500, 1100 and 880 watts. Of the oven burners: 1100 
watts each. The other types vary in design and capacity between 
the small "C 18" and this larger "C 4." 

♦ ♦ ♦ 

For the private or small garage an electrically driven tire- 
pump is so convenient that it has become almost an essential 
part of the accessory equipment. One model which on account 
of its many good points has been much in demand is illustrated 
herewith. Being small and compact it may readily be installed 
on brackets fastened to the wall, where it will be out of the 
way. The motor, of 1-6 hp., for alternating or direct-current as 
specified, drives the pump through spur gears which are fully 
enclosed and run in an oil bath. This forms a reservoir con- 
taining enough oil to last for several months. The makers 
guarantee that no oil vapor is included in the discharge of 
compressed air. 




Included in the equipment is an 8 ft. lamp cord with attach- 
ment plug, a two-pole snap switch, 15 feet of special hose and 
a gauge to show the pressure in the tire while it is being inflated. 
The price is $50.00 with direct-current motor and $55.00 with 
alternating-current motor. 



@p©t£°Ia&sfiip IDtasner 

The tungsten spot or lens lamp is rapidly replacing the 
ordinary hand- fed arc lamp as a means for portable stage light- 



% 


1 


A Egl |&, 



Fig. 1 



ing. To increase the value of this lamp for this work, the 
Ward Leonard Electric Company of Mount Vernon, N. Y., has 
recently brought out a device called a spot-lamp dimmer. In 
the accompanying illustrations is shown a dimmer designed for 



62 



ELECTRICAL AGE 



July, 1916 



use with 1000-watt tungsten lamps and so constructed that it 
can be mounted on the upright lamp support. All energy-car- 
rying parts of the device are inclosed. The dimmer is com- 
paratively light in weight, has fifty steps of control and will dim 



types are being discarded. It often happens, however, that the 
wiring as originally done has not provided for wall switches 
and heretofore most indirect fixtures did not permit of pull- 
socket or button switches. In this connection an interesting 



a 1000-watt gas-filled lamp from its full candlepower to black- innovation is the new socket illustrated herewith. 




Fig. 2 

ness. In Fig. 1 is shown the inclosing box to which the ter- 
minal leads are carried. The dimmer or rheostat is mounted 
upright on the standard as already noted and the handle moves 
up and down in the slot as shown in Fig. 2. 

+?♦ <& *!+ 



An all-steel case vacuum cleaner which has recently been placed 
on the market though made of pressed steel loses none of 
the flowing lines typical of the ordinary cast aluminum case. Its 
nickel finish absolutely does not discolor 
light colored rugs or fabrics — a decided ad- 
vantage over the aluminum case. The 
pressed steel case permits interior surfaces 
being made absolutely smooth, thus doing 
away with any possibility of lint or dirt 
clinging to these surfaces. 

The vacuum cleaner is equipped with an 
air-cooled motor whose air-cooling system 
is unique. The air is drawn in through 
the top of the motor housing, passes 
through the armature and out at the lower 
edge of housing; this keeps the contact 
brushes free from dirt, eliminates lubricat- 
ing troubles, assures ease of operation, and 
lengthens life of the cleaner. 

Other notable features mentioned are; 
large fan made of pressed steel ; pear- 
shaped handle grip fits palm of hand, and 
locking device on handle keeps it in any de- 
sired position; self-adjusting, stationary 
brush; and adjustable rear roller make it 
an easy matter to keep suction nozzle at 
proper distance from nap of carpet or bare 
floor. The floor wheels, being all rubber 
tired, can not mar the highest polished 
surfaces. The double-lined dust-bag is quickly and easily re- 
movable for emptying. A set of extra attachments is furnished 
at slight additional cost, making the cleaner adaptable to prac- 
tically every house-cleaning operation. 

The new cleaner received a great deal of National and local 
newspaper publicity during the week of July 3rd to 8th, when 
housewives were given an opportunity to purchase at a saving of 
$5.50. The cleaner regularly retails at $25.00. 

* ♦♦♦ <* 

FuM-Gbaln Socket for litfiteeet Fixtures 

The advantages of indirect lighting for certain places are 
generally conceded — in fact this method of illumination has 
become so desirable that many fixtures of other and older 





As will be noted from the illustration, this socket fits snugly 
into the bottom of the bowl and protrudes through it just enough 
to enhance the artistic effect. The socket has the threaded bead 
upon which any diameter of Uno shade holder can be readily 
mounted. The pull chain hanging only the necessary length 
below the fixture provides a most convenient form of local 
control and at the same time does not mar the general artistic 
effect of the design of the fixture. 

This same style of socket can also be used on a side wall 
fixture by attaching it directly to a brass nipple extending from 
the outlet — the length of this nipple being governed entirely by 
the dimensions of the canopy and shade holder used. 

* * * 

A revised discount sheet applying to prices given in their 
catalog has been sent out by the Cutler Hammer Manufacturing 
Company, Milwaukee, Wis., owing to the increase in the cosi 
of materials This discount sheet shows a general rise in prices 
of approximately 10 per cent. For a period of thirty days from 
June 12, 1916, however, bonafide outstanding quotations which 
have been made prior to that date will be protected. 

<* ♦♦« »♦- 
New offices have been established in the Woolworth Building, 
New York City, by the United Battery Corporation. The execu- 
tive offices have been separated from the factory and the manu- 
facturing facilities have been materially increased, it was an- 
nounced by the company. 

♦♦♦ ♦ ♦♦♦ 

The executive departments of the Western Electric Company 
at New York were recently moved from 463 West Street to new 
offices in the Telephone & Telegraph Building at 195 Broadway. 
The move was made necessary by the steady growth of the com- 
pany's engineering departments, which will occupy the space thai 
has been vacated. The local New York distributing department 
and the engineering and patent departments remain at 463 West 
Street. 



raiaiiHiii 






tr^-^j ft 





MATURE 






&. T&lvwft&w ©2 UM(g ILati®st£ IPoaMIcaftft'&ais 



"No Spark" Carbon Brushes manufactured by the Cale- 
baugh Self-Lubricating Carbon Co., of Philadelphia, are 
receiving very complimentary opinions from their users. 



"Duro" Systems for Residence Water Supply where elec- 
tric power is available are described in Bulletins 6 and 7 
by the Burnett-Larsh Mfg. Co., of Dayton, Ohio. 



"One Hundred Condulet Suggestions" is the title of the 
112 page catalog recently published to which attention is 
directed by a folder issued by the Crouse Hinds Company, 
Syracuse, N. Y. 

♦♦♦ ♦♦♦ ♦+♦ 

Various types of air compressors and stationary type 
vacuum-cleaning systems are described in a large general 
catalog which has just been issued by the Blaisdell Machin- 
ery Company, Bradford, Pa. 



The Crocker-Wheeler Company, of Ampere, N. J., have 
prepared a four-page folder descriptive of their nine-inch 
fans. Space is provided on the first page for the dealer's 
imprint. 

♦ •** ♦ 

One-half and one-ton hoists are described in Bulletin 48906 
issued by Sprague Electric Works, New York City. These 
hoists run on a single girder-rail, and make a valuable auxil- 
iary for traveling cranes. Numerous other uses are also 
illustrated. 

4> «$► 4$» 

"Chelten" Electric Specialties are described in a booklet 
issued by the Chelten Electric Company, of Philadelphia. 
Push-button switches, standard and special switch plates, re- 
ceptacles, plugs, indicating receptacles and fuses are describ- 
ed. 

♦ .♦ ♦ 

Treveling Water Screens are described in a booklet just 
issued by the manufacturers, the Chain Belt Company of 
Milwaukee, Wis. These screens are used for removing refuse 
from intake-water, or from factory-waste water. An instal- 
lation at the Northwest Station of the Commonwealth Edison 
Co., Chicago, is illustrated. 

* ♦ ♦ 

Portable direct - reading bond 
testers for electric railways and 
other places are shown in a circular 
just issued by Roller-Smith Com- 
pany, New York City. A new con- 
tact device, shown in the accompany- 
ing cut, is for making contact with 
grooved rails. The contacts are 
broken bits of hacksaw blade, 
which cut through the film of oxide 
on the surface of the rail. Portable 
direct-reading ohmmeters made by 
the same company are described in 
another folder. These instruments, 
on account of their low price and 
ease of manipulation, are particular- 
ly suitable for the use of smaller 
power plants for fault-location work. 




"Beaver" Die Stocks and Pipe Cutters are shown in a book- 
let issued by the Borden Company of Warren, Ohio. The 
operation of the company's "square-end" cutters is illustrated. 

* ♦ ♦ 

Pivot Bucket Conveyors are illustrated in Catalogue 15-4 of 
the C. W. Hunt Company, 61 Broadway, New York City. 
The same firm has also issued recently Catalogue 15-3 de- 
scribing coal and ash gates. 

* ♦> * 

Information on the Model No. 5 cylinder type electric 
washing machine is contained in an illustrated catalog re- 
cently issued by the Crystal Washing Machine Company, De- 
troit, Mich. 

♦♦♦ ♦♦♦ »♦« 

"How to Design Effective Lighting" is Number 6 in the 
Westinghouse Lamp Company's Salesman's Handbook Series. 
It gives a number of practical points in what to seek and 
what to avoid in the design of illumination installations. 

♦> * ♦ 

Exempler Campaign Fixture Sets is the title of a catalog 
issued by Pettingell Andrews Company, Pearl Street and At- 
lantic Avenue, Boston, Mass., which contains information 
on ornamental lighting fixtures. 

* * ♦£ 

Solderless Electrical Connectors made by the Frankel Con- 
nector Co., 117 Hudson St., New York, are shown in great 
variety in a booklet sent out by the makers. Included are 
Frankel sparkplugs and the well-known Frankel test-con- 
nectors. 

* * <* 

The George Cutter Co., of South Bend, Ind., has issued 
is General Catalogue No. 14, listing its line of lighting fix- 
tures and wiring devices. These include street lighting equip- 
ment, pole line material, panel boards and cabinets, switch- 
boards, cut-out boxes and "Cutter" toggle bolts. 

* *t* *?♦ 

The Wm. B. Scaife & Sons Company, Pittsburgh, Pa., have 
issued catalogues of their high-pressure tanks, copper-brazed, 
pneumatic water-supply tanks, hot-water storage tanks, gaso- 
line storage outfits, the various parts of which are included 
in the approved list of fire appliances issued by the National 
Board of Fire Underwriters; motor boat tanks and horizontal 
and vertical galvanized range boilers. 

* * * 

Lightning arresters of various types designed for par- 
ticular classes of service are covered in quite a complete 
manner in the recent publication, Catalogue I-A, issued by 
the Westinghouse Electric & Mfg. Company, entitled "West- 
inghouse Lightning Arresters." A discussion of lightning 
and its effects is given, followed by a discussion of 
the application of lightning arresters for the protection 
of various classes of apparatus, and types to be used with 
each. Following this is given a general description, accom- 
panied by illustrations of the different types of lightning ar- 
resters and accessories manufactured by this company. 



6 4 



ELECTRICAL AGE 



July, iqi6 



&<gtefl21©aSfi©sa ©2 tM@ CMcag®, IBIIlwamBs©® 

{Continued from page 28) 

Switching Locomotives 

The switching locomotives are of the swivel truck 
type, weighing 70 tons each, and equipped with four 
geared motors. A single pantograph of construction 
similar to that used on the main line locomotives is 
mounted on the cab and in other ways the locomo- 
tives represent the standard construction commonly 
used with the steeple cab type of switcher. The mo- 
tors (known as Type GE-255) are of box frame, com- 
mutating-pole, single-geared type designed for 1500 
volts with an insulation of 3,000 volts to the ground. 
Many of the switching locomotive parts are inter- 
changeable with those used on the main line locomo- 
tives ; for example, the air compressors, small switches, 
headlights and cab heaters. 




i°M i\> Ui 



I -I HI- J 33l- 

|J6^- 72"-t— 8-Z'-4- 7Z- 




- il : 6i" —4- 8-6"-l~ 10-0' 
-90-1J' — 



WEIGHT-LOCOMOTIVE aTENDER 555.700 lb 

WEIGHT ON ORIVERS. 324.500 - 

TRACTIVE EFFORT. 76.200" 




I -1X1- ! I >-S2'-l 1-52^ I-52J ' 1-52^ , . ' . -i36> „ 

U-8-t- 6-0'-+-7:i0 -4—10-6' 1 — 11-0 — I— 10-6" 1 — 11-0 — I — 10-6' — I — ittl — k-10-6 U7-J04-6-0-U-8J 



-112- 

WEIGHT-TOTAL 520.000 lb. 

WEIGHT ON DRIVERS .400.000 - 

TRACTIVE EFFORT. 85.000 •• 

CHICAGO. MILWAUKEE & ST, PAUL RAILWAY 
COMPARISON MALLET AND ELECTRIC LOCOMOTIVES 



Other data on the switching locomotives are : 

Length inside knuckles 40 ft. 

Height over cab 13 ft. 10 in. 

Height — trolley down 16 ft. 8 in. 

Width overall 10 ft. 

Total wheel base 29 ft. 4 in. 



Rigid wheel base 8 ft. v 

Diameter of wheels , 40 in. 

Weight — locomotive complete 140,000 lb. 

Weight per driving axle 35,ooo lb. 

One hour rating of locomotive 542 h.p. 

Tractive effort at one hour rating 18,400 lb. 

Speed at this rating 12 m.p.h. 

Continuous tractive effort 13,480 lb. 

Speed at continuous rating 13.2 m.p.h. 

Tractive effort 30% 42,000 lb. 

Regeneration 

Regeneration, or the recovery of energy on the de- 
scending grades, by reversing the function of the elec- 
tric motors reduces the cost of operation and furnishes 
a ready solution of the difficult braking problem. On 
the long sustained grades encountered in crossing the 
three mountain ranges, great skill is required to handle 
either the heavy and varied freight or the high speed 
passenger trains with the usual air brakes. The entire 
energy of the descending train must be dissipated by 
the friction of the brake shoes on the wheels, and it 
approximates 3500 kw. or 4700 h.p. for a 2500 ton train 
running at 17 miles per hour on a two per cent, grade, 
thus explaining why brake shoes frequently become 
red-hot and other serious damage is done. 

With regenerative braking, the motors become gen- 
erators which absorb the energy of the descending 
train and convert it into electricity, thus restricting the 
train to a safe speed down the grade and at the same 
time returning electric power to the trolley for use by 
other trains. The strain on draw bars and couplings 
is reduced to a minimum since the entire train is 
bunched behind the locomotive and held to a uniform 
speed. The electric-braking mechanism automatically 
controls the speed by regulating the amount to the 
periodical slowing down and speeding up of a train 
controlled by air brakes. 

The usual speed of the electrically hauled train is 15 
miles per hour ascending and 17 miles per hour de- 
scending the maximum grade, but half these speeds 
can easily be maintained with series connections of the 
motors should conditions require it. 



-'*■•• 







An 82-car Freight Train Weighing 2680 tons 



July, 1916 



ELECTRICAL AGE 



In case there are no other trains between the sub- 
stations to absorb the power generated by a descend- 
ing train, this power passes through the substation ma- 
chinery, is converted from direct to alternating current 
and fed into the distribution system connecting all 
substations. The Power Company's lines are so ex- 
tensive and the load of such a diversified character that 
any surplus power returned by regenerating locomo- 
tives can readily be absorbed by the system; credit is 
given for all energy returned. 

Electric locomotion has been adopted by the Chi- 
cago Milwaukee & St. Paul Railway as " a newer. 
better foundation on which builders shall rear the 
structure of railroading to undreamed-of-efficiency and 
comfort." The enterprise has been undertaken with 
the expectation of effecting a sufficient reduction in the 
cost of operation to return an attractive percentage 
on the investment required, as well as to benefit by all 
the operating advantages of electric locomotives. Ac- 
cording to statements made by the railroad officials, 
about $12,000,000.00 will be expended, and with the 
work more than half completed there is every reason 
to believe that the cost of construction will come in- 
side the estimates. 

* * ♦ 

Electrical Pa^2i*2 , £«-E a ®ir(fl 3S@E^in 

(Continued from page 34) 

The demand for his apparatus led to the formation of a part- 
nership with the university instrument-maker, under the 
name of Kelvin & James White, Ltd. Much excellent ma- 
terial was turned out by this firm, among its products being 
some of the very earliest recording volt-meters and watt- 
meters. 

We have seen in earlier papers of this series how versatile 
were many of the men of science of an older generation. 
Sir William Thomson showed in himself a fine example of 
this ability to engage in widely different fields of endeavor 
and always with distinction. One of his earliest interests was 
in the subject of heat, and here he showed that wish to con- 
sider problems from the viewpoint of energy. There was 
no absolute scale of temperature, and to create one Thomson 
started from the theory that the heat reected in a perfect 
engine in inversely proportional to the absolute internal tem- 
perature of the working agent. From this he deduced the 
location of the absolute zero, with reference to such a point 
as the temperature of melting ice. His value coincides very 
nearly with other values determined in many different ways. 

Lately it has been proposed to recognize this work by 
naming the scale which has its beginning that absolute zero 
the "Kelvin" scale. 

To an unusual degree Thomson had the happy ability of 
being able to put scientific concepts into popular language. 
One famous expression of this sort was that if a mass of 
water the size of a (British) football should be magnified 
into a sphere the size of the earth, the molecules would be 
larger than cricket-balls, though probably not so large as 
foot-balls. His interest in geology led him to formulate a 
theory as to the age of the earth, and to predict the probable 
amount of coal which might be available for future genera- 
tions. Toward the end of his life he withdrew from the 
earlier position in which he had attempted to explain by 
means of kinetics the fundamental problems of matter and 
force. No conclusion in these matters has yet been reached 
by scientists, but we may be very sure that his work will 
always command respect. 

The honors which were heaped upon Sir William Thomson 
have been without parallel in the history of science. In 1892 
he was created a Peer of the Realm, with the title of Baron 
Kelvin. His own sovereign conferred on him as well a 



Privy Councellorship, the Grand Cross of the victorian Or- 
der of Merit. He was also an officer of the Legion of Honor 
of France and a Knight of the Prussian "Ordre Pour Le 
Merite." Three times he was elected president of the In- 
stitution of Electrical Engineers and the other offices he held, 
and the degrees conferred on him would fill a column. Best 
of all, his lovable personality and warm heart brought him 
troops of friends and when on December 17, 1907, the cables 
carried the news of their master's death, all the world of 
science mourned. 

♦ ♦> * 

B©©ik meviews 

The Engineer in War, by P. S. Bond. 187 pp. New York : 
McGraw-Hill Book Co.: $1.50. 

With the National Guards of many States being mobilized, 
there is unusual interest in all things pertaining to the military 
art. Major Bond's book, while addressed primarily to civil 
engineers and contractors, will be of value to any man whose 
inclination is toward the engineering side of military operations. 
While it does not pretend to be exhaustive, it covers the field 
in a very complete manner, being thus of value to the busy 
man who wants a comprehensive survey of what is to be known 
concerning military engineering. Every man who expects to 
fight for his country at some time should read this volume with 
care; if his inclination is to become more fully informed, the 
bibliography at the end will guide him to the best sources for 
what he seeks. 

Technical readers cannot but be impressed with the often- 
emphasized need for speed, above all other considerations. 
The conscientious constructor in peaceful life cannot tolerate 
"short-cuts" which may weaken the finished work. Major Bond 
makes it clear that military works are of the most ephemeral 
character, and that in the presence of the enemy, time is of the 
essence. War moves are made rapidly, and the volunteer engi- 
neer must adapt his "rules of practice" with that in view. 

$. »♦♦ ♦♦♦ 

Exporters' Encyclopedia, 1916 Edition. New York: Export- 
ers' Encyclopedia Company : $7.50. 
This volume is full of information for the exporter. Its prin- 
cipal section contains a brief description of the area, population, 
commerce, etc., of each country in the world, with a list of the 
points to which through bills of lading are issued, the banks 
which collect shippers' drafts the shiping routes from New 
York, and their regulations. There is also information on pos- 
tal rates and regulations, the preparation of shipping papers, 
cable rates, tables for the conversion of foreign money, weights, 
and measures and many other items make this book well-nigh 
mvaluable. The subscription price includes a monthly bulletin 
of corrections and the "Exporters' Review" for one year. 

♦♦♦ +♦♦ ♦♦♦ 

A Handbook on Incandescent Lamp Illumination. Harrison, 
N. J. : Edison Lamp Works of General Electric Co. : 75 
cents. 
For so small a book (2^4 by sV& inches), the amount of in- 
formation which this handbook holds is surprising. In 21 1 
pages it covers the incandescent lighting field so explicitly that 
any one can find the solution for his particular problem, or 
hints from which he can readily work it out. Section 1 treats 
of lamps and their characteristics; Section 2 of illumination 
terms and calculations; Section 3 of lighting practice, and Sec- 
tion 4 of electric circuits and apparatus. The book should be 
the pocket companion of everyone who has to do with the de- 
sign or selection of illuminants. 

* * * 

The Utah Copper Company and its allied interests have 
placed orders with the Westinghouse Electric & Mfg. Co., 
of East Pittsburgh, Pa., for 211 vertical agitator motors for 
separating copper from low grade ore and trailings by the 
use of the flotation system. 



66 



ELECTRICAL 



AGE 



July, 1916 




©2 Intej 



€* 



Electrical Winding. — Heating is one of the most difficult 
problems to be dealt with in connection with windings of 
transformers, etc. Every advance which facilitates ventila- 
tion of such windings is of great practical importance. A 
common form of winding is one built up of disk coils, and to 
aid in keeping them cool, they are separated to provide 
spaces between them for ventilation. The cooling fluid flows 

Fig I. 




over the outer surface and through a central axial ventilating 
space. Previously the common practice was to make the 
coils flat so that the spaces between them were perpendicular 
to the axis. In such a construction there is a tendency of 
the air between the coils to remain stationary. According to 
an invention to William J. Wooldridge, of Pittsfield, Mass, 
these coils are dished and then assembled substantially like 
the flat disk coils. A central space is provided through the 
winding in the direction of the axis so that the cooling fluid 
may circulate over both the inside and outside surfaces of the 
winding. The inclination of the spaces between the coils 
induces a circulation of fluid so that the coils are on all sides 
subjected to moving currents of air and . the apparatus is 
satisfactorily ventilated. The arrangement in detail is clearly 
shown in the cut. Patent No. 1,183,616. 

Dynamo Electric Machine. — In the modern applications of 
electricity it is in many cases desirable to generate alternat- 
ing currents having unequal positive and negative values. 
Currents of this type have found many useful applications. 
For instance, when applied to a circuit containing apparatus 
for striking an arc, the arc electrodes may be so arranged 
that the high voltage positive waves will be permitted to 
pass while preventing the passage of the low voltage nega- 
tive waves so that an intermittent current is obtained. Uni- 
directional currents are readily obtained from such unequal 
current waves by the use of asymmetric cells, vapor tubes, 
etc. In Fig. 1 is shown a current of this character in which 
abscissae represent intervals of time and ordinates instantane- 
ous voltage values. It will be seen that the positive values 
are much greater than the negative but of shorter duration, 
In a patent recently granted to Mr. Jean L. Farney, Zevrich, 
Switzerland, is described a generator for producing currents 
of the character indicated very efficiently. The windings of 
the machine are so related that the portions thereof mutually 
react to nullify the reactance so that a larger output than 
otherwise is produced. The general scheme of the generator 
may be understood from Fig. 2, which shows a portion of a 
laminated ring armature core 6 in a frame 4, being spaced 



therefrom by non-magnetic blocks 5, leaving an air gap 3. 
The core is provided with radially extending grooves il-13,. 
12-14, equal to or a multiple of the narrow poles 7 and 8 
and equally spaced around the armature core. The poles 7 
and 8 are one polarity and the intermediate broad poles 23 
and 24 are of the opposite polarity. The passage of the nar- 
row poles 7 and 8 past the grooves containing coils 9, causes 
a sudden rise in the current wave, however, unless the reac- 
tance of the coils were nullified because the choking affect 
would very materially limit the current. On each side of 
coil 9 therefore are coils 15 which nullify the reactance of 
the coil 9. Either of the coils 9 or 15 may be short circuited, 
the coil 9 being so shown in Fig. 2a. In operation, suppose 
the coil 9 to be tranversed by the maximum flux. Then if 
the rotor is moved to a no-flux position, a current will be 
generated in coil 9 which will so affect the flux in the two 
sections of coil 15 as to cause to be generated therein a 
voltage corresponding to the first half of the part 2 of the 
wave shown in Fig. 1. During the next period of movement 



?>/*//. 



*WS&: 




of the rotor to the position where maximum flux traverses 
the coil 9 in the opposite direction, the second half of part 2 
of the wave is similarly generted. Subsequently the flux 
emanating from the rotor and traversing the coil 9 generates 
the current therein which affects the coil 15 to generate the 
current corresponding to that below the base line in Fig. 1. 

To oppose the tendency of any inductive flux to close 
through the pole face, short circuited coils 25 carried by the 
broad poles 23 may by provided as shown in Fig. 2. 

The patent shows various modifications of the scheme. 
Patent No. 1,183,286. 

Automatic Electric Regulator. — In numerous systems such 
as in lighting and ignition systems of automobiles and axle 
driven car lighting systems, a variable speed generator is em- 
ployed in conjunction with a storage battery and suitable 
switch apparatus to prevent the storage battery from dis- 
charging back into the generator, to regulate the voltage 
of the generator, etc. In the voltage regulation of genera- 
tors the vibratory contact in shunt with the field resistance 
has been found to be very satisfactory. In a recent patent 
granted to William A. Turbayne, of Buffalo, N. Y., a compact 
regulator is provided comprising a unitary structure having 
an automatic electromagnetic switch for disconnecting the 
generator from the system, and also a vibratory contact reg- 
ulator for the generator voltage. 



July, 1916 



ELECTRICAL 



AGE 



67 



The arrangement is shown quite clearly in the cut. The 
generator shunt field 2 has in series with it the resistance 
14. The unitary structure comprising the automatic dis- 
connecting switch and the vibratory contact includes a cur- 
Tent coil 15 and a voltage coil 12. These are comulative so 
long as current flows from the generator to line, but when 
the current is reversed it tends to decrease the predominating 
influnce of the A-oltage coil. The spring 10 tends to hold the 
contacts 11 open. Upon sufficient decrease in magnetism 



J&"1- 




Ar ' 



Clffl 



these contacts open, disconnecting the generator from line. 
Obviously this will occur when the voltage of the generator 
is very low so that there is a decrease in the holding power 
of the voltage coil and this is still further decreased by the 
opposition of the current coil. The vibratory contact 16 
normally closes the shunt about the field resistance 14 under 
the influence of the spring 19. When, however, the voltage of 
the generator rises abnormally this contact is opened and by 
its vibration maintains the generator voltage at a proper 
value. Patent No. 1,183,411. 

♦J* ♦ ♦♦♦ 

A patent has been issued to S. W. Greene, 135 Welham St., 
Xew York City, for a means of coupling a talking-machine with 
a moving-picture machine for the synchronizing of the pictures 
and the sound-record. Referring to the diagram, the method of 
operation is as follows : 

When the main switch 42 is closed, the projecting arc is start- 




ed and the motor K of the projection machine begins to draw 
the film through the guides in the usual way. The talking- 
machine needle has been set on a point marked on the record. 

At the exact point on the film which corresponds to this 
spot there is an opening when a finger on 47 enters. The film 
pulls the finger downward about 45 degrees, shifting the bridg- 
ing member 47 from contact 48-58 to 49-59, thereafter the 
finger trails against the film in a downward position. This 
closes a return circuit for the record shunt supply wire 46 
through contact 59, bridge 47, contact 49 wire 53, brake switch 
magnet 40, wire 52, to branch point 51, and back to line by 50. 
This throws the clutch and starts the phonograph into instant 
operation in synchronism with the pictures. 

The closing of the; switch 39, as a result of the energizing 
of magnet 40, has completed another return circuit to branch 
point 51 except for the break between contacts 48-58 left open 
by the shifting of switch 47. If the film breaks or runs out, 
the finger on 47 is no longer held down by it, and swings bridge 
47, back to contacts 48-58. This breaks the circuit through 
clutch closing magnet 10, and completes the other section cir- 
cuit from contact 58, through bridging switch 47, contact 48, 
wire 54, switch 39, brake magnet 38 main switch throughout 
magnet 56, wire 57 and clutch opening magnet 9. This accom- 
plishes three results. It applies the brake to stop the projector, 
disconnects the drive power from the phonograph, and opens 
the main switch 42, putting out arc light and deenergizing all 
magnets and circuits, including those of motor K. 

The apparatus is readily attached to any standard projecting 
machine without cutting or drilling, and does not interfere with 
its operation for regular moving pictures. The automatic safety 
stop feature applies equally to any kind of film. 

♦♦* ♦♦♦ ♦♦♦ 

{Concluded from page 29) 
gether by cross connecting switches so that either set 
may be charged from either alternating or direct cur- 
rent systems, and so that the load may be carried by 
either set alone, thereby insuring, in a high degree, 
the continuity of service so necessary in an installation 
of this kind. 

William Penn Power Consumption 

The total connected load of the hotel is over 1550 
kw. Included in this are more than 20,000 Mayda 
lamps of from 10 to 250 watts ; together with mis- 
cellaneous small motors they make a connected load 
on the alternating current mains of 800 k. w. The di- 
rect current system serves about 1000 h-p. of motors 
at 220 volts. The normal "five-minute maximum de- 
mand" is 560 kw. for power and 600 kw. for lighting; 
the maximum coincident demand is about 1100 kw. 
If the first two months of operation are a fair indica- 
tion of what may be expected, the annual consumption 
will be 2,700,000 kw.hr. for power and 900,000 kw.hr. 
for lighting. About 75,000,000 pounds of steam will be 
required per annum. 

What the William Penn Hotel Cost 

As it stands to-day, the William Penn Hotel represents 
an investment of $6,500,000. The ground alone is valued 
at $2,700,000; th ebuilding and machinery cost $3,000,- 
000 and the furnishings added $800,000. The architects 
were Janssen & Abbott, of Pittsburgh, and the mechan- 
ical engineering was done by Clyde R. Place, of New 
York City. Wiring throughout the building, save for 



68 



ELECTRICAL AGE 



July, 1916 



telephones was installed by J. Livingston & Company, of 

New York. Wire for light and power was furnished 

by the Standard Underground Cable Company. 

Acknowledgement is made to J. Irvin Alexander of the 
Duquesne Light Company for detailed figures and photo- 
graphs of power applications. — The Author. 

»*♦ *♦♦ ♦$"■ 

At a recent meeting of the Radio Club of America held at 
Columbia University, New York City, Mr. Paul F. Godley 
presented a paper on "Applications of the Audion" in which 
were discussed important considerations in design, construction 
and operation of apparatus used with the audion as a detector 
for short or long wave reception, as an amplifier, and as a gen- 
erator of high-frequency oscillations to be used both in the 
reception of undamped waves, and as a source of power for 
radiotelegraphic and radiotelephonic transmission. Complete dia- 
grams, data and specifications were given. 

The principal subject of discussion at the meeting of the Elec- 
trical Supply Jobbers' Association held June 7-9 at Hot Springs, 
Va, was the cost of doing business and the need for accurate 
knowledge, not only of the costs for the business as a whole, 
but for particular lines, in order to eliminate unprofitable ones 
and secure better treatment from manufacturers. The consensus 
of opinion was that nothing need be feared from concentric 
wiring as the increase in "prospects" for wiring of old houses 
and the resultant sale of appliances would more than offset any 
possible loss. 

The following offiecrs were elected at the annual meeting 
of the New York Electrical Society, held at the Hotel Mc- 
Alpin, on June 14: President, Putnam A. Bates; vice-presi- 
dents, C. E. Scribner, Edwin B. Katte, and W. C. Whiston; 
secretary, George H. Guy; treasurer, Thomas F. Honahan. 
A paper by Theodore W. Case, "A New Way of Converting- 
Light into Electrical Energy" was presented. The society, 
one of the oldest in the country, has a membership of more 
than 700. 

The Advancement Club of the Red River Power Company, 
one of the Northern States Power Company subsidiaries, locat- 
ed at Grand Forks, N. D., has organized a class 1 for electrical 
work composed of twelve employes which will be taught by Mr. 
Radsliff, chief engineer of the company. Each member has pur- 
chased his own books and the enthusiastic reception which has 
greeted this educational effort has led to the formation ot 
classes in other departments of the work. 

♦♦* ♦*« ♦ 

Coming C@aw®itti®a§ 

Public Utilities Association of West Virginia. Annual con- 
vention, Parkersburg, W. Va., July 12-14. Secretary, W. C 
Davisson, Charleston, W. Va. 

Ohio Electric Light Association. Annual convention, Cedar 
Point, O., July 18-21. Secretary, D. L. Gaskill, Greenville, O. 

National Electrical Contractors' Association of the United 
States. Annual convention, Hotel McAlpin, New York City, 
July 19-22. Secretary, G. H. Duffield, 41 Martin Building, Utica, 
N. Y. 

International Association of Municipal Electricians. Annual 
convention, Baltimore, Md., August 22-25. Secretary, C. R. 
George, Houston, Tex. 

Pennsylvania Electric Association. Annual convention, Eagles 
Mere, Pa., September 5-8. Secretary, H. N. Muller, Duquesne 
Light Company, Pittsburgh, Pa. 

Illuminating Engineering Society. Annual convention, Phila- 
delphia, Pa., September 18-21. Secretary, C. A. Littlefield, Irv- 
ing Place and Fifteenth street, New York City. 

Association of Iron and Steel Electrical Engineers. Annual 
convention, Chicago, 111., September 18-22. Secretary, W. O. 
Oschmann, Oliver Steel & Foundry Company, Pittsburgh, Pa. 



Mr. C. D. Fawcett, formerly instructor in the Electrical En- 
gineering Department of the University of Pennsylvania, has 
been appointed assistant secretary of the Illuminating Engi- 
neering Society, vice Mr. Joseph Langan, resigned. 

Mr. H. E. Dawson, who for the past five years has been 
with the Edison Lamp Works of General Electric Company, 
Harrison, N. J., in advertising and general campaign work, 
has recently accepted the position of contract agent for the 
Metropolitan Electric Company, Reading, Pa. 

Mr. George H. Graves has been appointed head of the electrical 
department of the Sanitary District of Chicago, following the 
resignation of Edward B. Ellicott. Mr. Graves was formerly 
assistant electrical engineer. 

James A. Green has been appointed vice-president and gen- 
eral manager of the Northern Idaho & Montana Power Co., 
and in this capacity will co-operate with Elmer Dover, vice- 
president of H. M. Byllesby & Co., in charge of Pacific Coast 
properties and president of the Northern Idaho & Montana 
Power and Oregon Power companies, in the operation of the 
Byllesby properties in Montana, Idaho, Oregon and Wash- 
ington. 



William Tell La Roche, formerly general superintendent of 
plant of the Bell Telephone Company of Pennsylvania, died on 
June 8th after an illness of several weeks. Mr. La Roche 
entered the telephone field in 1887, at the age of 21, serving 
first as switchboard operator, lineman and manager of small 
exchanges in central Pennsylvania. Coming to Philadelphia 
in 1891, Mr. La Roche assisted in the development of the first 
private branch exchange and the initial installation of common- 
battery service. In 1898 he was appointed district inspector, 
with charge of maintenance through the city. Later his terri- 
tory was extended to include the southern half of New Jersey. 
His work here included the development of routine mainten-. 
ance tests in order to anticipate trouble. With his appointment 
as division plant superintendent in 1906, Mr. La Roche took 
charge of outside construction and maintenance as well as ol 
subscribers' and central-office equipment. Many of the present 
supervisory cost-reports, which now tell so much about the ef- 
ficiency of various districts, were originated by him. 

The exceptional ability evidence d by Mr. La Roche in each 
position held by him from inspector to plant superintendent re- 
sulted in his appointment as general superintendent of plant in 
March of 1913, he thus becoming head of a department which 
he has been so instrumental in building up to its high standard 
of efficiency and personnel. One of the most typical episodes in 
his life was Mr. La Roche's comment — made to a friend — upon 
the announcement of his appointment to this high office, when 
he said : "You know, I am glad to have this promotion, not so 
much for myself as for the men down the line, because it shows 
them how a fellow may climb up from the bottom." 

Silvanus P. Thompson, electrical engineer, teacher and 
author, died in London on June 13. He was born in 1851 and 
received his B. Sc. from London University in 1875. Since 
1885 he was Professor of Physics in the City and Guilds 
Technical College at Finsbury. He was well known as a 
writer on electrical and scientific subjects, being author of the 
classical "Dynamo-electric Machinery;" The Electromagnet," 
"Polyphase Electric Currents and Motors," and other works. 
His affiliations with scientific societies were numerous and in- 
cluded honorary membership in the American Institute of 
Electrical Engineers. 

The Hamilton, Mo., Electric Light Co contemplates the ex- 
tension of its system to Breckinridge. 








1 c eft 



m 






jv, €2©rm:pll<a&g 3Ee<e©2"(ffl ®f 2s&ip©2'ft&mt MT<ew§ IMfltedl 2©ir HBthsj IR^mti 



Improvements and extensions to the Dale Light, Heat & Pow- 
er Company plant, of Johnstown, Pa., are contemplated. 

♦ ♦ ♦ 

Work has begun on the installation of an electric-lighting sys- 
tem in Falmouth, Pa. Energy will be supplied by the York 
Haven Water & Power Company. 

A A A 

V V V 

Extensions in the Fresno District that will cost approximately 
$75,000 will be under way in a short time, it was announced by 
the San Joaquin Light & Power Company, Fresno, Cal. About 
65 miles of new lines will be put in. 

* * ♦> 

The Otter Tail Power Company, of Fergus Falls, Minn., is 
planning to erect transmission lines to Perham and Deer Creek, 
Minn., through Underwood, Battle Creek, Clitherall and Hen- 
ning, and is negotiating for the purchase of the municipal elec- 
tric lighting plant at Perham, Minn. 

A A A 

The Nashua Light, Heat & Power Company is to receive a 
contract by the Central Maine Power Company, of Augusta, to 
erect an electric transmission from Bath to Gardiner, a distance 
of 30 miles. 

* ♦ ♦ 

Plans for the installation of an electric lighting system in 
Palco, Kan., are being considered. Electricity to operate the 
system will probably be secured from Plainville. The cost will 
be from $10,000 to $15,000. 

A A 

The Rahway Valley Railroad Company, Summit, N. J., which 
operates a railroad from Summit to Aldene, plans to equip 
its line for electrical operation. J. S. Caldwell, of Kenilworth, 
X. J., is general manager. 

A A A 

To care for the largely increased demands for current, the 
Trumbull Public Service Co. of Warren, Ohio, one of the 
Doherty properties, will install a 6,000-kw. units mechanical coal- 
handling apparatus and automatic stokers for burning slack 
coal. 

A A A 

The National Tube Company, of Lorain, Ohio, has announced 
that a new power house will be built and coal gas will be used 
to furnish power for the plant. The company is erecting a bat- 
tery of by-product coke ovens for the production of coke for the 

blast furnaces. 

a a 41 

A high tension transmission line will be erected from the 
plant of the American Gas & Electric Company at Beech Bottom, 
W. Va., to Washington, Pa., by the Brooke Electric Company, 
of Warwood, W. Va., who have been granted a permit by the 
County Commissioners. 

♦ A A 

In addition to the new power plant of the Holton Power Com- 
pany, Calexico, Cal., near Holtville, which will be completed in 
30 days, the company will have its gas and electric reserve 
plants at El Contro completely renovated and remodeled, greatly 
improving its equipment and service in the valley. 

igr A A 

A new set of public utility safety bulletins will be issued by 
the National Safety Council. Fourteen of the sixteen bulletins 
which constitute the advance set, show probable causes of elec- 
trial accidents. These bulletins will be issued at the rate of one 
a week. 



All employes of H. M. Byllcsby & Company who are members 
of the National Guard will receive full pay during their ab- 
sence and their positions will be held for them. 

A A A 

The capacity of the Municipal Electric Lighting Plant, Kins- 
ton, N. C, has been quadrupled and considerable reserve power 
for manufacturing purposes is now available — extensions and 
improvements costing approximately $40,000. 

♦ ♦ ♦ 

A laundry plant across the river from the Grand Trunk Rail- 
way Station is under consideration by the Trojan Laundry Com- 
pany, of Flint, Mich., recently incorporated with a capital stock 
of $100,000. Electrically operated machinery will be used. 

* * * 

Mr. Andrew S. Merrill, of Bath, Me., has been awarded a 
contract by the Central Maine Power Company, of Augusta, to 
erect an electric transmission from Bath to Gardiner, a distance 
of 30 miles. 

A A A 

The Fiscal Court of Louisville, Ky., has appropriated $3,000 
for limited repairs to the light and heating plant located at the 
county jail. A new plant, it is stated, will be necessary next 
year. Brinton B. Davis is county architect. 

A * * 

The Electric Storage Battery Company, of Philadelphia, Pa., 
will erect a brick and concrete manufacturing building, 146 ft. 
by 115 ft. and seven stories high on Nineteenth Street south of 
Allegheny Ave. 



* 



* 



The transmission line of the Appalachian Power Company, of 
Bluefield, W. Va., is being extended to the mines of the Clinch- 
field Coal Corporation at Dante, Va., a distance of 80 miles and 
to points intermediate. 

& -& A 

V V V 

For the construction of the proposed electric interurban rail- 
way between Houston and San Antonio, Texas, the Houston, 
Richmond & Western Traction Company are placing contracts 
for material. The contract for electric power station will be 

awarded soon. E. Kennedy is president. 

4» a <%. 

An option on the plant of the Harlowton Light & Water 
Company, of Harlowton, Mont., is reported to have been 
obtained by the Montana Power Company of Butte, Mont. 
If the deal goes through the power company will build a 
substation here and will establish a 24-hr. service. 

+> * *> 

$12,300 will be expended by the City Council of Moose 
Jaw, Sask., for improvements to the Municipal Electric Light 
Plant which will include extension of transmission lines, re- 
placing old lines with heavier wire and improvements to 
equipment in power house. 

♦ ♦ ♦ 

In order to construct an electrical transmission line from a 
point in Inyo County to a point in Los Angeles County, Cal., the 
city attorney of Los Angeles has been authorized to institute 
proceedings in the Superior Court to acquire by condemnation 
a right of way over certain property. 

♦ ♦ «J» 

A high tension transmission line to the Irondyke and Home- 
stead mines at Baker, Ore., is being erected by the Idaho-Oregon 
Power Company, of Boise, Ore., in order to supply electricity to 
operate machinery in the mines. 



/O 



ELECTRICAL AGE 



The large power plant for the National Tube Company, of 
Lorain, O., will be equipped with gas engines which will be 
supplied with gas from coke ovens now under construction. 
Construction work on the plant is now well underway. 

♦ ♦!♦ *J* 

The Jefferson Construction Company, of Birmingham, Ala., 
has secured the contract for the foundation work for the new 
steam-power generating station at Lock 12. This plant will 
have a capacity of 20,000 kw. 

v v v 
A direct-current plant will be constructed by the Village of 
Trenton Mo. An oil-engine direct-connected to a 25-kw. gen- 
erator with a storage battery for reserve. Pole lines and a 
street lighting system will be installed. The engineers are Fair- 
banks, Morse & Co., of Omaha, Neb. 

♦> ♦£ * 
According to H. D. Pattee, the promoter of the project, 
the Tulsa Interurban Railroad Company, Tulsa, Okla, has 
financed its proposed interurban electric railway that is to 
be built between Tulsa and Wagoner. The line will be 37 
miles long and will run via Broken Arrow. The project in- 
volves the construction of an electric power station. 

♦ **♦ ♦ 

The construction of an electric railway from St. Cloud, Fla., 
to Sanford, Dunnellon and Tampa, also through Volusia Coun- 
ty to a point on the Atlantic Coast, covering a distance of about 
300 miles, is contemplated by the Central Florida Interurban 
Railway Company which has applied for a charter. Carl E. Carl- 
ton and William S. Alyea are among the incorporators. 

♦ '* ♦ 

Contracts for materials for the construction of the proposed 
interurban electric railway that is to run between San Antonio 
and Houston, Tex., are being placed by the Houston, Richmond 
& Western Traction Company, San Antonio, Tex. The contract 
for the construction of the electric power station will be award- 
ed soon. 

# * * 

The consolidation of the Bucks County Electric Company, of 
Newton, Pa., and the Doylestown, Pa., Electric Company into 
the Pennsylvania-New Jersey Power & Light Company with a 
capital stock of $100,000 has been approved by Governor Brum- 
baugh. Sidney L. Wright, of Philadelphia, Pa., is president of 
the new company and Gaylord Thompson, of Trenton, N. J., 
vice-president. , 

♦ <S* ♦»♦ 

The Nashua Light, Heat & Power Company rs to receive a 
contract from the Mayor and Lighting Committee, of Nashua, 
N. H., for lighting the streets of the city, exclusive of the orna- 
mental lighting system for a period of seven years. The 215 arc 
lamps now in use will be replaced with new lamps under the 
terms of the new contract and 140 additional lamps will be 
installed. 

* ♦ ♦ 

As a result of the war, Ocos, Guatemala will lose its electric- 
lighting plant. About nine years ago the Kosmos liner "Sesos- 
tris" was beached near there, and the chief engineer arranged to 
supply the town with electricity, after it was decided not to re- 
float the ship. Now the dem iid for vessels has reached a point 
where it appears profitable to dig a canal and float the ship back 
to sea, says the "Electrical Review" (London). 

♦** A »*. 

V v V 

A bond of issue of $3,750,000 was authorized by the voters of 
Chicago for extensions to the city's street-lighting system, to 
include 5,800 new 600-c.p. and 25,400 new 100-c.p. incandescent 
lamps, a new 2,000-kw. generating station and three new sub- 
stations. This is thought to provide for five years' growth. 

♦ <J« <J. 

Work on the erection of a 33,000-volt electric transmission line 
by the Shirley Electric Company, Shirley, Mass., to Pepperell, a 
distance of 10 miles has begun. The company will soon start 
work on the construction of a transmission line from Pepperell 
to Hollis, N. H. 



July, 1916 

The system of the Lewisburg, Tenn., Light & Power Co. has 
been purchased by the Public Light & Power Co., of Chattanooga, 
Tenn., which will build a transmission line to connect Lewis- 
burg with its system. 

♦$► «$► ♦♦♦ 

Surveys are being made by the Fort Smith (Ark.) Light & 
Traction Co. for the extension of its Van Buren transmission 
system to the smelter of the Arkansas Zinc Co. and probably to 
Alma, Ark. 

*f *** *v 

The E. J. Cross Company, of Worcester, Mass., has been 
awarded the contract for the construction of a four story re- 
inforced concrete building, 80 ft. by 100 ft. at Norwich, Conn., 
with a power house adjoining by the Winchester Woolen Com- 
pany. The cost of the building is estimated at $90,000. 

<j» «g« «?» 

The McMyler Interstate Company, of Cleveland, Ohio, has 
been awarded the contract for construction of a steam and elec- 
trically-controlled car-dumping machine and appurtenances at the 
yards of the Port Reading Company, Port Reading, N. J. The 
work includes a 100 ton car dumper, 600 hp. steam power plant 
and a vessel hauling machine. 

♦ * ♦ 

The Alabama Power Company, of Birmingham, Ala., has pur- 
chased the property of the Jasper Water, Light & Power Com- 
pany, Jasper, Ala. The local plant will be closed down and pow- 
er will be supplied from the substation at Magella, near Birming- 
ham, and in case of emergency, from the steam plant to be 
built on Baker's Creek. 

♦> ♦ <J* 

Plans for a new office building for the Franklin Trust Com- 
pany, Philadelphia, Pa., are being prepared by the Scofield Engi- 
neering Company, Commercial Trust Building, Philadelphia and 
De Armond, Ashmead & Bickley, architects, Philadelphia. There 
will be a twelve story office building with a power house across 
the alley in a separate building. 

+> <* ■* 

The board of water commissioners of Dunkirk, N. Y., have re- 
tained Mr. Roy Husselman, an electrical engineer representing 
F. W. Ballard, of Cleveland, Ohio, to make a survey of the 
local electrical situation in order to find out whether or not it 
would be advisable for the city of Dunkirk to install new gen- 
erating machinery in the municipal power plant or to buy pow- 
er from the Niagara & Erie Power Company. 

♦ ♦ * 

The construction of a large manufacturing building 212 ft. by 
105 ft. at Summer and C streets, South Boston, Mass., for the 
Western Electric Company is now under way. The building will 
be equipped with elevators, conveyors, electric light and power 
and mechanical appliances. The W. K. Kearns Company, of 
Boston, has the contract for the work, and George F. Shepard 
is architect. 

»> *t* *> 

In order to connect the lines of the Bridgeton Electric Co., 
Bridgeton, N. J., and the Electric Company of New Jersey, a 
transmission line is being constructed. The new line will be 18 
miles long, running from Bridgeton to Woodston via Deerfield, 
Shirley and Pittsgrove, and will supply electricity to residents 
along the lines as well as to. the cities of Salem, Glassboro, Pit- 
man, Woodbury, Woodstown and Mullica Hill. 

♦ ♦> <♦ 

The expenditure of $42,000 for an electric light, water, and 
heating system has been authorized by the trustees of the Univer- 
sity of North Carolina. Light and power will be furnished to 
the town of Chapel Hill also. 

♦ *> ♦> 

The property of the old Iroquois Salt Company in Perry, N. Y., 
has been purchased by the Perry Electric Company. In order to 
supply electricity in Perry, Warsaw, Castile, Silver Springs 
and Gainesville, the two buildings on the site will be remodeled^, 
and used as a central power plant. 



July. 1916 E L E C T R I 

A new generating station near the present L Street Station is 
under consideration by the Boston Edison Company, Boston, 
Mass. The first unit will be a 30,000 kilovolt-ampere General 
Electric turbogenerator, 14,000 volts and running at 1,800 revolu- 
tions per minute. Excitation will be at 250 volts. This will be 
the first generator installed by the Edison Company for 14,000 
volts and it will be its first horizontal machine. Four 1,230- 
horsepower Babcock & Wilcox cross-drum boilers, designed for 
350 pounds working pressure, will be installed in connection. The 
plant is expected to be ready for operation in the fall of 191 7. 

*5* *2* •I* 

All steam consumers in Cleveland, Ohio, have been notified 
by the East Ohio Gas Company that arrangements must be 
made for fuel other than gas by Oct. I, when their gas sup- 
ply will be turned off. No explanation was made for this 
step other than that the first duty of the gas company is to 
the domestic consumers. About 2,000 shops of various 
kinds will be affected by this change. 

♦ * * 

It is reported that H. E. Huntington, president of the Pa- 
cific Light and Power Corporation, of Los Angeles, has pur- 
chased the system of the Mount Whitney Power & Electric 
Company of Visalia, California. The territory served is a 
rich farming country, in w 7 hich electricity is used liberally for 
irrigation pumps. The Mount Whitney Co. has four hydro- 
electric stations in the Sierras with a combined rating of 13, 
000 hp. and a steam plant of 10,000 hp. The property will be 
a particularly desirable acquisition for the Pacific Co., as its 
150,000 volt transmission line crosses the territory served. 

♦■ ^ ♦ 

An interesting application of electrolysis has been made to the 
destruction of insect life by Isadore Kitsee, of Philadelphia. 
Where the soil is to be treated, it is moistened with a saline 
solution, and a current of electricity is passed through it from 
buried electrodes. The gas generated will rid the soil of germs, 
uarvae and insects without injury to vegetation. When plants 
are to be treated, the solution is subjected to electrolysis, and 
while the gases are still in solution, it is sprayed in the usual 
manner. > 

«S» ♦ ♦> 

The maximum rate to residence customers has been reduced 
from 9 to 8.5 cents per kilowatt-hour by the Union Electric Light 
& Power Company, of St. Louis, Mo. The company announced 
last August that the maximum rate would be reduced from 10 
to 9 cents a kilowatt-hour when the number of its customers 
reached 65,000, and a further reduction from 9 to 8.5 was prom- 
ised when the number reached 70,000. When the number of cus- 
tomers reaches 75,000 the company promises a reduction to 8 
cents. The company reduced its minimum rate last August 
from 6 to 3 cents per kilowatt-hour. 

* + + 
In order to bring the Southern Power Company's lines into 
Gaffney, S. C, a representative of the company has been en- 
gaged in securing right of way. A site for a substation and 
right of way from Gaffney to Rutherford, N. C, has been 
secured. The transmission line will be erected by way of 
Forest City, Caroleen and Rutherfordton, and will furnish 
the mills at those placed with electrical energy for power 
and lighting. The Electric Manufacturing & Power Company 
at Gaston Shoals on Broad River has been furnished power 
to Gaffney for several years and the Southern Power Com- 
pany's plant is located at the Ninety Nine Islands on Broad 
River, but several miles farther from Gaffney. 

* * ♦ 

A transmission line from Central City to Clarks, Nebraska, 
being erected by the Central Power Company of Grand 
[gland, which has been granted a 25 year franchise and 
awarded a contract for lighting the streets of the village and 
for furnishing electricity for pumping water for a period of 
ten years. The company is now installing a new distributing 
system in the village. When the new system is completed 



C A L A G E 71 

the municipal plant will be closed down and the generating 
equipment and material for distributing system disposed of 
by the village of Clarks. T. H. Fritts, of Grand Island, is 
vice-president of the company. 

& & "J* 

The reservoir site, ditches and water rights of the Oro Elec- 
tric Corporation in Humbug Valley, California, and along Yel- 
low Creek to the north fork of the Feather River where the Oro 
company had acquired a site for a power plant, are said to have 
been purchased by the Great Western Power Company, Quincy, 
Cal. It is understood that the Great Western will develop a 
series of power plants, the ultimate construction cost of which 
will be approximately $25,000,000. 

v *i* *i* 

The substitution of incandescent lamps for the present arch 
lamps and gas lamps now in use, is advocated by William F. 
Schwartz, street commissioner of Buffalo, N. Y. His plan is to 
make the change in the principal business streets, next the main 
arteries and then gradually to extend the zone of new lamps, 
the entire change to be made in perhaps five years. 

* * * 

A new 2500-kw. General Electric turbo-generator with con- 
denser, and a new ventilation system will be added to the equip- 
ment of the power plant of the Houghton Electric Light Com- 
pany, of Houghton, Mich. The proposed improvements to the 
plant will include an addition 25 ft. by 48 ft. to the boiler house 
and installation of a 600-hp. boiler; the erection of a new smoke 
stack; the roof of the present boiler house will also be raised. 
The Stone & Webster Engineering Corporation, of Boston,. 
Mass., has the contract for the work. 

♦♦♦ 4g» ♦♦♦ 

A new $75,000,000 corporation, the Civic Investment & In- 
dustrial Company, has been formed to hold the stocks of the 
Montreal Light, Heat & Power Co. and the Cedar Rapids Pow- 
er Co. The Montreal Co. operates, through subsidiaries, the 
central station electric and gas service of Montreal. Its capital 
obligations are $18,700,000 of stock and $10,713,000 of bonds. 
The Cedar Rapids Co. is principally engaged in hydro-electric 
power supply and has a capacity of 100,000 hp. The new cor- 
poration will be one of the largest of its kind in the world. 

Substantial increases in Minnesota manufacturing are shown 
by a preliminary statement of results of the census issued by 
the department of commerce. The report compares statistics 
for the year 1914 with 1909, and the various items show in- 
creases as follows : 

Salaries, 42.9 per cent. ; salaried employes, 23.6 per cent. ; capi- 
tal, 28.7 per cent. ; wages, 23.2 per cent. ; wage earners, 9.5 per 
cent.; value added by manufacture, 22.5 per cent.; value of 
products, 20.5 per cent. ; materials, 19.6 per cent. ; number of 
establishments, 7.4 per cent. 

▼ *♦* ▼ 

A statement of earnings of the Utah Power & Light Company 
for the twelve months ended March 31, 1916, with a comparison 
for the previous twelve months' period, is as follows: 

1916 1915 

Gross Earnings $3,772,852 $2,392,615 

Operating Expenses and Taxes .... 1,895,342 1,208,713 

Net Earnings 1,877,510 1,183,906 

Bond Interest and Discount .... 714,782 542,932 

Other Interest (Net) 297,848 242,566 

Balance 864,880 39S,40S 

The above statement shows the earnings for the entire period 
of all properties now owned by Utah Power & Light Company 
and The Western Colorado Power Company, irrespective of 
the dates of their acquisition, and the earnings since January 
1, 191 5, of the electric light and power and gas properties owned 
by the Utah Light and Traction Company and now leased to the 
Utah Power & Light Company. 

* ♦*♦ *> 

The Metropolitan Water & Sewerage Board of Boston, 
Mass., proposes to construct a transmission line to connect 



72 



ELECTRICAL AGE 



July, 191 6 



the Connecticut River Transmission Company with another 
generating station at the Ludbury dam which is nearing com- 
pletion. The board operates a hydroelectric station at the 
Wachusett dam where the runoff is utilized to produce elec- 
trical energy which hitherto has been sold to the Connecti- 
cut River Transmission Company. The distance is 15.5 miles 
and the plan is to construct a two-circuit underground cable 
line 700 feet from the Wachusett station and a one-circuit 
overhead line on expanded steel truss poles the remainder 
of the distance. The estimated cost is $60,000. The object 
of th connection is to increase the reliability of the service 
and to enable energy to be delivered from either station, 
as most desirable. 

♦?* ♦♦♦ <♦ 

A 6,000-kilowatt Westinghouse unit, including steam tur- 
bine, generators, condenser and pump -equipment, is being in- 
stalled by the Richmond Light & Railroad Company, New 
Brighton, N. Y., in its power house at Livingston, Staten 
Island. The new generator will be air cooled by means of 
an air washer and pump outfit manufactured by the American 
Spray Company, 201 Devonshire Street, Boston, Mass., which 
will have a capacity of 37,000 cubic feet of air per minute. 

* ♦ * 

The Arkansas Hydroelectric Development Company has 
undertaken the development of a water power site on the 
Little Red River, and A. B. Amos, of Little Rock, Ark, presi- 
dent of the company is in Memphis, Tenn., in order to study 




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June 27, 1916 

Copper, prime Lake* 26.62^ @ 26.87^ 

Electrolytic* 26.62^ <S) 26.87 : /2 

Casting* 24.00 @ 24.25 

Wire, base* 29.00 @ 31.00 

London std. spot . . . .'.• 102 — 0/0 

Lead 7.00 

Nickel 45.00 @ 50.00 

Zinc, sheet, f. o. b. smelter* 19.00 

Tin, straits 39.00 

Aluminum 98 @ 99% 60.00 @ 62.00 

Spelter n.67^2 @ 11.92^2 

Old Metals 

Copper, heavy* 19.00 @ 20.00 

Brass, heavy* 11.00 @ 11.25 

Brass, light* 9.00 @ 9.50 

Lead, heavy* 5.25 @ 5.50 

Zinc, new scrap* 9.00 @ 9.50 

*Nominal. 




METER TESTING SPECIALTIES 

Phantom Loads — Phase Shifters 

Special Transformers 
THE STATES COMPANY Hartford, Conn. 

Park St. and New Park Ave. 



WHEN YOU NEED 

HIGH CLASS 

Moulded Electrical Insulation 

Send Blue Prints or Models and ask us to quote on your 

requirements 

DICKINSON MFG. CO. 

Established 1875 as Dickinson Hard Rubber Co. 

SPRINGFIELD, MASS. 

Kurt R. Sternberg, Treasurer and General Manager 

Hard Rubber Substitutes. High Heat Proof Insulations. 




NEW CATALOG No- 22 

LATEST LISTING ON 

PANEL BOARDS and STEEL CABINETS-SWITCH BOARDS-KNIFE SWITCHES 

See Catalog Page 27 to 65 See Catalog Page 74 to 84 See Catalog Page 6 to 23 

CATALOG MAILED ON REQUEST 

^rartk mrfdam S/ec/r/e Co. St. Louis, Missouri. 




^Pfog M©2a£Mj ^uaftBaQiity ©II ftih® Trade 

Technical Journal Company, Inc., New York 

Copyright — All rights reserved 



Vol. 49 



AUGUST, 1916 



No. 2 



Wm^sm 





The new terminal pier for the Ocean Steamship 
Company at Savannah, Georgia, is the largest south of 
Baltimore. It. is approximately twelve hundred feet 
long, six hundred feet wide ; the slip between the two 
sheds being over one thousand feet long and over two 
hundred and twenty-five feet wide, the sheds them- 
selves being about two hundred feet wide each. It is 
one of the finest terminal piers ever constructed, being 
practically all steel and corrugated sheet metal, except 
the roof, which is of wood, and the floors, which are of 
asphalt blocks set on concrete. Wire is rubber covered 
and braided, in accordance with National Electric 
Code and local regulations. All conduit used is lori- 
cated, as are also the various outlet boxes, etc. 

Power Service 

The service to the building is 110-220 volts, three- 
wire, sixty cycle, alternating current, for lighting; and 
500 volts, two-wire direct current for power. There is 
very little power used in the building, provision being 
made for only a few small portable hoisting motors. 
Figure 3 shows a plan and general wiring diagram of 
the whole pier. The power line is shown running 
down each shed. At every column is located a junc- 
tion box, having mounted therein a small panel with 
copper bar straps, and easily adjustable terminal posts. 
The portable outfits are provided with long extra flexi- 
ble cables, which are connected permanently at one 
end to the motor starters and can be attached very 
readily to any junction box temporarily. These junc- 
tion boxes are installed high up, being accessible 



from the gallery only, so 
provide quite a large rad- 
ius, about which the mot- 
ors may travel, without 
any of the conductors ly- 
ing on th floor or interfer- 
ing with stock or traffic. 
A fused knife switch, 
quick break type, with N. 
E.C. enclosed cartridge 
fuses, all in a cabinet, is 
installed on each column, 
accessible from the floor. 
This switch and fuses is 
connected in the line be- 
tween the mains and the 
junction panels, so that: 
control can be had from 
below, where the motor is 



that the flexible leads can 




Ocean Steamship Co.'s. Pier at Savannah 



Iross 



operated. The four wires required for the switch, i.e.. 
the mains and leads to the motors, are all run in one 
conduit between the junction panelbox and the switch- 
board. This is clearly illustrated in the sectional ele- 
vation on the plan, Figure 3. The services are split in 
halves, one for each shed. 

Method of Running Main Lines 
All wiring is run exposed on porcelain cleats, except 
from a point 25 ft. above the floor level down to panels 
or switches. Figs. 1 and 2 illustrate the type of con- 
struction and installation of the wiring typically. 
Each conduit running up from the panels or switches 
ends in an appropriate terminal fitting, having a sep- 
arate hole for each wire. These conduits were in- 
stalled as a protection against mechanical injury to the 
wires and cables. The cleats are fastened by screws to 
wood strips which are supported from the roof chan- 
nels. Wires are installed on 2.5 in. centres and 1 in. 
away from the surface wired over. Figure 1 shows the 
difficulties met with in the installation of feeders and 
circuits to the panelboards. This view shows the 
typical condition occurring at panels B, C, E, F and G, 
in exactly similar manner. Panel F can be seen in the 
distance. The panels had to be installed where shown,, 
due to the value of the space at the side of the locker 
rooms, which meant bending the conduits at the panel 
end. This further necessitated some careful "juggl- 
ing" of the wires at the ceiling, to have a minimum of 
crossing. Due to the large strain on the insulators at 
this point, reinforcements were necessary for the wood 
strips. 

Cleat Work on Ceiling 
Figure 2 shows a fine 
example of cleat work. 
The wires are installed in 
two tiers and the wood 
supports for cleats heavily 
braced to the structure. 
The main feeders are eas- 
ily distinguished among 
the circuit work. A pair 
of six wire terminals are 
shown near the ceiling 
line, through which the 
cicuits pass to the adjoin- 
ing room. A conduit 
sleeve is installed through 
the fire wall, with a ter- 
minal fitting on each end ; 



26 



ELECTRICAL AGE 



August, 1916 



this arrangement provides the best possible protection 
to the wires. 

The wiring running parallel with the channels, is in- 
stalled on cleats secured directly to the wood roof. 
This means that the wires run between the tops of the 
trusses and the under side of the roofing, where they 
cross the trusses. At various points, viz : at bents No. 
i 3> 2 5> 36 and 48 in the northbound shed; 62 and 70 in 
the head-house, and No. 84, 96, 108 and 120 in the 
southbound shed, there is a concrete fire stop or par- 
tition installed from the lowest member of the truss 
clear to the roof, completely enclosing the truss work 
and running from wall to wall. These are to limit the 
spread of fire as much as possible by dividing off, in a 
way, the portions near the roof into sections. Tight- 
fitting tubes are installed through these fire stops, 
through which the wires are run. One of these fire 
stops can be seen in the distance in Fig. 1, immediately 
near Panel F. Fires on the southern piers are very 
dangerous, due to the thousands of bales of cotton of- 
ten stored thereon. Large and glaring "No Smoking'' 
signs attract the attention of the newcomer. 

Lighting Fixtures 

Practically all of the lighting fixtures occur at the 
under side of trusses, which is shown by the outlet 
symbols on the plan in Figure 3, the dotted cross lines 
representing the trusses. These fixtures are made up 
of conduit stems, hung on a hook and link, with an 
open hickey at the top. The link is used to allow the 
fixture to swing, as high winds often sweep the pier. 
The fixtures are each fitted with suitable sockets and 
reflectors, of types best adapted for the various cases 
A solid tap is made to the circuit wires at the ceiling, 
to a flexible reinforced cord which is looped down to 
and into the fixture stem. This can be seen at the 
truss immediately beyond the gallerry in Fig I. The 







Fig. 1. Interior of Pier 



Fig. 2. Distributing Panel 
method proves very satisfactory, and makes a neat ap- 
pearance. 

Control of Lighting Circuits 

The lighting is generally controlled from the panel- 
boards, except for the 1,000-w. outlets, which are con- 
trolled locally by lock switches. By referring to the 
plan (Fig 3), thtese can be easily distinguished with 
the aid of the list of symbols, the fused lock switches, 
being clearly shown at the column nearest each such 
outlet. A pair of N.E.C. enclosed fuse cutouts are in- 
stalled in a box at the points designated. Each of the 
cutouts is equipped with rotary snap switch and fuses,, 
the switches having a lock and key attachment. The 
outfit is so mounted in the box as to have the lock at- 
tachment set flush with the outer face of the door when 
closed. Two small apertures in the door expose the 
operating attachments so that the lights can be thrown 
on or off with the use of the key, without opening the 
door. The door, when opened, exposes the cutouts for 
re-fusing purposes. The various wires to the switches- 
are installed in one conduit, there being seven where 
two switches are located in one box, i.e., three for 
the feeds (one switch being connected on each side of 
the three-wire circuit, balancing the same), and two- 
returning to the ceiling from each switch to its fixture. 
Where one switch only is located in the box, there are 
but four wires run down. The typical sectional eleva- 
tion on plan (Fig 3) shows this very clearly. 

Electric air heaters, manufactured by the Westing- 
house Electric & Manufacturing Company, are instal- 
led in the various booths, as shown on the plan. These 
booths are each about 11 ft. square and 10 ft. high, 
each being equipped with two 2250 watt heaters, hav- 
ing three-heat snap switches. 

It may be noted, as a point of interest, how the rail- 
road tracks and loading platforms in the northbound 
shed, are arranged. This arrangement allows the 
handling of quite a few more cars than on the other 
shed, where the usual scheme is applied. There is a- 
gallery platform running all around the entire pier for 
the use of passengers, as shown in Figure 3. 



August, 191 6 



ELECTRICAL AGE 



27 



Panelboards 

The panelboards are distributed about the pier at 
points indicated on the plan. They are of high grade 
construction, of slate, each circuit being provided with 
a two-pole knife switch, the hinges and jaws being 
forged from solid copper, sweated and pinned in their 
blocks ; and a pair of enclosed type N.E.C. fuses. Each 
panel has also a main fused switch and pilot lamp. 
The panels are each provided with slate barriers, par- 
titioning them from the wiring spaces between the 
panel and the cabinets they are mounted in. These 
cabinets are built of sheet steel, Y% in. thick, substan- 
tially braced, and provided with hinged doors, vault 
handles and lock. The trims are fixed in position, 
forming a permanent cover over the gutters or wiring 
spaces ; the doors being hinged and exposing the panels 
proper only. Feeder cables are sweated into lugs, and 
circuit wires Xo. 10 and smaller fastened under U- 
shaped washers and knurled thumb-nuts, slotted for a 
screwdriver and fastened to their respective terminals. 
Main switches and fuses, as well as circuit switches 
and fuses, are all so arranged that with the switch 
open the fuses and the switch blades are "dead." 
Service Connections 

The services are brought to the main panels at the 
entrances from the Lighting Company's overhead 
lines, from which the feeders distribute to the various 
panelboards. These feeder cables are all run exposed 
on the cleats, as above described. 

Figure 4 shows the service entrance point A in the 
northbound shed. As this panel occurs immediately 
above the main entrance door, it was necessary to in- 
stall the same high up on a platform about twenty feet 
above the floor so as to clear the door when sliding 
open. The incoming line enters a service switch and 
fuses, then runs to the meter and its current trans- 
formers, and thence into a main switch for the entire 
shed. This panel contains a fused switch controlling 




Fig. 4. Main Service Entrance 

the feeder to each individual panelboard. A fused 
switch and meter is similarly arranged for power. The 
arrangements made for the other shed are practically 
identical with this one. The feeder layout in Figure 
3 shows the entire system and service from the main 
panels out. 

Calculation of Feeders 
An interesting feature is the exactness with which 
the side of feeder cables and circuit lines had to be de- 
Continued on Page 61 







! <*■'■■+ I 



■ - - " >. 



-^"> 



: ■'.■ 1 i~~L !*] : ■ : .. ! . ■ T Tl ! ]. ' " i > TJ 






^y-% - 



3E^=£ 



r 



1 ' ' ! 1 J 1 nmtinr • i ' t ' ' \ • 




Fig. 3. Wiring Diagram 



28 



ELECTRICAL AGE 



August, .1916 




B^ Hdgjasr Wo Co&iisas 

Engineer Industrial Heating Department, General Electric Company 



During the past two years the industrial heating engineer has 
used electric heat as a medium for accomplishing many indus- 
trial processes in a more economical and satisfactory manner 
than was possible with the older modes of heating, such as 
steam, coal or coke and gas. Not only have these applications 
been of value in promoting quality of product, but they have in 
many cases increased production as well and a lower cost has 
resulted. 

A consideration of what has been accomplished in this short 
time, and a careful study of the possibilities for the future are 
rapidly convincing central-station men that this field offers such 
promise of increasing their load that they are already organ- 
izing special industrial heating forces to co-operate with the 
manufacturers and bring about the greatest results from the 
use of electric heat. 




Economies of Electric Heat 

Not only does the resistance heater offer a large output in 
kilowatt-hours to the central station, but the load comes largely 
at such times that it modifies the load curve in a very acceptable 
manner by filling in the off-peak periods with balanced non- 
indfictive loads. In many cases factories operate on a 24-hour 
basis and the central station can materially increase its night 
load. The customer also frequently profits through his taking 
on electric heating loads merely from the fact that he increases 
his total power consumption and gets the advantage of a corres- 
ponding decrease in rate for his whole electric power load. 
Again in many cases he is operating an expensive steam plant 
and long steam mains in order to do a comparatively small 
amount of low-temperature steam heating; such satisfactory 
conditions can usually be remedied through the use of electric 
heat. 

There are many cases where central stations may, in the 
future, employ electric heat as a part of their generating and dis- 
tributing system and make a saving internally. I refer to sta- 
tions which are combined steam and water-power plants, and 
which do a considerable amount of steam heating. Through the 
use of auxiliary electrically-heated boilers, to be used independ- 
ently or in multiple with fuel fired boilers, the maximum load on 



a water-power plant may. be kept practically constant or at any 
rate may be increased to the extent of its steam-heat load during 
off-peak periods, using the fuel heated boiler only for peak 
periods of load. 

Many paper mills located where there is an abundance of 
water power should be able to generate steam electrically for 
their heating needs more economically than through the use ol 
fuel fired boilers. 

Necessary Analysis of Each Case 

From the foregoing, it is evident that a decision as to whether 
electric heat may be employed to replace other means of 
heating cannot safely be determined by comparison, simply on 
a B.t.u. basis of cost of electric heat as against heat for fuel. 
The applications must be carefully analyzed and due allowance 
made for all advantages accruing from the use of electric heat. 
The heating engineer must consider the advantages, control of 
temperature, ease and directness of application, increase of pro- 
duction, reduction in fire risks, decrease of labor of attendance, 
decreased cost of up-keep, freedom from smoke, gases and ex- 
cessive heat lost to the room creating discomfort to the operators 
in hot weather, saving in floor space increased quality of pro- 
duction and saving of lost heat due to fuel being burned uneco- 
nomically through the carelessness of operators in adjusting fires, 
burners, etc. This last point is not always given the considera- 
tion if merits. A kilowatt-hour in an electric heater must create 
3412 B.t.u. ; on the other hand the writer has seen cases where 
the operator used double the fuel oil that was required for cer- 
tain heating, simply because he did not have the skill or care to ■ 
tdjust his mixtures at the burner for perfect combustion. This 
cannot happen with electric heat, especially when automatically 
controlled, and hence its use serves to safeguard against need- 
less waste of heat. 




Delivered before the recent convention of the National Electric 
Light Association. 



Fig. 4. Electric Japanning Oven 

Much waste occurs in fuel fired apparatus due to the im- 
possibility of applying heat directly at the point where it is 
wanted. Compare the immersion electric heater which puts the 
heat directlv in the bodv of liauid to be heated with the fuel 



August, 1916 



ELECTRICAL AGE 



29 



fire where only a part of the heat of combustion is transferred 
by convection currents of heated gas first to the container surface 
and thence to the liquid which is being heated, the remaining 
and perhaps major part of the heat of combustion escaping with 
the flue gases. This is heat lost and results in slow and ineffi- 
cient application as compared with the electric way. 

It is intended in this paper to deal only with the application 
of electric heat in industrial processes that require 50 degrees 
fahr. or less. A few of these processes only will be discussed 
in detail, but a more extensive tabulation of the practical possi- 
bilities of the use of electric heat demanding the attention of 
the heating engineer is here outlined. 




Fig. 5 

general three types of heating units have been developed by the 
manufacturer to cover industrial heating devices not requiring 
more than 950 degrees fahr. These units are (1) the air heater 
unit (Fig. 1) the hot plate or cast-in or embedded unit 
(Fig. 2) and the immersion type unit (Fig. 3). These units are 
generally of the metallic resistor type, this resistor being of the 
nicklechrome combination which is free from corrosion in the 
air at temperatures much in excess of their normal operating 
temperatures. These units are designed so that they may be used 
singly or in combination to take care of standard voltage such 
as 550, 440, 200, no alternating or direct current. 

Air Heaters 

The air-heater type of unit consists in general of a frame 
work of steel or cast iron carrying insulators made from mineral 
compounds such that they afford high insulation resistance even 
at the fusing point of the metallic resistor which they carry. 
This resistor, in the best designs, is of the nicklechrome-type 
alloy and is non-corrosive in air at a temperature of 800 degrees 
cent, or higher. Where a number of these heaters are connected 
together in air, oven or other heating chamber, it has been found 
best to use steel busbars and connections mounted upon insula- 
tors having the same characteristics as the heater insulators. In 
addition to high insulation and refractoriness at high tempera- 
tures this compound has practically no expansion and contraction 
and is not affected by moisture even at high temperature. 

Air heaters have a very wide application. When used in 
heating ovens they are usually units of capacity ranging from 
three to ten kilowatt units, which may be distributed to give 
uniform heating results and the desired oven temperature. 
Standard control panels both for hand and automatic control 
through the medium of an oven thermostat are available, and 



are in fact a necessity for most installations. Fig. 5 shows a chart 
taken from automatic control adapted to the heating of an 
oven for japanning at 500 deg. Fahr. 

Hot-Plate Heaters 

The hot-plate cast-in, or embedded type of unit consists 
generally of a metallic resistor properly insulated and clamped 
between metal plates, or it may have the resistor wire suitably 
insulated and cast in a metal plate or container as an integral 
part of such, or the same type of resistor wire may be embedded 
by rolling, swaging, welding or other method in metal plates 
or resistor carrying parts. Such units are usually employed by 
clamping them in contact with the parts to be heated and are 
suitably lagged to pevent loss of heat from external surfaces in 
contact with the room. These units are likewise designed for 
use in standard voltage circuits either individually or in com- 
bination and in many cases are wound to give three heats 
through the use of a 3-point snap switch. 

The immersion type of unit is in general of such form that 
the resistor itself may be immersed in the body of fluid it is to 
heat or it may be protected from direct contact with the fluid 
by an intervening insulated and protecting sheath. One end of 
the sheath protrudes from the fluid and carries the heater termi- 
nals. In the application of the immersion heater to industrial 
uses, the writer favors automatic regulation of temperatures, and 
to this end recommends the use of a thermostat and automatic 
switch (Fig. 8) to control and prevent overheating and yet 
allow the most rapid heating. 

Table of Uses 

The following table shows some of the more common indus- 
trial applications of the foregoing heating units and the particu- 
lar type of unit usually employed: Figs. 9, 10 and n shows 
equipment heated by resistance units. 



Process of 


Temperature 


Type of Heating 


Method of Heat 


Device 


Range 


Unit 


Control 


Baking of japan 


300- 600 c <?g F. 


Air 


Hand or automatic 


Baking of varnish & 








paints 


100- 300 


" 


Automatic 


Baking color enamels 


100- 300 






Baking bread & pastry 


150- 600 






Baking foundry cores 


350- 500 






Baking insulations 


200- 500 






Annealing copper 


350- 700 


" 




Annealing aluminum 


500- 800 






Annealing glass 


900-1000 






Tempering steel 


200-10r.O 


Air & hot plate 




Melting lead 


620- 700 






Melting tin 


450- 500 


" " " 


" 


Me'ting babbitt 


450- 700 


" " " 




Wax & compounds 


150- 500 


Air, plate & im- 
mersion 




Heating coils 


100-1000 


Plate & immersion 


" 


Heating water 


32- 212 


Air, plate & im- 
mersion 


Hand or automatic 


Making steam 


212- 500 


Air & immersion 


Automatic 


Heating metal molds 


200-1000 


Air & plate 


Hand or automatic 


Lumber dryiDg kilns 


100- 200 


Air 


Automatic 


Boiling varnishes 


100(?)-500 " 


" 


Hand or automatic 


Heating buildings 


0- 80 




Hand 


Soldering 


400- 650 


Plate 




Glue pots 


100- 200 


Cartridge 


Hand or automatic 


Melting type-metal, 








linotype machines 


6?5- 700 


" 


" " 


Sherardizing 


650- 'iOO 




Hand 



Those heating processes employing the air heater have dur- 
ing the past two years yielded the control stations a large kilo- 
watt-hour output. Very great success has attended the use of 
the air heater in baking ovens whose temperatures range from 
300 to 500 deg. Fahr. A specific use is that of japan baking. It 
may be said that already more than 40,000 kilowatts of con- 
nected load in air heaters have been installed for this purpose. 
The writer does not know of a single installation changed to 
electric heat which has not been so satisfactory that it has 
worked to extend the use of electric heat for baking purposes. 

Much could be said in detail concerning other processes in 
favor of electric heat as against fuel fired equipment. It is 
hoped that these few comments may be sufficient to enlist the 
energies of the central station man not already conversant with 
and enthusiastically at work in this promising field if industrial 
heating. 



\o 



ELECTRICAL AGE 



August, 191 6 




Natural resources are conserved just as much by the 
little economies as by the big ones. Power from a small 
stream may replace much human labor. 

The ideal source of power for the farm or country home 
is one which requires minimum maintenance, even at the ex- 
pense of a slightly greater first cost. Installed in out-of-the- 
way places, such power-plants are seldom inspected by expert 
electricians, but must depend for upkeep on the few minutes' 
casual looking-over and filling of oil-cups which the owner 
or the "hired man" may be inclined to give. The further the 
plant is from a repair-shop, the more important is its rugged- 
ness, for much time must of necessity elapse before assistance 
can be secured in time of need. 




View of a typical weir. It is better practice, however, to have 

the pond about three times as wide. Graduations on the 

stick begin at the level of the weir crest. 

While the modern gas-engine is a remarkably sturdy device, 
yet its unavoidable complications and the necessity of a constant 
supply of fuel are drawbacks which are not presented by the 
use of Nature's "white coal" — water power. The man who can 
utilize a stream of water to drive a generator has at hand a 
source of power which costs him next to nothing for operation, 
maintenance and depreciation. For its harnessing the capital 
outlay need not be large, since "spare-time" labor of the owner 
and his regular employees will ordinarily suffice. 

The Preliminary Survey 

In prospecting for water-power site that is worth develop- 
ment there are several points to be kept in mind. A preliminary 
reconnoissance will show whether within economical transmit- 
ting distance there is a sufficient fall in a stream whose minimum 
flow is enough to generate the required power. Assume that the 
peak load is I kw. and that the total output in 24 hours is 12 
kw-hr. With 80 per cent, generator efficiency there must be a 
mechanical input of 15 kw-hr. The efficiency of the turbine or 
wheel will be about 80 per cent., so that there will be required 
39,670 cu. ft. of water falling through a height of 20 ft. from 
the level of the head-race to that of the tail-race. Therefore 



the total flow of the stream per day during the dry season 
should not be less than about 40,000 cubic feet. If the stream 
has an average velocity of flow of 1.5 ft. per sec, it must have 
a cross-section of 44.5 sq. in. in order to pass 40,000 cu. ft. in 24 
hours. 

The foregoing example has been worked out to show a typical 
case and to give an idea of the relative magnitudes encountered. 
If the reconnoissance indicates the probability of sufficient pow- 
er, a careful study should be made in which all the elements 
are carefully determined and the probable cost and amount of 
power to be secured are estimated. 

Measuring Stream-Flow 

There are two methods of measuring the flow of a stream, 
which are almost equally accurate. If the bed is of fairly 
uniform cross-section for fifteen feet or so, the 
velocity of flow may be measured by timing the 
movement of a stick floating down the current. This 
should be weighted at one end so as to float vertical- 
ly with one end near the bottom. Multiplying this 
by the sectional area of the water, measured in 
square feet, gives the flow in cubic feet per second, 
and this value multiplied by 86,400 gives the cubic 
feet per day. The weir method is more generally 
applicable, for a dam can be constructed almost 
anywhere. The "spillway" through which the water 
escapes should be formed of boards with sharpen- 
ed edges, the bevel opening down-stream. Thin 
metal edges may also be used. The location should 
Le chosen so as to form a pond of such size above 
the weir that the water has practically no velocity 
when it reaches the vicinity of the weir. The width 
B of the weir should be not more than 1/6 W^~H; 
B is the width of the pond immediately above the 
weir and H is the head over the weir. A stake is 
driven in the pond at some distance above the weir 
and so that its top is level with the crest C.oi the 
weir. The formula for the flow of water over the 
weir is then 
Q = 3-33 ByH 3 where 
Q — flow in cu. ft. per sec. 
H = depth of water above crest of weir, i. e., above 

top of stake. 
B = breadth of weir. 
When a large hydro-electric development is projected it is 
usual to take measurements during several months, but for 
plants such as we are considering it will be sufficient to take 
daily readings for about a month during the dryest season of the 
year. 



som 




W/////7M7,, 



.CLAY N^SfitS^-j; 
f/TZ WAT£Tff W*££L CO 



COS GAM 

Where timber is easily obtainable, this is an inex- 
pensive dam to build. It is easy to put together and 
is quite satisfactory where only a small dam is required. 

Necessity for Water-Storage 

The question of whether or not to build a dam for water- 
storage depends on whether the minimum flow of the stream is 



x 



August, 1916 



ELECTRICAL AGE 



3i 



sufficient to provide adequate power. Returning to the typical 
case mentioned, in which the peak load was I kw., there would 

1,000 
be required at that time an input of = 2.1 



/ 



to X .80 X .80 



A 

- 0.1 



0.2 



- 0.3 






0.4 si 
•£ 5 b 



0.6> 



1 






?.o, 



.03 
.05 

0.1 

0-2 



I 



I 

L5 

Z 

25 
3 

J-4 



I 



0.3 
■ 0.4 



-05 



I 



4 
5 



10 

12 
14 



0.15 

o.e 

0.25 
0.3 

+ 0-4 

0.5 
0.6 
0.7 

; 0-8 

0.9 

I 



To find the flow of water over a weir, lay a straight- 
edge on the diagram so that 't crosses columns A and C at 
points indicated by the head and the width of weir re- 
spectively. The discharge may then be read at the point 
where the line cuts column B. Thus in the example shown 
by the broken line, with a width of 0.5 ft. and a head of 
0.83 ft., the discharge will be 1.25 cu. ft. per sec. The 
formula is the same as that given in the text. 



water hp. This would require a flow of Q = cubic feet 

.114/; 
per second where P = water horsepower and h = useful 
head from head-race level to tail-race level. Assuming h = 20 
ft., we find that Q = .918 cu. ft. per sec. In this case, the 
stream has a flow of .46 cu. ft. per sec. or only half enough 
for the peak load, so that a dan is essential. 
While for large projects storage capacity for several weeks' 



co/ve fir-re dam 




rtrz w*rcm rr*£Ci CO 



If, later, a concrete dam is desired, this form can be 
built without removing the old timber dam. For any- 
one familiar with its use, concrete is the best material 
for dams. 



supply of water is often provided yet private plants can seldom 
afford to Luild a dam or set aside ground sufficient for more 
than one or two days' exclusive supply. In our typical case 
we found that a total flow of /o.coo cu. ft. per clay was neces- 
sary. This amounts to .918 acre-feet (1 acre-ft. — 1 acre cov- 
ered to 1 ft. depth = 43,560 cu. ft.) Assuming sufficient capaci- 
ty for three days' normal service, we shoula require 2.75 acre- 
f c;t cr the contents of a pond 10 ft. X fo ft. X 2/0 ft. 




7E*t <*/*££ L CO 



A very good dam made from stone. The outer lay- 
ers should be bound with cement mortar or concrete to 
render them perfectly watertight. 

One of the devices by which an owner can eke out his supply 
of water is well illustrated here. The assumed load-factor is 
50 per cent., which means a large day load. In times of low 
water this can be reduced by deferring power-using tasks, 
thus reducing the load-factor to 20 per cent, without restrict- 
ing the use of light, which forms the peak-load. By this means 
the consumption of water can Le reduced to _;o per cent, of the 
maximum, or 16, ceo cu. ft. per day. 

Types of Dams 

The details of dam-construction vary so with the location, 
and are generally so well understood that no extensive account 
is necessary. Sketches of several types are given which may 
be suggestive. The versatility of the American farmer can be 
counted on to construct the form best adapted to his condi- 
tions of labor, material, site and size. Where concrete is used, 
care should be taken to secure the best of cement, clean, sharp 
sand and good stone. 




iTrrrrn 



T £ <? * -£-fi_ CO 



Where greater height is wanted, this form of timber 
dam may be used. 

Types of Wheels 

In choosing the type of wheel, the available head and the 
amount of power to be developed are the determining factors. 
While it is always best to consult with the manufacturers con- 
cerning the exact type and the setting of it, yet for the prelim- 
inary work the following information may be of service: 

The impulse-wheel is suitable for high heads and small 
quantities of water. It gives considerable latitude in the selec- 
t on of a power house site, for the water is conducted in pipes 
of moderate size and the wheel with its associated generatoi 
forms a compact unit. The overshot 'wheel will care for 
— oderate volumes of water, but as its diameter must be the 
height of the fall, it is limited as to head. It must be set in 
the line of flow and needs careful alignment. On account of its 
low speed, two sets of gears are used between it and the gen- 
erator. 

Continued on Page _<8 



32 



ELECTRICAL AGE 



August, 1916 





Mr. Gantt has done notable 
work in the development of ma- 
chine-shop planning systems, and 
scientific piece-rate methods. For 
the past few years he has been 
engaged in perfecting a system of 
management which would lead 
employees of all grades to become 
interested in their work. . One re- 
sult has been the development of 
a strong spirit of harmony and 
co-operation among employees 
working under his instructions 
but which is so strong as almost 
to eliminate jealously among 
those engaged in the work. . The 
most striking effect apart from the improvement in quality and 
increase in quantity of product has been the development and 
training of men. H is seldom now in plants working under these 
methods that a trained man promoted to a higher position does 
not fill it better than his predecessor did. 

This address was delivered before the Baltimore Section of 
the A. I. E. E. 

A LL great movements, whether for good or for evil, origin- 
■**■ ate in the mind of some leader. So important is this man 
that his movement is often known for thousands of years by 
his name. Christianity, Mohammedanism, and the other 
religions of the world bear testimony to this fact. 

All great inventions and enterprises not only have their origin 
in the mind of some leader, but they must be carried out under 
competent leadership. There is no factor that comes to the 
front at so many points as leadership ; for it is not only the man 
who conceives the idea of an enterprise who must be a leader, 
but so must be all of those under him who have to direct the 
activities of other men The manager, the superintendent, and 
the foreman must all be leaders if they would get results. This 
is true all over the world, but more especially in America, where 
every man has a right, so long as he conforms to the laws of the 
state, to do that which serves his interest best. 

If, therefore, we would stand at the head in industry, we must 
develop such methods of training our leaders as will enable them 
to command the confidence and suport of the men with whom 
they have to deal. This subject has been given but little atten- 
tion in the past, and in consequence our leaders have been large- 
ly selected at random, with the result that there are in this 
country no generally accepted principles of industrialism along 
the lines of which advancement can best be made. Not until we 
have determined these principles, and then accepted the lines 
along which our leaders must be trained, can we expect any har- 
monious development. 

Lessons From the War 

The great war now being waged in Europe has enabled us 
to contrast a great nation where industries were thus harmoni- 
ously developed with one whose industries have been developed 
in the haphazard manner which seem to cherish so highly. This 
war is destined to be the most far reaching event that has taken 
place since the fall of the Roman Empire, and many methods 
which were in vogue when it began, will be as obsolete when it 
ends as the dodo. If we would keep our place in the new world, 
which is to be created by this war, we must learn our lesson as 
it progresses, and train our people accordingly. In order to do 
this, we must ask ourselves, "Why is it that Germany has shown 



so much greater efficiency, both from a military and an industrial 
standpoint, than have the Allies?" 

It is becoming perfectly clear that the principles underlying 
industrial and military efficiency are the same and that, if a na- 
tion is to be efficient in a military sense, it must first be efficient 
industrially. 

We have talked efficiency in this country for several years, 
and many books have been written on the subject, but many of 
us feel that the actual results so far have been lamentably small ; 
and that we should be much more nearly in the class with Eng- 
land than with Germany if we were suddenly confronted with her 
problems. It would seem, therefore, that we should find the 
fundamental reasons why England presented such a strong con- 
trast to Germany, and see if we cannot learn something there- 
from. 

Wealth Versus Productive Capacity 

It is only a short time since England led the world in the arts, 
but recently Germany has demonstrated her superiority to both 
England and France. We must ask ourselves how this happened. 
It would seem to be something on this wise : The financiers of 
England, feeling that wealth could purchase whatever was need- 
ed for themselves and their national life, have devoted their en- 
ergies for a number of years to securing the wealth which was 
produced by others rather than making strenuous efforts to pro- 
duce it themselves. In this! attempt they have sent abroad 
millions of dollars to develop industries in foreign lands 
which brought them great returns. The leaders of Germany, 
on the other hand, not being able to exploit foreign peoples to 
the extent which was possible in England, turned their attention 
to developing their own resources, and the ability of their own 
people. When the supreme test came, Germany was found to be 
a nation of people who, in general, knew what to do and how 
to do it ; while the industries of Englaand were, in too many 
cases, controlled by people who understood only their commer- 
cial side. 

We, following the footsteps of England, have regarded finan- 
cial strength as the most important strength; forgetting the 
comment which the ancient philosopher made to the rich man 
who boasted of his possessions, when he said : "What availeth 
all thy wealth ? He that hath better iron than thou will come and 
take away all thy gold." In those days iron meant weapons. 
To-day iron may be taken as the symbol of both weapons, and 
tools of industry; and the statement is just as true to-day as it 
was two thousand years ago, that he that hath the better tools is 
more powerful than he hath wealth only. 

The move of the Secretary of the Navy to get engineers of 
the country working together for industrial preparation is a 
most hopeful sign, for in the critical times in which we are liv- 
ing, wealth may become of little more value to us than it would 
have been to Great Britain, if twenty miles of water had not 
separated her from the Continent of Europe. 

The Power to Create 

On the other hand, the power to do things cannot be taken 
away from us. Whether in peace or in war, the nation and its 
citizens who can produce are always masters of their destiny. 
The greater his creative power,, the more important will a man 
become, as we realize the real meaning of the titanic contest 
which is now going on in the world. 

The man who knows what to do and how to do it is preem- 
inently the engineer. The new world, which is being ushered in 
by the great struggle now taking place is one in which the en- 
gineer is destined to be the supreme power, for it is becoming 
Continued on Page 54 



August, 19 16 



ELECTRICAL AGE 



33 



WW 



vl ; 



mk 



€}©ww(&mtimh H 



n 



la 



Co-operation between contractor, 
central station, and manufacturer 
was the keynote of the sixteenth an- 
nual convention of the National Elec- 
trical Contractors' Association at the 
Hotel McAlpin, Xew York City .The 
week of July 17-22 was a period of 
"getting together" for electrical men 
in which the social side was by no 
means neglected. 

At the first session, Mr. T. Com- 
merford Martin, executive secretary 
of the X. E. L. A. show-ed how much 
the electrical industry owes to the co- 
operation between central stations 
and contractors in producing the 
present growth of the industry. As 
tillage of the great field of electricity 
supply, T. Martin cited the sum of 

83,000,000 spent annually for publicity by the generating compan- 
ies — the harvest of which will be reaped by the contractors as 
well as the central station. 

The responsibility of the contractor for the good name of the 
industry, due to the fact that it is he who comes into personal 
contact with the public, was brought out by Mr. Arthur Williams, 
of the New York Edison Company. More adequate repersenta- 
tion of electrical men before the law making bodies was urged 
by Mr. Edward Trefz, secretary of the Chamber of Commerce 
of the United States. Plans for "America's Electrical Week" 
were explained by Mr. H. W. Alexander of the Society tor 
Electrical Development. 

Wednesday afternoon's meeting was behind closed doors. On 
Thursday morning there were presented reports of the insurance 
and national code committees, followed by a discussion of con- 
centric wiring. One speaker gave as his opinion that the safety 
and superior economy of the method were doubtful. Others 
suggested that improvements and changes would make the meth- 
od a real business-getter for the contractor. Elimination of 
the minimum monthly bill was proposed as a method of interest- 
ing many who otherwise were hanging back from taking on 
electric service. 




Presidents, Past and Future : 
R. S. Stearnes J. R. Gallozvay 



Progress was reported in the As- 
sociation's efforts to discourage the 
sale of electrical goods to five and 
ten cent stores, a number of manu- 
facturers having already ceased this 
practice. 

The following officers were placed 
in nomination by the Nominating 
Committee, and elected by the Con- 
vention on Friday : 

President, Robley S. Stearnes, 
New Orleans, La. ; first vice-presi- 
dent, W. K. Tuohey, Springfield, 
Mass.; second vice-president, J. C. 
Rendler, Los Angeles, Cal. ; third 
vice-pre ident, J. T. Hilton, Syra- 
cuse, N. Y. ; secretary, George H. 
Driffield, Utica, N. Y. ; sergant-at 
arms, James F. Burns, Schenectady, 
N. Y. 

The next convention will be held at New Orleans during the 
week of October 10,1917. 

Social features of the convention included a reception and 
dance in the green and blue rooms of the McAplin on Wednes- 
day night; an inspection of the department store of B. Altman 
& Company, for the ladies, on Thursday morning ; a concert 
tendered by the Aeolian Company on Thursday afternoon, for 
ladies and guests, and an automoble ride for all to Coney Island 
that evening. The big affair, however, was the trip to Long 
Beach on Friday afternoon, in a special train on the Long Island 
Railroad. Surf bathing, undisturbed by sharks, was enjoys 1 by 
many, and after dinner both younger and older members danced 
until a late hour. On Saturday morning there was a boat-ex- 
cursion around the Manhattan water front, during which those 
present were guests of the New York central stations and the 
local Association at lunch. 

All of the leading electrical manufacturers had well-planned 
exhibits in the show held in the McAlpin grill. There was no 
exception to the rule that as much profit is derived from the ex- 
hibition of new products as from attendance at the convention 
sessions. 




The Convention Party at Long Beach 



34 



ELECTRICAL 



AGE 



August, 1916 



STfl 



ifla©lMTp§(fi;2a 



For the paths of progress we are indebted to men of two 
types. There must be not only pioneers to blaze the trail, 
but sturdy workmen to clear the way of obstacles and pre- 
pare it for the feet of thousands who follow. Such a pioneer 
was Lord Kelvin, whose name designates so many land- 
marks in electrical engineering, and such a roadmaker was 
Silvanus Thompson, through whose works so many of the 
older generation of electrical engineers entered upon the 
knowledge of their profession. 

Versatility and charming personality won him an honored 
place among that group of which Lord Kelvin was the shin- 
ing light. His death, which occurred on June 12, makes it 
fitting that we give at this time some account of his life 
and work. 

Silvanus Phillips Thompson was born at York, England, 
in 1851. At London University in 1869 he took his B. A. 
and in 1878 his D. Sc. Having lectured on science at Bristol 
for some time he was at once given the rank of professor, 




(3fe«* 



which he held until in 1885 he was elected Professor of Phys- 
ics at the City and Guilds Technical College at Finsbury, 
London. Later he became principal of that institution, a po- 
sition which he held until his death. 

The opportunity which was opened to Professor Thomp- 
son at the very outset of his career was unique. From being 
a pure science, electricity was just becoming a technology, 
and the rapid growth of the industry required that more 
and more men be trained in its knowledge. The newcomers, 
if students, attracted by the possibilities of the field, sat in 
Professor Thompson's classes and if men trained in the old- 
er branches of engineering gained from his writings a 
knowledge of exact methods so unlike those rules. of thumb 
to which they had been accustomed. For this work he was 
particularly suited, since he had the gift of explaining new 
ideas in terms which might readily be grasped by his hearers. 
Among technical works, popularity is a good test of merit; 
judged by this the sale of 100,000 copies of the English edi- 
tion of "Electricity and Magnetism" and its translation into 
German, French, Italian, Polish and Japanese, gives it a 



high rank shared by "Dynamo-Electric Machinery" and 
"Polyphase Electric Currents." 

Just as Lord Kelvin's talents were of great service to the 
promotors of the Trans-Atlantic Cable so the service of Dr. 
Thompson were in constant demand in the early days of the 
electrical industry. Systems, machines and processes of man- 
ufacture were offered to the public backed by the wildest 
claims. Dr. Thompson's sound judgment and professional 
knowledge enabled him to sift the wheat from the chaff and 
save many a pound sterling for its owner. In electrical de- 
sign and especially in patent work his knowledge of what 
had been attempted made valuable his opinion of the feasi- 
bility of a project. The mile-post of scientific progress in. 
England is the annual series of Cantor lectures. Professor- 
Thompson was twice honored by being chosen as lecturer,, 
choosing as his subject in 1883 the theory of construction 
and operation of dynamo-electric machines. These lectures- 
may even now be read with profit, and when it is remember- 
ed that they formed the first concise expose of the subject,, 
the widespread interest which they excited may be realized. 
The Electro-magnet was the subject of the second series, de- 
livered in 1893. Magnetism had always been a hobby with 
Prof. Thompson; he had studied all the early works on elec- 
tricity and magnetism and these researches were embodied, 
in his lectures. 

Like many other men of science, Professor Thompson's in- 
terest were as broad as they were deep. In music he was- 
well versed; with artists he could talk with the confidence- 
given by his skill in water colors and the fact that some 
of his pictures had been hung in the Royal Academy; he was- 
an authority upon and a discriminating collector of first edi- 
tions, jewels and rare stones; and he was always in touch 
with the latest discoveries in every science, particularly in 
astronomy. Outside of electricity, the study of optics, chiefly 
engaged his attention, and he made a number of contribu- 
tions to its theory, both mathematical and physical. A use- 
ful volume of optical tables is also of his compiling. 

As a public speaker, Professor Thompson was often in de- 
mand. Reference has been made to his Cantor lectures; he 
also delivered similar lectures on many notable occasions. 
During his long and active membership in the Institution of 
Electrical Engineers he frequently took part in discussions, 
though contributing but few original papers. His proficiency 
in foreign languages made him the spokesman of the Insti- 
tution on the Continent, and in the discussions of the In- 
ternational Electrotechnical Commission he was often able 
to avert misunderstandings by some of the foreign members. 
Men who unite agreeable personality with engineering at- 
tainments are always in demand for executive posts in tech- 
nical and scientific societies. Many honors of this sort were 
given to Professor Thompson; he was at some time presi- 
dent of the Institution of Electrical Engineers, the Institute 
of Junior Engineers, the Physical Society, the Optical So- 
ciety, the Illuminating Engineering Society and "The Sette 
of Odd Volumes." The leading scientific societies of other 
countries numbered him as a member; among these were the 
American Philosphical Society and the American Institute 
of Electrical Engineers. 

In his private life Dr. Thompson exhibited the simplicity 
and kindliness characteristic of the Society of Friends of 
which he was a sincere and devout member. The affection 
which he inspired was due not only to the practical aid which 
he quietly extended to many persons in need, but to the sym- 
pathy and sound counsel which were ready for any who came 
to him in trouble. Such qualities even more than his scientific 
attainments have made the loss of Dr. Thompson sincerely 
mourned. 



I 



ni[!;i T ."'::inii! ■■' 













One of the most characteristic traits of the American 
people is their belief in the sovereign power of educa- 
tion as a means of advancement. Starting with the 
common school to prepare men for the simple intel- 
lectual needs of out-door life, and the college to train 
them for the law and the ministry, our educational sys- 
tem has branched out into fields the most diverse. 
Even in electricity there are courses for dynamo-tend- 
ers, motormen, meter-readers, salesmen and so on for 
every grade up to the top. For the less complex posi- 
tions, all a man needs to know may be included be- 
tween the covers of a text-book. Faithful study will 
fit a man to do his work better and better, until his ad- 
vancement finally brings him to the place at which the 
text-books stop. There, he has mastered the techni- 
que of his calling; the problems that now confront 
him are those concerning, not materials and machines, 
but men. 

Bradley, these problems may be grouped under the 
caption, "Problems of Leadership." The man who 
does his own work well is sure to be given the chance 
to direct other men, because the vacancies in this field 
are so many. And yet though he has a dozen hand- 
books on technology he has not one on leadership, nor 
is there anyone to tell him what he should or should 
not do. He is brought out of the ranks to succeed or 
fail largely as chance may determine. 

An able address by Mr. Henry L. Gantt, published 
elsewhere in this issue, brings out forcefully the need 
of industrial leaders in the immediate future and the 
desirability of training them ere that need becomes 
pressing. With his opinions we are inhearty accord. 
Any contractor or manufacturer will say that his fore- 
men are the most essential part of his organization. 
Yet no effort is made to train men, by conscientious 
schooling, to fill their places, vacancies will occur by 
resignations, promotions, enlargements of the busi- 
ness, yet there is seldom an "understudy" waiting to 
step into the vacant shoes. 

It must be admitted that instruction of this sort is 
the hardest in the world to give. As in any case where 
personalities are involved, the values to be recognized 
are most intangible. Anyone may know how much 
load a motor will carry — but how much praise does 
Bill Jones have to have to keep him contented, and 
how much more would make him self-conceited? Yet 
there are many things a wise foreman knows which he 
can tell to others for their good in instructing them 
how best to deal with their fellow-men. 



Systems there are for choosing employees — but for 
developing leaders — how great is the need ! 



Mild TtSlSFJKgE 

That no employee in possession of his senses will 
criticise his employer to an outsider has become one 
of the unwritten rules which is generally obeyed. Too 
many men, however, while acknowledging their obli- 
gation to refrain from doing anything which might 
injure their employer's business, are not as careful as 
they might be in considering the effects of their words 
upon people who know little or nothing about electric- 
ity. A customer inquires : "How did you know what 
my meter read last month? Your man didn't get into 
the house to read it." 

The desk-man answers: "Oh, he just guessed at it." 
Perhaps the bill was small and the customer did not 
care to follow the inquiry. But he would carry away 
an impression of slipshod accounting methods which 
would cast a shade of doubt over all his subsequent 
bills. By a word of explanation the employee might 
have assured him that the meter would be read the 
next month and that any error in the previous reading 
would then be corrected automatically. 

Remarks as to the danger of electric shocks are 
quite frequently heard. Where a high-tension dis- 
tributing network is used, timid people may well hesi- 
tate to use the safest kind of secondary service because 
of some lurid tale they may have heard of a fatal 
shock being received from inside wiring. Prospects 
for house-wiring frequently interpose the objection 
of fire-risk — a fear inspired by oft-repeated and usually 
wrongly-placed blame for fires of really unknown 
origin. There has come to our attention recently a 
case in which a salesman mentioned as a particular 
merit for his fire extinguisher the fact that it was es- 
specially suited for putting out fires in partition-walls 
due to crossed electric wires. Questioning developed 
the fact that a central-station man had given him this 
"talking-point." 

It seems strange that after all the efforts of electrical 
men to convince the public of the safety of electric 
wiring, one of their own number should recommend 
an extinguisher for electrical fires. As an actual fact, 
the chance of an extinguisher being used for that pur- 
pose is negligibly small. Further, ordinary common- 
sense should make a man hold his tonsrue concerning; 
any defect in his goods or services unless that defect 
rendered them really unfit for the customer's use. The 



36 



ELECTRICAL AGE 



August, 1916 



public assumes that he is doing that, and hence multi- 
plies his criticism many fold. 

It may be asked what reply should be made to a 
question which touches one a delicate subject. There 
are two methods, the choice depending on circum- 
stances. If the query is a casual one, it may be turned 
off by a mere assurance in a positive manner. Should 
the questioner be in genuine uncertainty, the only way 
is to explain just as clearly as possible the exact status 
of the matter. If this is not done the customer will 
think something is being concealed and his suspicion 
will be greater than ever. Even if the explanation does 
not result in a sale, the customer will feel that his in- 
terests are being cared for and the good-will thus es- 
tablished will be a permanent asset. 

* ♦:♦ * 

Th® WatWTB ©f C©pp®f 

When purchasing agents get together, the one favor- 
ite topic of discussion is sure to be the price of cop- 
per. On the stability of the present level until the end 
of the European war, there is no difference of opinion. 
Munitions-manufacture to fill orders for the Entente 
Allies will continue at a slightly increasing rate until 
peace is actually in sight. The stimulus which this 
large volume of business brings to associated and con- 
tributory manufacturers will continue to call for cop- 
per on the same scale as in the past for increases to 
all sorts of electrical plant. Generating companies 
must supply power no matter what the cost of conduc- 
tors and the needs of the telephone and telegraph sys- 
terms for additional circuits can now be met only by 
stringing more copper. We are not likely to come to 
the use of iron conductors, save in a few cases for 
telegraph lines, nor is there any prospect that the price 
of aluminum will be lowered to a point at which it can 
compete with copper. 

Concerning the price of copper after the war, how- 
ever, there is a sharp difference of opinion. Some hold 
that when existing consumers come again into nor- 
mal conditions, their demand will be so much curtail- 
ed that producers will lower the price to a figure below 
what it was early in 1914. This is, of course on the 
assumption that producers will feel the need of keep- 
ing their net revenues somewhere near the figure at 
which they stood in the heyday of their present pros- 
perity. That this assumption is unfounded can readily 
be shown, but we shall first consider the question of 
the demand for copper when peace shall have come. 

Reference to copper statistics for the normal years 
up to and including 191 3, enable us to say with fair 
accuracy that had there been no war, the Teutonic 
Allies would have imported 1,200,000,000 lbs. of cop- 
per during the two years ending July 31, 1916. Dur- 
ing that time, however, they have been able to import 
only a very small amount, so small indeed, as to be 
negligible. 

As far as we can tell, the industrial expansion of the 
Central Powers, while great in a few lines has on the 
whole been largely curtailed. There is no reason to 



think that the war will leave them economically pros- 
trate ; large as their losses have been, they will still 
have men and money to turn to the pressing needs of 
rehabilitation. Large as may be the supply of swords 
and spears for the manufacture of plougshares and 
pruning hooks, there will be a tremendous amount of 
new material required at once to build up the indus- 
tries of peace. Not only have additions to industrial 
plant been small, but over 1,000,000,000 lbs. of copper 
have been reclaimed — from idle traction lines, less 
necessary motors and generators, and copper bus-bars, 
from the humble kettle of the housewife and the 
roofs of dwellings. Many of these sacrifices must be 
made good by replacement when peace comes. 

On the whole then, we find that not only have Ger- 
many and Austria done without more than a million 
pounds of imported copper, but they have diverted to 
military use another million pounds. The vacuum 
created must be filled, and the filling of it will require 
imports in addition to their regular demand. One esti- 
mate of the needs of these two countries is 40 per cent, 
of the world's entire production during the five years 
after the war. 

The effect of this on our domestic market can easily 
be seen. In 1913, 161,000 tons or 41.5 per cent, of 
our copper exports went to the Central Powers. In 
191 5, with this market entirely shut off, our copper ex- . 
ports dropped by 112,000 tons — that is, the total 
of our exports to all other countries increased 
but 49,000 tons, or 12 per cent, of a normal year's ship- 
ments. Even assuming that all this increase was due 
to war conditions, we should have at its close only a 
loss of 12 per cent, as against an immediate gain of 41.5 
per cent, to supply current demand, and a much great- 
er gain to supply the copper-vacuum. 

So much for conditions of demand. On the "supply" 
side of the balance, there is little real evidence in favor 
of a movement toward lower prices. Continuous itera- 
tion of the phrase "conservation of natural resources" 
and growing understanding of the sound logic which 
li'es behind it, has convinced copper producers of the 
wisdom of holding on to their stock until it can be dis- 
posed of at a good profit. The margin at the former 
average price of fifteen cents is not so large that there 
is anything to be gained by sacrificing prices to gain 
volume. Nor is there need to cut prices to keep the 
mines running. Experience in 1914 taught executives 
ways of maintaining practically full efficiency while 
producing to but 50 per cent, of capacity. With oper- 
ating expenses fixed at about 10 cents per pound, the 
return on the investment will be just as great on 50 
per cent output at 16 cents as on full output at 13 cents, 
and the unworked ore remains in the ground against 
the day of still higher prices. Restriction of sales will 
be still further aided by the large financial resources 
which have been laid by out of the enormous profits of 
the past eighteen months. By their aid it will be pos- 
sible to put in stock quantities of metal, thus holding 
up the price and smoothing out the market-flurries 
which have formerly been so common. 



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A ^sss^fl ©2 l>3a<g<s©§sM 2Pi?©<efti<s« smSL ^.©toal Esspt&ffilesiK&es ©S Practical Men. 



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The great advance in the design of large transformers of 
very high voltage and the remarkable progress in the evolu- 
tion of high-tension switching apparatus has made it possible 
to build power plants and transmission lines for 120,000 volt 
and even higher. However, very few of these power plants 
built within the last few years show particular features which 
would be of much interest to the designing engineer. A 
great many of them have awkward wiring schemes, compli- 
cated high tension runs and unnecessary back and forth run- 
ning of conductors. The reason for this is that in many 
cases little attention is paid to the electrical wiring when the 
preliminary building design is made up. It will therefore be 
of some interest to review a power plant which shows care- 
ful planning and construction from the electrical point of 
view, and which, as an electrical proposition may be put 
down as one of the simplest high tension layouts in this 
country. A first glance at the plan and cross section in Figs. 
1 and 2 will show that all high tension runs are straight, 
short and direct, and that the arrangement of apparatus is 
actually as shown in the wiring diagram, Fig. 3, i. e., the en- 
ergy goes in a straight line from the generators, through 



the low tension switches, transformers and high tension 
switches, to the line and no cable or wire runs backwards. 
It will ylso be seen that there is a maximum utilization of 
space and at the same time plenty of working space and 
clearance about conductors. 

Location 

The first hydro electric power house on the Ocoec 
River is located at Parksville, Tennessee, about forty 
miles northeast of Chattanooga, and about seven miles up- 
stream from where the Ocoee River flows into Hiawassee 
River. 

The second development which is herewith described, is lo- 
cated on the Ocoee River about 2 miles above the back- 
water of the lake of the first development. 

Hydraulic Features 

At the top of the development, 5 miles up the river from 
the power house, there is a timber crib diversion dam, and 
the flume which carries the water from the dam to the 
equalizing basin is about 25,000 ft. long supported by a 
bench, cut in the hillside. The flume and its appurtenances 




/m -a -'a o concur. 



B~ J 



Fig. I Main Floor Plan, Ocoee Plant No. 2 



38 



ELECTRICAL AGE 



August, 191 6 



deliver the water into a concrete intake built on the side of 
the mountain, 254 ft. above the water in the river at the 
power house site. The water is carried from the intake 
through two steel penstocks, eight feet in diameter down the 
side of the mountain to the turbines. 

Apparatus 

There are two horizontal shaft, spiral base I. P. Morris 
turbines driving General Electric generators, each 9725 kw. 
3 phase, 60 cycle, 6600 volts, 3600 r.p.m., with direct connect- 




SBCT/OH A- A. 



Fig. 2 

ed 125 volt exciters and two G. E. transformers, each 9725 
kw., 3 phase, 60 cycle, 6600-66000-120000 volts. The trans- 
formers are 20 ft. 424 in. long, 7 ft. 6^4 m wide, 18 ft. jyh in 
high over the high-tension terminals and weigh 200.000 lbs. 
each. Each transformer requires 47 gals, of cooling water 
per minute at full load. 

There is also a 75 kw. 3 phase 6600-200-110 volt trans- 
former, a 50 kw. motor generator set for auxilaries and a 
ZV2 kw. motor generator set for charging the control stor- 
age battery. A compressor furnishes air for pneumatically- 
operated disconnecting switches and other purposes and an 
oil filtering outfit takes care of the oil for transformers 
and switches. The switchboard is of General Electric 
Company's practically standard design with mimic buses, be- 
tween control switches. The high tension oil switches are 
G. E. Co. type K 21 and the low tension oil switches G. E. 
Co. type H 3. 

General Arrangement of Apparatus 

As mentioned before, the actual arrangement of apparatus 
follows remarkably close to the wiring diagram, a feature 
which will be found in very few large stations and to which 
the simplicity of wiring and conduit runs is largely due. The 
generators are arranged on the down-stream side of the sta- 
tion, which is the east side. The current and potential trans- 
formers are located in the generator pits, which are made 
large enough to provide ample working space and clearance, 
the air ducts run under the floor and turn up outdoors where 
suitable provision is made to prevent dirt from getting into 
the pits. Two generators were installed and provision made 
for a third one. 

Further west are located the transformers. Each stands 
on a track whereon it can be moved and transferred by a 
special truck to another track which runs parallel to the 
transformers and at right angles to the individual tracks. 



There the transformer can be moved outdoors or the core 
can be lifted out by means of the 30 ton crane which runs 
the length of the turbine room. 

South of the transformers is the switchboard and west of 
the switchboard is located the 6600 volt bus and oil switch 
structure. There is a gallery over this space where the 
120,000-volt lighting arrester is located behind a suitable 
partition. Here also are the generator - field rheostats, 
which are electrically operated and the auxiliary station trans- 
formers. West of the transformers and bus structure the 
floor rises two feet on account of the slope in the penstocks. 
On this elevated part of the floor is arranged all the 120,000 
volt switching apparatus. 

Conduit System 

The conduit system is remarkably simple. Nearly all the 
ducts in the floor are of fiber, and except for the control ducts 
coming up at the high tension oil switches, no bends or 
offsets exist. A series of manholes — or better, pull holes, as 
they are only one foot deep and can hardly be called man- 
holes — is installed, and all the conduits run from manhole to 
man'-iole in straight lines. Cables for direct and alternating 
currents have separate manholes and 6600-volt cables do ,not 
come into the same manhole with 220 or no volt cables. 

Concrete covers are provided for all manholes. Pipe 
couplings are installed in each cover and it can so be raised 
by means of a lifter made up of standard iron pipe. 

A continuous pit is provided under the switchboard, which 
is partitioned off every 3 ft. All the conduits coming to the 
switchboard end in the pit and the cables are brought up 
through small pieces of pipe installed in the cover plate, 
which is part of the switchboard base. These small pipes are 
arranged in uniform sizes, spacing and height, and are located 



120,000 Vo/lline 



* Putt/re line 

jif__x~ Horn Gap Disc. Switches 
^Lightning f\ \ 
Arresters V ^ K z, oil Switches 

y Pneumatically Operated 
1 Disc. Switches 

'o- — \-/20,000 Volt Bus 

i * Pneumatically Operated 
4 Disc. Switches 

x ! 

§ P K2I Oil Switches 

fv.W izo, 000 Volt Tmn<:fnnr>orK 
^/•s^r.eeooYo/t transformers 

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110 Volt 



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Diagram or Connections 

Pig- 3 

opposite the terminals which they serve. All bending of 
cables back of the switchboard is thus avoided and an excep- 
tionally neat switchboard arrangement of wiring is the con- 
sequence. A few short pipes are installed through the par- 
titions in the pit to provide for interconnections. 



August, 191 6 



ELECTRICAL A G K 



39 



Another similar pit is provided under the 6600 volt bus 
structure with ample space to accommodate potential beads 
and to allow for pulling of cables. All pits are provided with 
drainage outlets. 

6600 Volt Bus Structure 

The structure for the 6600 volt type H-3 oil switches and 
buses is built of concrete, for the reason that it was neces- 
sar}- to install most of the control conduits in the rear wail 
of the structure. A typical cross section of this bus structure 
is shown in Fig. 4, which is self explanatory. 

High Tension Arrangement and Wiring 

The most interesting feature of this station is the high- 
tension part. It may be said without fear of contradiction 
that there is hardly another station which shows an arrange- 
ment equal to this one, both as regards simplicity and 
economy of space. There is not one bend or offset in the 
whole installation; all leads run straight and direct. 

The indoor disconnecting switches between the bus and 
the oil switches are pneumatically operated, and the valves 
are arranged on a platform which is built over the penstocks 
where they slope into the power house, which is another in- 
stance of utilization of space. The valves are solenoid operat- 
ed and controlled from the switchboard. The high-tension 
insulators are post type, made up of strain disc units which 
are cemented together into one solid pillar. The outdoor 
disconnecting switches, which are located on steel work on 
the roof are of the horn gap type and are operated from 
inside the station by means of a simple pipe mechanism, 
three switches being operated by a single lever. 

The lightning arrester is located indoors on a galley as 
mentioned above, as it was not considered advisable to use 
outdoor type arresters of such high voltage in the hot climate. 
However the horn gaps are on the roof and are operated 
from indoors by a simple pipe mechanism. The lines as well 
as the arrester leads are brought in through roof by means 
of high tension porcelain bushings made by the Ohio Brass 



Co., which are set in specially ingeniously constructed steel 
framing through the roof. 

It was not necessary to install foundations for the 120,000 
volt K 21 oil switches, since the switches themselves are 
high enough to make it impossible for anyone to come into 
accidental contact with any energized part. 



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REAR VIEW 



CROSS SECTION 

Fig. 4 

A concrete drain is built around the oil switches as well 
as around the lighting arresters to prevent the oil from 
spreading in case of any accidental leak in the tanks. 

The oil switches, as well as the arrester, are piped up to 
the oil piping system, so that they can be emptied or filled 
by opening the proper valves. 



lit 1 Reducer 




. - Standard Edison keyless 
socket with ft' threaded cap 

ISO Watt Tungsten - 



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Reflector with Holder 

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Railing Type 



Wake Hippie 



otandard Edison keyless socket 
with W Female threaded cap 





Above — Fig. 5. Insert — Fig. 6. 



40 



ELECTRICAL AGE 



August, 191 6 



The generator neutral runs along the east wall and each 
generator is connected to it through a G. E. Co.'f. type K-12 
oil switch which is mounted on a steel bracket on the east 
wall and is electrically operated. 

Penstock Control 

The butterfly valves on top of the penstock are operated 
by direct current motors controlled from the main switch- 
board, where there are indicating lamps to show the position 
of the valves. 

Lighting 

A few short remarks about the lighting may be of some 
interest. The generator space is lighted by fixtures such as 
shown in Fig. 5. The fixtures can be turned out of the way 
to permit the crane to pass. Simple fixtures, such as are 
shown in Fig. No. 6 are used around the high-tension wiring. 
No shades are used there, as it was advisable to let the 
lamp throw its light in an upward direction, since for obvi- 
ous reasons, no fixtures can be placed in places not easily 
accessible in high-tension rooms. Guards are provided over 
all lamps in the high-tension space to protect the filament 
from static influences. 

Transmission Line 

The transmission line from this plant to Parksville, a dis- 
tance of about 8 miles, is a three-phase, double-circuit, 120,000 
volt line on steel towers. Three 2-0 wires are used for 
power, a 5-16 in. copper-clad wire for ground. The towers 
will carry an additional circuit when the load demands one. 

The design and construction of the power house as well 
as transmission line was done by the J. G. White Engineer- 
ing Corporation, of 43 Exchange Place, New York City. 



Meniswimji Hi©lstmF<g From Transit ©il 
By Kennedy G. Rock worth 

Transil oil or transformer oil is known almost universally in 
the central station industry because it is used nearly everywhere, 
in high and low voltage transformers of large or small capacity, 
in circuit breakers for high voltage and heavy current, and 
in certain forms of cut out or fuses. Transil oil is used 
primarily as an insulating medium ; secondly as a cooling 
medium, that is to say for carrying away heat from a warm 
to a cooler body as for example from the core and windings 
of a transformer to the case; and thirdly for the quenching of 
arcs by interposing a barrier of oil between two electrodes 
across which the arc is playing. 

Transil oil is marketed in various grades, depending upon 
the dielectric strength, viscosity, flash point, freezing point, 
etc. Of all these the dielectric strength is the most important, 
although other factors must be taken into consideration ac- 
cording to the service for which the oil is to be utilized. In 
choosing an oil, beside the above characteristics, absence of 
impurities that will attack metals, promote sludging at high 
temperatures, throw down sediment under the influence of elec- 
trostatic stress, etc., must be guarded against. These are, how- 
ever, problems with which the manufacturer is concerned to a 
greater extent than is the user. 

Effect of Moisture 

The dielectric strength of transil oil is the characteristic that 
concerns the user most, and one of the most important factors 
that enters into this phase of the matter is the presence of 
moisture. It is well known that the presence of moisture in 
oil lowers the dielectric although just to what extent this occurs 
is not very generally known. That only a very small amount 
of moisture has an exceedingly deleterious influence upon the 
dielectric strength is at once apparent from the curves shown. 
It will be noticed that these two curves give different actual 
values of dielectric strength although the shape of the curves 



is very similar. The difference is due to the use of different 
frequencies and electrodes of different shapes. 

The dielectric strength test or breakdown test is the recognized 
method for testing oil for moisture because it is the criterion 
as to the fitness of the oil, it is most sensitive — it would he 
rather difficult and far more tedious to determine the presence 



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Fig. I. Effect of Water at Frequency 60 Cycles 

of two-thousandths per cent, of moisture by chemical means— 
and simple. Specifications are drawn up giving the dielectric 
strength, expressed in volts per mil. The manufacturers supply 
oil-testing apparatus for testing their oil, hence the desirability 
of standardizing the shape, spacing etc., of the electrodes must 
be apparent from the above curves. If electrodes of various 
shapes are to be used they should be calibrated and a curve plot- 
ted so that the relation between various breakdown voltages and 
different sizes and shapes of electrodes is known. It is however, 




Fig. 2. Effect of Water at Frequency 133 Cycles 

far simpler to adhere to electrodes as supplied by the manufac- 
turer. 

Rough Tests for Moisture 

It often happens that oil is being used to fill transformers, cir- 
cuit breakers, etc., far removed from a source of electric supply 
suitable for testing purposes. In this case it is impossible to ap- 
ply a high potential or breakdown test to the oil although the 
need for knowing whether or not it is free of moisture is as im- 
portant as ever. There are methods that are at once compara- 
tively simple and reasonably accurate for determining the pres- 



August, 191 6 



ELECTRICAL AGE 



4i 



ence of moisture in oil. These methods, unlike the dielectric 
strength test, give only an indication of the presence of moisture 
and do not show just what amount is present. They are how- 
ever, better than no test whatever. 

One of the best-known methods for determining whether water 
is present or not is to take a sample of oil (always take the test 
sample from the bottom of the container because water having 
higher specific gravity than oil sinks to the bottom) and plunge 
a red-hot iron into it. If moisture is present there will be heard 
a hissing sound; if there is absence of moisture there will be no 
sound. Another method, and one that is more accurate than the 
one mentioned above, consists of obtaining a few lumps of cal- 
cium carbide which are to be dropped into the sample of transil 




Fig. 3. Oil Filter and Pump 

oil. When these lumps of calcium carbide reach the bottom of 
the vessel containing the oil, which should be preferably trans- 
parent, gas will be given off if moisture is present, and bubbles 
generated will immediately rise to the surface of the oil. 

There is yet another method for determining the presence of 
moisture, which is probably more accurate and sensitive than 
either of those previously mentioned. Obtain some copper sul- 
phate crystals and dehydrate them (dehydrate means to dry them 
by heating until all moisture is driven off). When the copper 
sulphate is properly de-hydrated the residue will be a white pow- 
der known as anhydrous copper sulphate. Now pour a little of 
the transil oil slowly and drop by drop upon the anhydrous cop- 
per sulphate. If moisture is present the white powder will re- 
vert to its original color of bluish green. This test is a very 
sensitive test, and is recommended where the dielectric strength 
test cannot be carried out. 

Protection of Oil From Moisture 

Transil oil is highly hygroscopic, that is to say it will take up 
moisture from the air very readily. The great importance there- 
for, of protecting it properly from the rain and the damp air, 
especially in view of the rapid deterioration in dielectric strength 
of even small amounts of moisture, is readily seen. Barrels 
should always be kept tightly closed, metal barrels containing o'l 
should be stored so that the bung or outlet is not in such a posi- 
tion that rain will collect round it. 

The best way to safeguard apparatus is to keep the oil free 
from moisture, the next best to test for moisture before using 
any oil whatsoever. If moisture exists the oil must be treated 
so that it is removed. There are several ways of removing mois- 
ture from oil. 

Removing Moisture by Filtering 

The most satisfactory, and the one most generally used con- 
sists of filtering the oil, which has the further advantage in its 
favor of also eliminating slime and sediment. The oil is pumped 
through a number of filter papers under a pressure of between 
25 and 100 pounds per square inch. These filters, which are de- 
signed especially for this class of work are motor driven, and 
may be stationary or portable according to- choice. The filter 



contains from 14 to 20 separate chambers partitioned off by iron 
plates between which are placed pieces of filter paper. An out- 
fit having twenty chambers will utilize forty separate sets of fil- 
ter papers of three to five thicknesses each. 

Drying by Heating 

Often a filtering apparatus is not available, and some other 
means must be taken advantage of for eliminating the mo' ture 
A favorite method consists of drying the moisture out of the oil 
by heating. Great care must be taken that the oil be not dam- 
aged on account of being heated to sufficiently high temperature 
to partially carbonize. Where possible the oil should be placed 
in a vacuum, as by this means the boiling point of water is low- 
ered considerably. For example where a vacuum of 28 inches 
can be maintained the boiling point of water is approximately 
40 degrees C instead of 100 degrees. Usually when on the road 
it is impossible to obtain a vacuum, and the oil must be raised to 
100 C, care being taken that more than no be not exceeded 
This can best be done by gas or similar form of easily controlled 
heat. Three containers should be used, connected together by 
pipes, through which the oil may be circulated by a power-driven 
pump. The water-saturated oil is stored in one tank, the middle 
tank is set above the heater, and the third tank is situated beside 
the middle tank. The middle tank is heated until the desired 
temperature of no to 100 degrees is obtained, and the oil from 
the storage tank is gradually fed in, preferably by gravity and 
controlled by a valve so that the temperature of the oil is kept 
within safe limits. After the oil has been at 100 or no de- 
grees a sufficient length of time it is pumped into the third tank. 
This process may be repeated several times if necessary. As 
transil oil is rather inflammable care must be taken in this respect. 
Heating the oil as described is undesirable because of the likei- 
hood of damaging the oil due to excessive temperatures, and the 
possibility of fire. On the other hand it is very often the only 
solution out of the dilemma, where the oil contains a large 
amount of water, as differentiated from moisture. 
Drying by Absorption 

Yet another method, that is applicable where the oil is not only 
moist but so moist that it may be said to contain water, is to 
use calcium chloride or unslaked lime. The oil is poured over 
the lime, which absorbs the moisture, and the oil passes away to 



Lime 



/ 







Cheese C 



loth/ 



Steel 
Mesh 



Fig. 4. Lime Absorption Method 

the vessel below. One temporary method of utilizing this method 
when placing six oil-cooled 1000 kw transformers in service 
by the writer recently is shown in Fig. 4. Two wooden boxes of 
dried wood were built, the one fitting into the other. Pieces of 
wire mesh were fastened to each. On the upper one the mesh 
was covered to a thickness of about two to three inches with lime. 
The bottom mesh was covered with three layers of cheese cloth 
that had been previously thoroughly dried. The oil barrels were 
set up somewhat above the filter and the oil slowly passed 
through the lime, then through the cheese cloth where all sedi- 
ment and foreign matter was retained. A barrel that had been 
previously dried was filled with oil and samples taken from 
time to time. All samples indicated that the moisture had been 
removed. The lime was changed several times during the opera- 
tion, more as a precautionary measure than because of neces- 
sitity. 



42 



ELECTRICAL AGE 



August, 191 6 



In addition to the above methods, which may be modified in 
methods of performance, water may be separated from oil by 
electrostatic means or mechanically. The former method permits 
the dry oil of lighter or lower specific inductive capacity to pass 
into a comparatively weak electrostatic field, while the water 
which has greater specific inductive capacity to be held in the 
stronger field. The latter, or mechanical method, takes advan- 
tage of the fact that water has higher specific gravity than has 
oil, hence sinks to the bottom. Both methods are hardly ap- 
plicable as temporary measures where there is little apparatus 
available and equipment must be placed in service with as little 
delay as possible. 

Summary 

All transil oil should be tested for the presence of moisture, 
the more so the higher the voltage. The best way to do this 
is by applying a high potential test, and where this is not pos- 
sible by the reaction with copper ulphate. When oil must be 
dried the filter press is the best way to do it, and in its absence 
the lime offers the quickest, safest and most convenient way. 
Transil oil must be treated carefully in the presence of a bare 
flame, such as fire, and this must be borne in mind where heat- 
ing is restorted to. The whole success of many electrical systems 
depends upon the oil used in the transformers, oil circuit break- 
ers, etc., and every one whose duty it is to care for apparatus 
of this nature should familiarize himself with the methods of 
caring for the oil, because he will surely have to use his 
knowledge, and in a hurry, at some time. 

*!♦ ♦ ♦ 

When the town of St. Charles, Mo., was left in darkness at 
9 o'clock one night several weeks ago by the breaking of the 
high pressure cable from the great Keokuk dam on the Mis- 
sissippi an Indian motorcycle helped to save the situation in a 
unique manner and keep the town lighted. Before the town 
secured current from the Keokuk dam it was lighted by a steam 
power plant which drove a 150-kw. generator. When the engi- 
neers came to look up the abandone steam plant they found it 
possible to get up steam and run the big generator, but dis- 




covered at the same time that a very important auxiliary, the 
little exciter generator which is run hi conjunction with the 
big one to excite the fields of the 150-kw. was out of com- 
mission. The sub-station of the Keokuk plant, however, is of 
the same general type except that the generators there are driven 
by motors which take currrent from the transmission line. The 
exciter at the substation was available and if power could be 
obtained to run it the current could be transmitted to the old 
steam plant and by a combination of the two units the town 
would be lighted. About that time it occurred to E. F. Waye, 
electrician and trouble man employed by the Electric Company 



of Missouri, that there was power enough in the engine of the 
Indian motorcycle which he rides, if it could be harnessed. 

No sooner said than done. He set his motorcycle on the stand, 
took off the tire, slipped on a belt from the rear wheel to the 
pulley of the little exciter and started his gasolene engine. For 
an hour and a half he pulled the exciter and furnished the city 
with light while the wires to the Keokuk dam were repaired. 
The motor was run on wide open throttle the whole length 
of time that the emergency service was required. 

♦I* »> ♦> 

Th,<& (Q©m<$l®m&®w 'ff^p® JLigMnisiics) Jki'S'est^E' 

The best way to protect electrical apparatus from lightning 
when not in use is to disconnect it from the line. If this is not 
feasible, practically perfect protection can be obtained by ground- 
ing the line before it reaches the apparatus. Neither method, 
however, could be adopted to protect apparatus when in use 
until condenser type arrester made the latter method possible. 
Formerly it was thought that to ground a line as a protection 
agains lightning would necessarily result in a short circuit of the 
power current with disastrous results. It was not realized, how- 
ever, that a direct-current line could be grounded so far as 
lightning was concerned yet be perfectly insulated with respect 
to the power current. This is possible due to the characteristics 
of an electric condenser which is an insulator so far as direct 
current is concerned, but an increasingly good conductor of al- 
ternating current the higher the frequency. 

Thus a one microfarad condenser is an insulator on direct 
current and has an impedance of less than 3,000 ohms on 60 
cycles. On 60,000 cycles, however, its impedance is less than 
3 ohms, and on 600,000 cycles it is less than 0.3 ohm. Inasmuch 
as lightning surges are always of very high frequency, or wha< 
amounts to the same thing, of every steep wave front, it is 
evident that a condenser connected between line and ground 
affords almost a short circuit for the lightning and consequently 
most effective protection to the apparatus. On the other hand 
no power current can follow the discharge and there is no 
need therefore of special means such as circuit breakers, mag- 
netic blowouts, etc., to insure that the arrester shall clear itself 
after a discharge. 

The commercial arrester for street car protection consists of 
1 microfarad condenser of high dielectric strength connected in 
series with an adjustable spark gap and shunted by a very high 
resistance. All are enclosed in a weatherproof cast iron box. 
The spark gap can be set very close to the operating voltage 
since it has no power arc to break, or it may be short circuited 
entirely if preferred. It affords a place to insert a tell-tale 
paper in case a record of discharge is desired. When a gap is 
used the resistance shunting the condenser keeps the latter dis- 
charged and gives the arrester slightly greater effectiveness. 
Where the motor insulation is known to be very weak so that 
no lightning arrester having a spark gap could give protection, 
it is usually still possible to operate reliably by protecting the 
motor with condenser arrester with the gap closed. Such an 
arrester gives protection against all abnormal surges without 
requiring any use of voltage to put it into operation. 

Not the least advantage of the condenser arrester is the fact 
that it requires no maintenance expense whatever once it is 
installed. This is a great advantage over the electrolytic arrester 
which is its only competitor from a protective standpoint for 
this service. 

The condenser arrester can be used equally well for the pro- 
tection of station apparatus or as a line arrester. It has in 
certain cases been found very valuable on the alternating current 
side of rotary converters as a protection against electric dis- 
turbances coming in over the alternating current line and through 
the transformers. On the direct current side they have been 
found useful in protecting against commutator flashovers. The 
use of condensers in shunt to apparatus as a protection against 
high frequencies is only the natural corrollary of the use of choke 
coils in series for the same purpose. 









^ii^ £i©w azi«l why 
of generation, trans- 
mission, installation 
asnia constrnctlor. 



QTaes s lS©aas aoadl J^.sigwttir'g aaadl PffaceticffllL 2MscuissiL®ns ®S Tirac!® .MliMirs 



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To fully understand the phenomenon of the commutation 
of direct current motors, it is necessary to comprehend the 
fundamental principals of direct-current machines. Genera- 
tors and motors are essentially the same in design, but the 
wire range of motor applications requires modifications in 
the motor's design to meet special requirements, and com- 
mutation is one of the most important features. 

In Fig. i the upper sketch represents an electro-magnet 
with lines of force passing from the north to the south 
pole as indicated by the fine parallel lines. The left-hand black 
disk represents a conductor in which there is no current 
flowing ; the right-hand disk represents a conductor in which 




Fig. i 

current is assumed to be flowing in a direction away from the 
observer at right angles to the direction of the lines of force. 
A current flowing in a conductor causes lines of force to en- 
circle it as indicated by the circles surrounding the conductor. 
If the current is flowing away from the observer as in the 
present case the direction of the lines will be clockwise as 
indicated. If the current flows towards the observer the di- 
rection of the lines of force will be counter clockwise. Now 
referring to the right sketch in Fig.i, it is assumed that the 
current in the conductor is flowing away from the observer, 
therefore the lines of force set up by the current in the con- 
ductor add to those of the field flux above the conductor and 
tend to repel those below the conductor. The lines above 
may be likened to rubber bands in tension that tend to force 
the conductor downwards as indicated by the arrow. Under 
the conditions set forth this would be the direction the con- 
ductor carrying a current would move. It will be seen that 
this is just the reverse of a generator as in the latter case 
the conductor would be forced in the opposite direction by 
mechanical power and voltage would be generated in the 
ductor. 



From the foregoing it will be apparent that the armature 
winding sets up a magnetomotive force which acts at right 
angles to the field magnetomotive force. Evidently the ef- 
fect of the armature current will be to shift the field so that 
the flux is greater at leading pole tips. It is necessary that 
the current be reversed in the coils short-circuited by the 
brushes so that it flows in a direction the same as that which 
it will flow when the short-circuited coils leave the particular 
brush in its rotation. This reversal is accomplished by gen- 
erating in the conductors a counter-electromotive force 
which is opposed to the former current. The brushes there- 
fore must have a backward lead in order to bring the short- 
circuited coils under the influence of the trailing pole pieces. 
The current set up by this connter-electromotive force flows 
in the same direction as that of the current in the armature 
conductors when the short-circuited coil leaves the brush. 
The direction of the impressed electromotive force, and in 
conseqence the current, is indicated in Fig. 2. 




I'iy. 2. " + " Indicates Current Flowing Away From Observer 

Shifting of the brushes brings into play the armature con- 
ductors included between the double "angle of lead." The 
current flowing in these turns which produces "back ampere- 
turns" tends to demagnetize the field. In Fig. 3 a and a 
represent the brush positions and L the double angle of 
lead, here exaggerated for clearness. Let the conductors ly- 



44 



ELECTRICAL AGE 



August, ioio 



ing within the angle represent the back ampere turns and the 
balance of the armature conductors the "cross ampere turns." 
The latter produce the flux which acts at right angles to the 
field flux and tends to shift it. Let O-b and O-b' represent 
the back ampere-turn magnetomotive force and b-c and b'-c' 
the cross ampere-turn magneto — motive force. These act at 
right angles and when resolved into a parallelogram of forces 
have the resultant diagonals d-d' and e-e', which represents 
the center-line of the theoretical path of the distorted field 
flux. 




Fig. 3 

Obviously the armature ampere-turns, and hence the dis- 
tortion, well vary with the load, so that for perfect com- 
mutation the brushes have to be shifted as the load varies. 
In practice the brushes are set for full load conditions and 
the sparking at light loads is negligible. 





Fig. 4 

To secure good commutation in direct-current motors un- 
der widely varying conditions of speed and service, the inter- 
pole, or commutating pole motor has been developed. This 
type of motor is equipped with small poles placed midway 
between the main poles as shown in Fig. 4. The winding of 
the auxiliary poles are connected in series with the armature 
and produce a flux that induces the desired electromotive 
force in the short-circuited coils and sparkless commutation 
is secured without shifting the position of the brushes for 
any load within the range of the motor. 



T©lfaf)3 C®3at*@l ©I Notary Con^astesrfj 

It is a well-known fact that the voltage across the direct- 
current brushes of a rotary converter depends on the meth- 
od of connecting the armature coils and on the alternating- 
current voltage. Adjustment of the field excitation will not, 
therefore, change the delivered d. c. voltage, as it will on a 
direct-current generator. There are, however, quite a num- 
ber of ways in which the voltage may be varied, either auto- 
matically or by hand. All are based on variation of the im- 
pressed alternating e.m.f. and are both interesting and in- 
genious. 

The classical method for varying' the continuous voltage of a 
rotary converter is known as the series reactance method. 
It is based on the fact that the alternating-current drawn by 
a rotary converter may be varied in phase by the adjustment 
of the field strength. When for a given load the field rheo- 



(oroup of Conductors 
of One Phase ' 




(a) 




Fig. 1 



stat is varied so that the alternating current input is a 
minimum, then the current is in phase with the voltage. 
If the field is weakened, the current will lag, and if it is 
strengthened the current will lead. The explanation of this 
is as follows: 

From the a. c. side the rotary converter behaves like a 
synchronous motor. When a motor of any type is in opera- 
tion a counter — e. m. f. is generated which is just enough 
less than the impressed e. m. f. to allow the necessary cur- 
rent to flow through the impedance of the windings. If the 
field of a synchronous motor produces a flux which is too 
great for this purpose, the armature currents automatically 
take such a value and phase relation as to keep the flux at 
the proper amount. If we consider the group of coils which 
constitute one phase we shall find that if the current they 
carry is in phase with the voltage, it will have no effect on 
the total flux (see Fig. 1, (a), for it will reduce the flux on 
one side by as much as it increases it on the other. If, on 
the other hand, the current leads the voltage it will tend to 
reduce the flux, as shown in Fig. 1, (b). Hence when the 
need arises, the current shifts its phase to lead the voltage 
by the proper amount. 

If now we have a line between the generator and the 
rotary converter which contains inductive reactance, we have 
the condition shown in Fig. 2. If the load were a resistance 




® Generator Volts 
(a) 




Fig. 2 



only, the current would lag behind the voltage, due to the 
reactance of the lines and the voltage across the load would 
be less than across the generator. In this case, we can force 
the current to lead the voltage, and so the reactance drop is 
"swung" into such a position that it makes the load voltage 
greater than the generator voltage. When the "load" is a 
rotary converter, this means that the d. c. voltage will rise. 

In actual practice this method is used to make the con- 
verted voltage rise from no load to full-load automatically. 
If a 10 per cent, increase is desired, the converter has suffi- 



August, 191 6 



ELECTRICAL AGE 



45 



cient series turns on its poles to make it overcompounded 10 
per cent, as a d. c. generator. Included in the circuit is 
reactance of such amount that from 12 to 15 per cent, of 
normal voltage is required to force full-load current through 
it. "\\ith the converter running at no-load the shunt field is 
so adjusted that about 30 per cent, of full-load current is 
flowing in the line. This current has only a small com- 
ponent (enough to supply losses) in phase with the generat- 
ed voltage; the rest is lagging wattless current. This pro- 
duces some line drop so that the voltage at the converter 
is slightly less than at the generator. As the converter out- 
put is brought up to full load the shunt field being left un- 
changed, the line current becomes leading so that the power- 
factor is about .90. Under this condition Fig. 2 (b) applies 
and the voltage at the converter becomes greater than at 
the generator. The percentage rise from no-load to full load 
is decreased through ohmic resistance of the line by practi- 
cally the number of per cent that represent the ratio of line 
resistance drop to terminal voltage. 

The d. c. voltage of a rotary converter may be varied also 
by varying the a. c. voltage applied to it through any of the 
familiar means. Feeder-regulators of the locked induction- 
motor tjpe, in which the position of the rotor with respect 
to the stator may be varied, are controlled by a relay which 
may regulate for voltage either constant or increasing with 
the load. The Stillwell type of regulator, in which a vary- 
ing number of turns of a transformer winding can be cut 
in by means of a rotating switch, is also suitable. 

♦> ♦> ♦ 
The Split-Pole Rotary Converter 
By Prof. William R. Bowker 

Another means of varying the direct-current voltage of a 
rotary converter is through the use of auxiliary field-poles 
which affect the alternating e. m. f., but little while produc- 
ing a considerable change in the direct-current voltage. The 
principle of operation of a regulating-pole converter will be 
clearly understood from the following description and ex- 
planation. 

The machine has a field structure as shown in Fig. 6, some- 
what resembling the field magnets of a direct current gen- 
erator with commutating poles, but with the armature 
brushes so set that one of the regulating poles adds its field 
flux to that of one main pole, cutting the conductors be- 




Fig. 6 

tween two direct current brushes. N, S represent the main 
poles, and N. 1 S 1 the regulating poles of the machine. The 
regulating pole is shown with a width equal to 20 per cent. 
of that of the main pole. 

To obtain definite numerical values, it may be assumed 
that the machine at normal speed, with the main poles ex- 
cited to normal flux density, but with no excitation on the 
regulating poles, gives 250 volts direct current. If each 
regulating pole is excited to the same flux density as the 
main poles; and with a polarity corresponding to that of the 
main pole in the same section between brushes, the d.c. 
voltage will rise to 300 volts, at the same speed, since the 



total magnetic flux cutting the conductors in one direction be- 
tween brushes has been increased 20 per cent. If, on the 
other hand, the excitation of the regulating poles is re- 
versed and increased to the same density as that of the 
main poles, the d.c. voltage will decrease to 200 volts, since 
in this case the regulating poles give an e. m. f. opposing that 
generated by the main poles. If the machine is equipped 
with collector rings; i. c., if it is a converter, this method of 
varying the d.c. voltage from 200 to 300 volts docs not re- 




Fig. 7 

suit in as great a variation of the a.c. voltage; in fact the a.c 
voltage will be approximately the same when delivering 200 
volts as when delivering 300 volts d.c. if the main field excita- 
tion is the same. This is illustrated in Fig. 7, which is a 
diagram showing the a.c. voltage developed in the armature 
windings by the two sets of poles. The horizontal line O A 
represents the a.c. electromotive force generated by the main 
poles alone, with the regulating poles unexcited; that is, when 
delivering 250 volts direct current. 

For a six-phase converter O A measures about 180 volts 
diametrical, that is, between electrically opposite collector 
slip rings. If now, the regulating poles are excited to full 
strength, to bring the d.c. pressure up to 300 volts, the a.c. 
voltage generated by the regulating poles will be 90 degrees 
out of phase with that generated by the main poles (since 
they are spaced midway between the main poles), and will 
be approximately 40 volts as shown by the line A B. The 
resultant a. c. voltage across the slip rings will be represented 
by the line O B with a value of 184 volts. 

If, on the other hand, the regulating poles are operated 
at full flux strength in the reverse direction so as to cut the 
d.c. voltage down to 200 volts, the a.c. voltage of the main 
and regulating poles will be O A and O C respectively, giving 
the resultant O C equal to O B with a value of 184 volts. 

It must be borne in mind always that the generated direct 
current e. m f. is due to the algebriac sum of the flux pro- 
duced by the two sets of poles, while the generated alternating 
(counter — ) e. m. f. is due to the vector sum of the fluxes. 
If then we desire to keep the a.c. voltage constant we may 
weaken the main field so that the voltage O A when added 
vectorially to that due to the regulating poles A C shall 
make O C equal the former value of O A — in this case 180 




Fig. 8 

volts. A constant total flux may thus be obtained equal to 
the radius of the circumference B A C (Fig. 7). In this in- 
stance, the line O A representing the main field strength, 
will equal O B when the regulating field is unexcited, and 
250 volts can only be obtained at this adjustment. This 
method of operation gives unity power factor with a constant 



46 



ELECTRICAL AGE 



August, 191 6 



impressed alternating e.m.f. of 184 volts and a range of direct 
current voltage from 200 to 300 volts. 

In practice the machines present a modified construction to 
that shown in Fig. 6; the regulating pole being located closer 
to its corresponding main pole as shown in Fig. 8. Except 
for a slight magnetic leakage that takes place between the 
main pole and auxiliary pole when the latter is opposed to 
the former, that is, when the d.c voltage is being decreased, 
the effect on the d.c. voltage is unchanged by the location of 
the regulating poles nearer the leading pole than the trailing 
pole. 




/xfyG/ts *r<f*c/rot,c c 



The effect, however, on the a.c. voltage results in different 
numerical values being obtained as shown in Fig. 9, due to 
varying the regulating field strength of a machine propor- 
tioned according to Fig. 8 from a flux density equal to that 
in the main poles to the same density reversed; the flux 
density of the main pole field remaining constant. The d.c. 
voltage in this case varies from 30 per cent, above that pro- 
duced by the main field alone to 30 per cent, below, or from 
325 to 175 volts while the alternating current voltage varies 
only from 200 to 175 volts. 

To maintain the a.c. voltage constant with such a machine 
the main field must be strengthened as the regulating field is 
weakened or reversed so as to reduce the d.c. voltage. This 
strengthening increases the core loss, particularly on low 
direct current voltages, which, however, are seldom required, 
hence a machine proportioned as in Fig. 8, would not be 
operated through so wide a range as 175 to 325 volts. As- 
suming therefore that the range is 240 to 300 volts, and at 
the highest voltage both main and regulating fields have the 
same field density, presenting to the armature practically one 
continuous pole face of uniform flux density. 




The diagram of a.c. component voltages to give constant 
a.c. resultant voltage across the slip rings for this case, is 
shown in Fig. 10. At 300 volts direct current the main 
field produces an a.c. voltage O A and the regulating field a 
voltage A B with a resultant O B equal to about 200 volts 
alternating current. At 270 volts direct current the main 
field produces an a.c. voltage O A 1 , and a regulating-field 
voltage A 1 B 1 , giving a resultant a.c. voltage O B 1 , equal to 
200 volts. Similarly, at 240 volts direct current, the main field 
produces an a.c. voltage O A 2 , and the regulating field (now 
reversed) produces the counter or opposing voltage A 2 B 2 , 
giving the resultant O B 2 again equal to 200 volts. 

It will be noted that theoretically the main field strength 
must be increased about 15 per cent, above its value at 300 
volts d.c. in order to keep the d.c. voltage at 250 volts. 



Wat®r-Ia@ir^l Esid&c&tor 

An ingenious electrical water-level indicator is described by 
Henry C. Larrabee in a recent issue of "Telephony." - A plank 
about 10 in. wide and 18 ft. long is fastened vertically to the 
side of the reservoir or tank. Ten bare No. 10 copper wires 
are stapled to the plank about an inch apart and cuts off so that 
the end of each will be 2 ft. above its neighbor to the left. Each 
wire is then connected through cable to the measuring station 
where a group of push-buttons are installed. These are num- 
bered according to the level of the water when it ; s touching the 
respective wires to which they connect. Ordinary telephone line- 
relays were used as shown, and a 24-volt battery. 



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When the operator wishes to know the height of tne water, 
he -presses one button after another. If the water is above the 
end of any given wire, circuit is closed through, and the relay 
lights the white lamp. When at length on pressing a button the 
lamp fails to light, it indicates that the water has not reached that 
height. In order to give an alarm when the tank is nearly full, 
one of the wires is tapped off to a second relay, which automatic- 
ally lights a second lamp. As soon as its indication has been 
noted, it is cut out by the switch. 

An arrangement such as this can be used in a great variety of 
combinations. It has the advantage ' that a low-voltage battery 
can be Used to operate the relays, which in turn may control 
no-volt lighting and bell circuits. 

♦ ♦ ♦ 



Operation of a Direct-Current Motor 

Q. For the benefit of a class in elementary electricity 
will you please explain how current flowing in the arma- 
ture conductors of a d.c. motor pulls them across the pole- 
face and makes the motor run? 

F. C. N. 

Around every current-carrying conductor there is a magnetic 
force which is commonly said to produce "lines of force." These 
lines form closed loops about the conductor and have two proper- 
ties of importance here: (1) They are inseparable from the 
conductor and if pushed aside will exert a force on the con- 
ductor; (2) The presence of other lines will tend to push them 
in the direction which will make the concentration of lines 
less. 

When a conductor carries a current away from the observer, 
the magnetic force acts in a clockwise direction. An easy way 
to remember this is to consider that a right-hand screw is turned 
in this direction when we want it to move away from us. Sup- 
pose now we have a field of lines produced by an electro 
magnet and in it a conductor carrying a current away from 
us. At first the conditions will be as in Fig. 1 (a) where the 
two lines c, d, separate and pass on either side of the con- 
ductor. But on the left side of the conductor the magnetic 
forces acting in opposite directions cancel each other, so that 
we have the condition shown in (b) where the circular line has 
united with the line d, and there are two lines on the right and 
none on the left. (The line due to the conductor still encircles 
it; but its path is now through the iron of the magnet). The 
lines d and e are now closer together than c and d, so that d 



August, 191 6 



ELECTRICAL AG E 



•; 



will be forced to the left, and as part of d is, so to speak, tied 
to the conductor, it too will be forced to the left. 

If in the same field another conductor were carrying a cur- 
rent in the other direction the result would be reversed, i. e., 
that conductor would be forced to the right, and if the two 
conductors were mechanically connected they would tend to ro- 
tate. That is exactly what we have in the bipolar motor. The 
armature winding is so arranged that under each pole all con- 

N 



N 





Fig. I 



Fi f Z 

ductors carry current in the same direction. The force in the 
case shown in Fig. 2 is such as to move the top conductors to 
the left and the bottom conductors to the right. As they are 
firmly fastened to the iron of the armature they cause the latter 
to rotate counter-clockwise. The arrangement of brushes and 
commutator is designed to make the current in the conductors 
flow always in the right direction. The truth of this will be 
easily seen by tracing the path of current through the armature 
from a positive to a negative brush. It will be found that the 
connections are made so that the current flows down in front of 
one pole, back in front of the next and so on, always flowing in 
the same direction under poles of the same sign. P. B. F. 

* * 4* 

Change of Field Connections 

Q. What determines the direction of rotation of a shunt- 
wound generator, in order to make it generate, which it will 
do only when running in a certain direction? Why does a 
direct current dynamo generate only when running in one 
certain direction? I have a shunt wound generator counter- 
closed wire rotation, but wish to change same to clash-wire 
rotation, therefore would be pleased to have you inform me 
on this subject. The above generator is a 2-pole machine, 
32 volts, 7.5 amperes. E. S. 

A. Our correspondent is not quite correct in saying that 
a direct-current machine will generate only when running in 
one direction. It will generate in either direction but will 
"build up" its voltage only when rotating in the direction 
in which it was last run. There remains in the field a small 
amount of residual magnetism, and when the machine is 
started it induces voltage enough to send a small current 
through the field windings. If the connections and rotation 
have been unchanged, this current will add to the field mag- 
netism and increase the generated voltage, which will in turn 
increase the current in the field. But if either the shunt field 
connections or the direction of rotation have been reversed, 
the first small induced current will subtract from the residual 
magnetism and speedily wipe it out. Then it may be impossi- 
ble to get the machine to build up, even if matter be righted, 
until the field is remagnetized by connecting batteries to it. 
If, however, the direction of rotation and the shunt field con 
nections are both reversed, the generator will "build up" as 
usual. 

If the change of wiring is made in this way, the polarity of 

the generator terminals will be found to be reversed. As this 

is generally undesirable, it is customary to leave the field 

connections unchanged and interchange the leads to the 

brush-holders. Z. S. C. 



Q. What is the couse of an a.c. fan motor failing to 
when current is thrown on and what is the remedy? 

L. S. M. 

A. The a.c. fan motor is either a series-wound commuta- 
tor motor or a single-phase induction motor. Jf it is of the 
former type, as may be determined from the presence of a 
commutator and brushes, these should be inspected for good 
contact at the rubbing surfaces. If no trouble is found, and 
there is no current flowing through the motor when voltage 
is applied, there is an open circuit somewhere. To test for 
this connect the leads of a lamp of the same voltage as the 
circuit across one coil after another of the motor. The lamp 
will light when connected across the "open." If, however, 
current will flow through the motor but it will not run, the 
current flow for a time, watching for the development of any 
"hot-spots." These indicate a short-circuit which must be 
located and -fixed. 

However, the most common difficulty with fan motors oc- 
curs with the single-phase induction-motor type. Many of 
these are provided with a switch in the rotating element 
which closes when the speed reaches a certain value. If this 
switch fails to open as the motor slows down, the motor ma\ 
fail to start when power is again thrown on. If, however, it 
is spun by hand, it will pick up after it reaches a certain 
speed. Should the rotor winding be open, the motor will not 
pick up at all; the hum of the current in the stationary wind- 
ings will indicate whether or not current is flowing in them. 
"Hot spots" should be watched for here as before. 

If our correspondent will tell us just how his motor be- 
haves and also what data is on the name-plate, we shall be 
glad to advise him further. H. R. O. 



* 



♦ 



A Relay Problem 

Q. I should like some help on a relav probVm fo r wMch 
I cannot find a satisfactory solution. The magnet A has a 
core of solid Norway iron 0.25 in diameter and 2.5 in. long. 
Due to space limitations the diameter over the windings 
must not exceed 0.5 in. The armature B is of steel, 0.25 in. 
from the pole-tip when open and 0.0625 in. when attracted. 
A pull of 3 to 5 lb. is required to overcome the tension of the 
spring C. Armature B must vibrate at a frequency adjustable 
between 5 and 50 blows per second. Either alternating cur- 





- 


A 


] 














Pj 


E 




18" at 










1 


r 























rent at 125 cycles, any voltage, or direct current, any voltage- 
up to no v. is available. Three such sets in parallel will; 
have to work three hours a day for six months without re- 
quiring readjustment. 

The diagram indicates a scheme of connections that was. 
fairly satisfactory. Copper-carbon contacts at D and E were 
used but the current — 6 amp. — was so large that the arc soon 
destroyed them. The wire on the coil A was No. 2^. 

C. B. 

A. The problem is a difficult one because with the small, 
space available it is impossible to avoid using a large cur- 
rent to operate the magnet A. Connecting a 2 mf. con- 
denser across contacts D and E would help; the contacts 
should be of platinum. Perhaps some of our readers who^ 
have had experience with similar problems will suggest the 
solution. 

Ed. 

♦> ♦ * 

Q. Will you please tell me how to wind 10 in. horseshoe- 
magnets to increase their efficiency for catching iron particles 
in grain-spouts of a flour-mill. What size of wire and how.- 
much of it should be used? 220 volts d.c. is available 

M. C. M. 



48 



ELECTRICAL AGE 



August, 1916 



(Continued from Page 31) 

Turbines may be used where the volume of water is. large, 
but as such cases require careful engineering it would be a 
waste of time to go into the matter in detail here. 

Voltages 

The voltages in common use are 115, 65 and 32. Where 
power must be transmitted for several hundred feet or where 
motors are to be used, the standard voltage of 115 should be 
used. If 24 hour service is desired, and there is not enough 
water to keep the wheel turning continuously, a storage battery 
must be installed. The cost in this case will be much less at 




An overshoot wheel in a country estate. With flow of 
0-35 cu. ft. per sec. in average zveather, the "Fits" wheel, 
10 ft. in diameter and 1 ft. wide, generates enough pow- 
er to supply 8 or 10 lamps at a time for several hours a 
day. 

lower voltages, and when the distance is short 65 or 32 volts 
will answer. Complete outfits are made by a number of con- 
cerns ; these comprise a generator, storage battery and switch- 
board mounted on a skid and with internal connections made. 

Regulation 

The governors furnished for water-wheels are usually actu- 
ated by revolving balls and hence regulate for constant speed. 
With increasing load the inlet-gates are opened gradually to their 
full width ; when the maximum quantity of water is admitted an 




An impulse-wheel outfit in course of installation. This wheel 
is made by the Pelton Water Wheel Co., New York and San 
Francisco. 

increase of load will reduce the speed and consequently the 
voltage and electrical output to a point at which the latter bal- 
ances with the water input. Hence a water wheel cannot be 
stalled by overload. Where water is plentiful, the governor 
may be omitted and the wheel run at a fixed gate-opening. The 



voltage can then be kept approximately constant by connecting 
heating-devices to the line when the load is light. Air and 
water heaters lend themselves to this use. 

Special Devices 

The usual protective devices are of course installed and also 
lightning arresters when the length of line or its exposure 
suggests the necessity. Ingenuity will suggest many devices to 
save the trouble of visiting the plant, especially when water 
is used during certain hours only. Sometimes a wire or cable 
runs from plant to house by which the gate is opened or shut; 
where a storage battery is used a current relay may energize 
a gate-operating motor to open at, say, 30 per cent, load and 
close at 15 per cent. ; while the gate is open the governor 
operates in the regular manner. 

Care and Maintenance 

The great advantage of water power lies in its freedom from 
maintenance difficulties. If well built the dam and water-ways 




The Fitz "Overshoot" Wheel, manufactured by the Fitz 
Water-Wheel Co., Hanover, Pa. 

should last a lifetime ; and barring accidents the machinery 
will last as long. Generator and storage-batteries require a 
certain amount of care, the details of which are well known.* 
All bearings should be kept well oiled, and trash-racks in the 
forebay should be cleaned regularly. Such duties can be per- 
formed by any intelligent man, and unless rainfall ceases utter- 
ly the rural dweller may be as sure of continuous service as are 
his city brothers. 

♦ * »> 



On page 48 of the July issue, under "Questions and Answ- 
ers," it was stated that wave-lengths for amateur radio sta- 
tions were up to 200 cm — and the longest waves generally 
used were 2,000 cm. These figures should have been 200 
meters and 15,000 meters respectively. 

♦♦♦ ♦♦♦ ♦*♦ 

Three large motor-generator sets, each capable of delivering 
10,000 amperes continually at 170 volts, and a completely equip- 
ped switchboard have recently been sold by the Westinghouse 
Electric & Mfg. Company, to the Cornelia Copper Company, 
for their leaching plant. The Cornelia Copper Company is an 
off-spring of the Calumet and Arizona Mining Company and was 
formed to nandle the low grade ores from the parent company's 
claim near Ajo, Arizona. 

♦2* ♦*♦ «J« 

Within a very short time the town of Plumerville, Ark., will 
be supplied with electricity as the completion of the transmis- 
sion line of the Arkansas Light & Power Co. from Morrilton 
is now in sight. The plant at the latter place will supply energy 
for the present but a line will shortly be built from there to 
the large hydroelectric plant at Russellville. 




in 



,; , 





Busins§s IPsasiiss asM M®ft3fo©<&§ ©2 (gdaateall ifaa , £fi©aag„ C©saftffa<st©rs am€ Masaiaffactsureira 



^Maag W>M®t%mml ik^lmm&m 






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;m§S2iIbsi?S' 



77ze telephone as a sales ally is more and 
more claiming the attention of alert progres- 
sive dealers in electrical appliances. That this 
is true is only logical and appropriate for pur- 
veyors of things electrical should be the first 
to recognize the worth of electrical means of 
disposing of such goods. Furthmore every- 
thing from safety pins to railroads is being 
fold by telephone nowadays and the average 
electrical dealer is not one to let a sales agency 
of this calibre escape him. 



"pECEXTLY a large wholesale drug house 
1*- decided that the telephone selling idea 
was worth a trial. Two of its salesmen were 
assigned the job of calling customers and 
prospective buyers by telephone with the result 
that within a month, $15,000 worth of drugs 
had been sold and his without any inroads in 
the sales made other ways. In other words, 
this was "velvet" and of a good quality. 

Three train loads of grain with forty-two 
cars to the train and worth about $75,000 were 
sold by clever sales talks and the wise invest- 
ment of $1350 in telephone calls. 

If thse things are true — and they are — it is 
not surprising that the telephone selling idea 
is being adopted to the electrical appliance 
business. The field for this sort of effort is a fertile one and 
with a little cultivation will produce results which will not only 
be gratifying but will show a handsome balance on the right side 
of the ledger. 

There are several reasons why this is so. The list of tele- 
phone subscribers form probably the best prospect list for 
electrical dealers that can be secured because telephone sub- 
scribers are the "pick of the population" and can generally 
be considered as able to afford electrical appliances. Then 
too from the viewpoint of costs, selling by telephone seems 
to be an economical as well as an effective means of getting 
in touch with prospects and keeping in touch with them. 
It offords a quick way of determining and classifying the ac- 
tive and slow prospects and of following up these presump- 
tive buyers as good judgment dictates. 

How to Start a Telephone Campaign 

In going out after new trade in this way it is undoubtedly 
best to feature a single article for sale. Something should be 
selected which is particularly adapted to the needs of the 




people in the neighborhood to be covered and of use to them 
in the season in which the campaign is promoted. If possible 
the price of the article should be "shaded" to make the pro- 
position inviting and the difference charged against the ad- 
vertising appropriation. The next step is to prepare a sales 
talk. This should be cordial, courteous, brief and to the 
point. It should go something like this. "Mrs. Jones, this is 
Mr. Blank, of the Blank & Dash Company, who you probably 
know are dealers in electrical appliances. We have just re- 
cently secured the agency for the Peerless Electrical Toast- 
ers. Heretofore these toasters have not been sold in this 
section but so many of our customers asked for the Peerless 
that we decided to place them on sale at our store. We have 
already sold a number of these toasters and we have heard so 
many nice things about them we felt sure you would be in- 
terested. The uses and advantages of this toaster are, etc., 
etc. If agreeable we should like to have you try one for a 
week without cost to you. This will not obligate you in any way 
but will give you a chance to see for yourself that our claims 
are true." 

If this arrangement is agreeable to the party called, the 



50 



ELECTRICAL AGE 



August, 1916 



toaster should be delivered for trial by a representative who 
should carefully explain its operation. Even though the 
profit on the article may be small it will pay to be sure that 
the prospective buyer understands how it works. Further- 
more an opening for bringing the buyer and seller together 
is gained. The salesman should make mental notes of the 
prospect's characteristics, electrical needs and apparent finan- 
cial ability. Immediately after the interview the information 
secured should be recorded on a card provided for this 
purpose. 

At the end of a week's time this same salesman, with the 
data secured on the first interview in front of him, should call 
the prospect by telephone to ascertain the results of the trial. 
The recorded information should make it possible for him to 
handle the case intelligently. If the toaster is to be kept 
arrangements for payment can be made. If for any reason 
the toaster has been unsatisfactory, difficulties should be de- 
determined and remedied and a further trial suggested. A 
little extra effort to make things satisfactory is appreciated 
and will in the end mean extra profit. It is more important 
to make a friend than to make a sale. By this time the pros- 
pect knows your concern and has had an actual demonstra- 
tion of your desire and ability to "deliver the goods." The 
good will and card record gained will be useful for future 
followups. 




Keeping the "Outside" Men Busy 

The routine of a large public service corporation provides 
for the keeping of a comprehensive card record of subscrib- 
ers to their service as well as prospects, showing their pres- 
ent equipment, also the equipment the salesman feels the 
customer or prospect should be. The salesmen indicate on 
the cards the dates for future personal and telephone calls 
and get in touch with prospects on these recall dates. On 
rainy days particularly the sales force can be kept busy 100 
per cent, of the time and with good results if the telephone is 
brought into play, for in stormy weather the buying public 
is more apt to be found "in" than at other times. 

The use of the telephone in selling enlarges the field and 
enables it to be covered more frequently. It means the es- 
tablishing of a point of contact which, if carefully fostered, 
is reasonably certain to develop new and increased business. 

The wise electrical dealer realizes the necessity for insur- 
ing himself against dissatisfied customers. He knows that 
there is more to the business of selling than merely dispos- 
ing of goods. Care must be taken to see that articles sold 
a' - e being used properly and that they are giving the satis- 
faction that can reasonably be expected of them. This can be 



done in ' an efficient manner by telephone follow-ups if a 
record of the sales made is kept. 

Promoting Good- Will by Telephone Talks 

One dealer realizing the difficulty in using electrical range? 
to. the best advantage, kept a record of the ranges sold and 
followed up these sales by telephone. Inquiries were made 
to determine whether the ranges were satisfactory and sug- 
gestions "were tactfully offered as to the proper operation 
of the ranges in order to conserve electric current. This 
to the central-station man might seem like killing the goose 
that laid the golden egg, but satisfaction is what is demand- 
ed by the public to-day and satisfying customers, even at 
considerable trouble and expense, pays for it paves the way 
for further sales. 

The chance of equipment getting out of order should also 
be taken into consideration in selling electrical goods and 
many friends and permanent customers can be made by mere 
telephone inquiries to determine whether articles recently 
purchased are in good working order. If there is any trouble, 
repairs should be made at once. This service idea appeals to 
customers and results in securing their good will, a most 
valuable asset to any concern. 

"Quick Action" for Seasonal Sales 

The telephone also proves its value in moving seasonal 
goods, especially when the season is fast slipping away and 
hold-overs are undesirable. A reduction in the prices of such 
articles equal to storage costs and an active telephone sales 
campaign form a combination which ought to prove a source 
of gratification to the dealer who is cramped for space. The 
timeliness of a selling appeal plays an important part in the 
consumption of the sales. What is more opportune than to 
set forth the cooling influences of a portable electric fan to a 
perspiring person on a hot muggy day in August? If August 
is the psychological time, surely the telephone provides a 
way for bringing fans to the attention of the greatest num- 
ber of people in the shortest possible time. 

One alert contractor conceived the idea that while many 
people were away from home during the summer months it 
would be an ideal time to install service or to overhaul any 
electrical appliances in need of repair. He turned to his tele- 
phone and canvassed his prospects and customers with the 
result that he found many glad to avail themselves of the op- 
portunity of having the work done in their absence, thus re- 
lieving them of annoyance and inconvenience. 

Planning for the Fall 

As timeliness in suggestion very often leads to sales, what 
at this period of the year would be more appropriate than 
spending some time and thought in planning a telephone 
sales campaign for the early Fall? Most housewives are now 
looking forward with more or less dread to their Fall clean- 
ing. This then would seem to be the proper time to suggest 
the use of vacuum cleaners. It may be possible to sell the 
cleaners outright or failing in this, to rent them by the day 
or week. In many cases renting the cleaners has proven 
so satisfactory that they have been purchased outright, the 
amount of the rental charge being credited against the pur- 
chase price. In this connection it should be possible by 
working in close co-operation with some cleaning companies 
or reliable employment agencies to secure men to operate 
the vacuum cleaners wherever this additional service is de- 
sired by customers. If the coming Autumn is anything like 
the autumns of the past and it is expected that it will be, 
there are going to be many cool days and cooler evenings 
before the winter heating systems are put in operation. A 
portable electric heater is just the thing to take the antici- 
pated chill out of the air and a suggestion to this effect over 
the telephone should result in effecting many sales and se 
curing considerable "cold cash." 



August, 1916 



ELECTRICAL AGE 



5' 



Reviving Inactive Accounts 

There is another phase of telephone selling which should 
not be overlooked. Every business house, including those 
dispensing electrical appliances, has its inactive accounts. 
Two months, six months or a yearf or more ago John Tones 
was an active customer but lately for some unknown re.iso i 
nothing has been heard from him. Mr. Jones' account was of 
considerable size and he always paid his bills promptly. In 
short he was the type of person we are all constantly on the 
alert for. Something must have happened for he hasn't 
bought anything in a long time. It would seem like good 
business to find out the cause for this. A satisfied customer 
is worth innumerable prospects and the reliable business 
house owes it to John Jones and to itself to make things 
right if they are wrong. 

Here is where the tele- 
phone steps to the front 
again. A friendly chat by 
telephone with Mr. Jones 
will determine the reason for 
the continued absence of his 
name on the journal, and a 
way will be opened to satisfy 
him and bring him once more 
within the fold. It is prac- 
tically impossible to outline 
a talk of this kind that would 
apply to every case but it 
should be breezy and free 
from formality. Air. Jones 
might be appoached along 
the following lines: — 

"Do you know, Mr. Jones, 
you have caused us no little 
concern recently for we have 
been wondering why we have 
not received an order from 
you. Our records show dur- 
ing 1915 you did over $5,000 
worth of business with us. 
Our last shipment to you was 
fifty electric washers. I re- 
member that order particu- 
larly because I inspected it 
myself before it went out. 
There was nothing wrong 
with it, was there? 

Xo matter how hard we try to prevent them, little ir- 
regularities will creep in now and then. I am glad to hear 
everything was all right. You know we cannot afford to let 
our customers slip away from us without knowing the reason 
why. By the way, Mr. Jones, on July 1st we received a largo 
consignment of Good-light reading lamps. You formerly 
bought these regularly, etc., etc." 

One concern using a telephone talk of this kind revived 
more than 25 per cent, of its inactive accounts. 
Speeding Up Collections 

Even in collection work the telephone can be used to ad- 
vantage. When good judgment indicates that an overdue bill 
should be brought to the attention of the customer in some 
way more forcibly than by a statement of the account, a 
tactful and courteous telephone reminder is quite sure to be 
found more effective than any number of written requests for 
payment. 

Telephone Courtesy 

The counterpart of selling by telephone is buying by tele- 
phone. There are just as many people doing the buying as 
the selling, and it behooves merchants to give their in-coming 
telephone business, whether it be inquiries or sales, the same 




Soldiers and Sailors Monument, Indianapolis, Ind. 



attention they would if the coustomers were "on the ground." 
The reputation of the dealer is weighed in the balance far 
more in telephone sales than to face to face transactions. In 
view of this, care should be exercised by the merchant to 
the end that prompt, courteous and intelligent treatment is 
accorded every person calling his store. The value a con- 
cern places on new business is reflected in the way it handles 
its in-coming telephone calls. 

The selection of the salesmen to handle by telephone work 
should be made with the greatest of care. It should be re- 
membered that one is entirely dependent on his voice to im- 
press his personality upon the prospective buyer and some 
salesmen are more adapted to this work than others. There 
is need for quick perception on the salesman's part, for he has 
none of the usual signs to tell him that the cake is burning in 

the (non-electric) oven or 
that there is "company" 
down-stairs. The habits of 
each community will suggest 
what are the opportune times 
for telephone calls. 

The possibilities of the tel- 
ephone in the field of selling 
seem unending. One idea 
suggests another. Whether 
it be the securing and de- 
veloping of prospects, the 
consummation of sales, the 
executing of follow-ups, the 
satisfying of customers, the 
promotion of educational 
work, the fostering of good 
will, the reviving of inactive 
accounts or the collection of 
ovedue bills, the telephone 
has its part and every day de- 
velops a new use for it in the 
electical appliance world. 
4* ^ *t* 

Emcllmmfipslag 

A recent notable flood- 
lighting installation is that 
for the Soldiers' and Sailors' 
Monument at Indianapolis. 
Four batteries of 25 each of 
"X - Ray" projectors were 
placed on the roofs of buildings facing the monument and 230 
feet away. Each projector contains a 250-watt "Mazda" gas- 
filled flood lamp and projects a beam of light 110,000 C. P. 
The intensity of illumination is 4-5 foot candles, uniformlv 
distributed over the entire surface of the monument. There 
are also installed eight additional projectors which have reel 
and blue lenses inserted for illuminating the cascade fountain 
on two sides of the monument. 

♦ ♦ * 

J\Ms C©aa1fcra<ett©2rs ft© E)@w<i!lcps ©©ccl Wall 

Time was when the electrical contractor carried his office 
and kit with him from place to place. Now there are con- 
tractors in each locality doing business on a reasonable 
basis and at prices based on known costs of construction 
These men carry stocks of goods, know the requirements of 
various jobs, do their work carefully, according to specifica- 
tion and the requirements of the insurance companies. Their 
prices are based on known conditions and the figures named 
permit of a reasonable profit that will permit carrying on 
business and development on a sound basis. 

To convince the public of this is the purpose of a series 



52 



ELECTRICAL AGE 



August. iqi6 



of twenty newspaper advertisements. These have been pre- 
pared and mailed to jobber and contractor members of the 
Society for Electrical Development for use in their local 
newspapers in assisting them in building good will by point- 
ing out the benefits of dealing with recognized contractors. 
The advertisements, have complete directions for the printe: 
so that the members will not be troubled with the detail of 
writing and laying out copy. Each advertisement emphasizes 
the fact that price alone should not govern the letting of 
contracts for electrical work. 

The society has prepared also as a help to these con- 
tractors, a slip to be attached to bids or tentative specifica- 
tions, telling why the lowest bidder may not be the best one 
to have the contract. Both of these sales helps should be 
found of material assistance to the sound, reliable contractor. 

This work on the part of an association opens a field un- 
touched so far. Instead of recommending that this kind of 
advertising be done, the advertisements are actually prepared 
and placed in the hands of the men to be benefitted. The ad- 
vertisements were arranged by an expert and will prove of 
material assistance to contractors using them. Contractors are 
constantly using newspaper space, but the advantage of using 
space for building good will is an opportunity that this series of 
overlooked. It is to meet this opportunity that this series of 
advertisements was prepared. 



12©iageg of tit© Tf th. Q%mtwEy Wired 

Houses are. never too old to wire. Throughout New Eng- 
land a number of very old houses have been wired for electric 
service. 

The Copper-Austin house, Cambridge, built in 1657, and 
the oldest residence now standing in the city, has been wired. 
The installation includes twenty-two 15-watt and six 25-watt 
Mazda lamps, with eight receptacles The service is from 
overhead lines, through the usual pipe conduit, enabling the 
leads to be carried into the house with minimum disturbance 
of its appearance. A Colonial porch lantern equipped with a 
25-watt lamps is another appropriate feature. This house re- 
mained in one family for a period of 250 years. 

The oldest house in Plymouth, built in 1666 by William Nar- 
low, has been wired with nine 25-watt lamps all told, including 
the front hall, dining room and front room. In both the above 
houses the chimneys have withstood the ravages of time with 
the need of little or no alterations. 

♦♦♦ *> ♦> 
In lighting the chancel of St. Patrick's Cathedral in Nor- 
wich, Conn., six projector units are used, three on either side 
of the chancel arch, at a distance of 35 feet from the altar, 
lighting a space of 65 x 40 feet and bringing out the altar in 
beautiful relief. The result is most satisfactory. 



©ws M®i&£M2P WM€©w Disipltiy 




The general layout of the window depends on local conditions, 
so that the window illustrated will serve only as a guide.' The 
four pedestals may be made up in any convenient manner, so 
that they are near the right height. 

Get eight old sad irons, the older they are the better, you can 
borrow them easily, an old-fashioned candlestick and candle, 
and one of the more modern sad irons with a detachable handle. 
In the center of your window, place the cutout. Put a piece of 
cloth before it, as indicated, and affix the electric iron to the hand 
Attach cord and plug to a prominent receptable in your window. 
In placing this central cutout, try to have the figure's eyes on a 
level with the average height of the eye of the passerby. The 
more level the figure's eyes, as indicated, the oftener will the 
passerby be compelled to stop and look into your window. Try 



it out for yourself. In arranging the irons on the right fixture 
under the "Evolution of the Iron," get a flat, white rock for the 
first stage, as shown. 

On the left pedestal in the rear, place the candlestick and a 
small silk shade portable. Burn the candle for a few minutes in 
the candlestik and let the tallow run down the side. Then ex- 
tinguish the flame so that th wick rmains charred. Attach the 
plug of your silk shade portable to a live socket so that it may 
be illuminated at night. Put irons, as indicated, on the right rear 
pedestal and on and under the small fixture on the left. After 
you have placed your cards, your window in finished. These 
cards, and the figure cutout, can be secured from the nearest 
branch of the Western Electric Company. 



August, 19 16 



E L M C T R I C A L A ( 7 E 



53 



(Continued from Page 32) 
clear that, in future, the man who owns things will not be as 
important a factor in the world as the man who can do things. 
The articles which we read from time to time telling us what 
will happen when the war is over are all very interesting, but 
inasmuch as the conditions which will obtain after the war, are 
dependent, to a large extent, upon what happens during the war, 
and the length of time the war may last, all of these ideas are 
mere speculations. The one thing, however, which is sure, is 
that, the ability to do things will be of more importance to the 
welfare of individuals and of nations than simply the ability to 
own things. Plans to secure our share of the markets of the 
world ma} - bring wealth, but wealth is not as great a national 
asset as the power to create wealth. No better illustration of 
this fact can be found than that Germany, a nation poor in nat- 
ural resources, but in educated and trained men, and organiz- 
ations capable of directing their efforts harmoniously, is able to 
hold off the combined efforts of a large part of the civilized 
world. 

One of the most significant things which has happened during 
this war is the action of Great Britain in taking the industries 
needed for munitions out of the hands of their owners and 
putting them under the absolute control of the one man whom 
it was thought best able to operate them. By this action Great 
Britain did away with the theory so strongly cherished by Anglo 
Saxons that a man should have absolute control over his own 
property As soon as it became clear that the efficient use of that 
property- was necessary for the life of the nation that theory was 
disregarded. A careful consideration of this subject indicates 
that this is a theory suited only to times of peace and prosperity, 
and not suited to times of war, or even to strenuous industrial 
competition. For instance : The control of weapons is always 
put into the hands of those who can utilize them best; and in 
nations or tribes whose existence depends, more or less, upon 
war, the Chief is the greatest warrior. It would seem, therefore, 
that in nations which depend upon industry for their livelihood 
the chief should be he who was most capable of directing indus- 
try. Suppose a party was travelling in a desert country where 
food was scarce, and they were on the point of starvation when 
a deer was spied in the distance ; suppose further, that there was 
only one rifle in the party and that owned by a man who was 
known to be a very poor shot, and that Mr. Roosevelt was in the 
party but that he had no rifle. It would probably be suggested 
by some that Mr. Roosevelt be given the opportunity to shoot 
the deer, but it is also quite likely that if the owner had been 
brought up with our traditions, he might insist upon the right 
to use his own gun and thereby lose to his party the chance of 
procuring food ; it is safe to say that, if on the following day, 
a second deer should be spied, the question as to who should 
shoot it would not be argued very long. 

If we are willing to generalize from this incident, we should 
see that when conditions are sufficiently critical the community 
will insist that the implements needed for their welfare must be 
controlled by the people who can use them efficiently, whether 
such persons are the owners or not. 

It is agreed on all sides that after this war is over we are 
bound to ho.ve strenuous competition ; hence, it behooves those 
who control the tools of industry to learn how to use them ef- 
ficiently, and to do it quickly; for if democracy is to compete with 
autocracy in the long run, it must develop organizers and exe- 
cutives who are at least equal to those which Germany has shown 
it possible to develop under autocratic methods. 

* * -^ 

Mr. George E. Emmons, for twenty-one years manager of the 
Schenectady Works of the General Electric Company has been 
elected vice-president of the Company. Starting with the Thom- 
son-Houston Company thirty years ago. Mr Emmons' career 
been one of steady and well-earned progress. 



Mr. James Frank Morrison, first President of the National 
Electric Light Association, died at his home in Baltimore on 
July 3. His business career began at the age of fifteen, in Bos- 
ton. Going to Baltimore in 1862 he became a telegraph operator 
for the B. & O. and later for the Western Union. In 1870 and 
the years following, as Superintendent of the fire-alarm depart- 
ment, he completely reconstructed the Baltimore fire and police 
signal systems. The first long-distance telephone line in the 
world, extending 210 miles from Georgetow , D. C, to Cumber- 
land, Md., was constructed by him for Chesapeake & Ohio Canal 
Company. 

Mr. Morrison's services to the electric lighting industry began 
in 1880 when he was prominent in the construction of Baltimore's 
first plant, supplying power for arc lighting by the Brush System. 
As the electric service developed, Mr. Morrison's energy and ag- 




gressiveness were of great value in the pioneering work of the 
several plants which have since been consolidated into the United 
Electric Light & Power Company of Baltimore. In 1885 he was 
one of the founders of the National Electric Lamp Association, 
and for the first three years its President. Mr. Morrison, with 
the late William Baxter, Jr., did much to develop the early 
electric motor. As only series service was available, their ma- 
chine was of that type, and with the change of systems it has 
become obsolete. The work of its progenitors, however, help- 
ed to create the first demand for electric motor drive, now of 
fundamental importance to the industry. 

4* ♦ * 

W. R. Patterson, of the firm of Patterson & Davis, engineers, 
Chicago, died on July 19. He was one of the pioneers in tele- 
phone manufacturing, having been connected with the Western 
Electric Company since 1877. Much of the early work on tele- 
phone cables was done by Mr. Patterson ; the lead-sheathed 
cable was known for years by his name. Later he had charge 
of the design of buildings for the Western Electric Company at 
Hawthorne and at many other points in Europe and Asia. 

Mr. Patterson was born at Effingham, N. H., in 1854 and 
graduated from Dartmouth in 1876. He is survived by his 
widow, two daughters and a son. 

♦5> ♦> <!» 

Edward A. McCoy, head of the firm of J. B. McCoy & Son, 
manufacturers of electric, fixtures, of New York City, died on 
June 24. He was President of the Lighting and Fixture As- 
sociation of New York City. A widow and two children survive 
him. 

♦ ♦ ♦ 

Mr. H. S. Wilson has resigned from the managership of the 
power department of the New England Engineering Co., to un- 
dertake other work. 



.3 



TOABB- UTERATURE 



Catalogs 



Jk S^wafw oil tSad Earnest lPiiMls?ifi®img 



Automobile Lighting Switches are described in a new 
edition of a booklet published by the Cutler-Hammer Mfg. 
Co., of Milwaukee. Part of the booklet is devoted to useful 
diagrams which show the method of wiring for single lamps 
and various combinations. 

♦ ♦♦♦ **♦ 

"Arrow E" Wiring Specialties are listed in a pocket-size 
booklet sent out to the trade by the Arrow Electric Company 
of Hartford, Conn. Switches, sockets, bases, wall-plates and 
cut-outs with the customary size and price data are shown. 
The catalogue is known as Number 17, and it is also issued 
in 8J/2 by 10 inch size, both loose-leaf and bound. 

+♦* ♦> ♦ 

Push-Button Press Control is the title of a new four-page 
newspaper size broadside just issued by The Cutler-Hamme;- 
Mfg. Co., of Milwaukee. It describes the Kohler System of 
Push-Button Press Control which, the folder states, is now in 
use in 80 per cent, of the printing establishments of this 
country. The folder is of newspaper page size and is built 
up in columns very similarly to the newspapers. 

*♦♦ ♦♦♦ ♦♦♦ 

"The Economy Produced by Using Reversing Planer 
Motors on Machines Having Reciprocating Motion" is the 
title of descriptive leaflet (No. 3554-A) just issued by the 
Westinghouse Electric & Mfg. Company, in which this sub- 
ject is thoroughly discussed, illustrations and a summary of 
machine tool operating expense given. 

»♦♦ ♦♦♦ ♦$► 

Electrically Heated Candy Manufacturing Appliances are 

described in an eight-page booklet just issued by the Cutler- 
Hammer Mfg. Co., of Milwaukee. It includes descriptions 
of electrically heated chocolate warmers of the rectangular 
and round types, electrically heated side pans for use with the 
chocolate warmers, and electric batch warmers for providing 
radiant heat in the manufacture of hard candies where pulling 
or stretching is necessary. 

* ♦♦♦ ♦♦* 

"Something In It For You" is the striking title of a very 
attractive booklet just issued by the Westinghouse Electric 
& Mfg. Company in order to assist its agents and dealers in 
marketing the Westinghouse Electric Range. This booklet 
describes in a brief concise manner the advantages of this 
type of range together with a number of illustrations, and in 
addition outlines several methods of selling them and gives 
some suggestions covering newspaper advertising, window 
trims, demonstration, etc. The booklet is being distributed 

to central stations and dealers. 

♦£■ »jf »jt 

"Typical I-T-E Circuit-Breaker Installations" is a book of 
350 pages which shows excellent illustrations of this class of 
work. Every type of circuit breaker is shown "on the job" 
protecting circuits under every condition. As a record of 
what has been done, the book will be of great value to the 
contractor and designer who are certain to find in its pages 
one or more installations which have been the solution of 
problems similar to their own. Engineering data for many 
of the plants add to the interest and value of the book. 
The publishers, the Cutter Electric & Mfg. Co., of Philadel- 
phia, are to be congratulated on the excellence of the whole 
work. 



A Bibliography of Public Utility Valuation has been pre- 
pared by the library staff of the American Society of Civil 
Engineers. It comprises seventy-two pages. Copies may be 
had from American Electric Railway Association, 8 West 
Fortieth St., New York City. 

♦ ►*♦ <* 

"Engineering in Foreign Fields," tells through the medium 
of many excellent illustrations the diversity of work under- 
taken by the J. G. White Companies, of New York and 
London. The scene changes from place to place throughout 
North and South America and our insular possessions. Con- 
struction of the most diverse character is shown. 

♦ ♦ * 

"An Epoch in Railway Electricification" is a new publica- 
tion of the General Electric Compahy, telling of the electri- 
fication of the mountain divisions of the Chicago, Milwaukee 
& St. Paul Railway. Many interesting photographs, diagrams 
and curves make the thirty-page booklet one well worth 
preserving. 

♦ ♦ ♦ 

"The New Anaconda" is the title of a 32-page booklet pre- 
pared and distributed by Eugene Meyer Jr. & Co., 14 Wall 
St., New York City. It contains a popular description of 
what electrification and new metallurgical processes have 
made of those famous mining properties in Colorado. All 
is reduced to terms of "earnings per share," for the benefit 
of those interested in the financial side. 

+ 4» 4» 
X-Ray Floodlighting is the title of a 12-page booklet 
showing numerous examples of the fine effect produced by 
this form of illumination. Data for engineers is also given 
and suggestion for typical layouts. This publication, as well 
as its catalog No. 19, has just been issued by the National 
X-Ray Reflector Co., of Chicago. The latter book lists their 
entire line of reflectors for direct, store-window, show case 
and flood lighting. 

*!♦ ♦> *I« ' 

Transmission-Line Insulation is the subject of a carefully 
prepared book of 180 pages issued by The Locke Insulator Mfg. 
Co., of Victor, N. Y. It is really more a resume of the best mod- 
ern practice in line-construction, containing as it does informa- 
tion on mechanical features, outlines of specification for struc- 
tures, poles, cross-arms, and wire tables of wire and cable proper- 
ties, and notes on electrical design. A number of lines on 
which "Victor" products were used are illustrated, and the com- 
pany's line of insulators for high and low tension is shown and' 
dimensioned in a manner both complete and attractive. The 
book should be n every transmission-engineer's library. 

<$» 4f» 4f» 

Alternating-Current Electricity, by W. H. Timbie and H. H.. 
Higbie. 729 pages. New York: John Wiley & Sons: $1,501 

Principles of Electrical Design, by Alfred Still. 365 pages- 
New York : McGraw-Hill Book Co. : $3.00. 

Electric Wiring Diagrams and Switchboards, by Newton Har- 
rison, E. E. Second edition 303 pages. New York : The Nor- 
man W. Henley Publishing Co.: $1.50. 

Ozone : Its Manufacture, Properties and Uses, by A. Vosmaen,, 
Ph. D. 197 pages. New York : D. Van Nostrand Company :: 

$2.50. 



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Request 



Constant need for a portable electric lamp which can be attach- 
ed to walls or furniture has led to the introduction of quite a 
number of these handy devices. One of the best is that recently 
put on the market by Rubes Electric Devices, Inc., of 255 Clas- 
son Ave., Brooklyn. One of the specially desirable features of 
this lamp is the positive clamping device shown in Fig. 1. The 
two L-shaped hooks will go over the top or side of a bed, dresser, 



plied with the lamp, and the whole, less the bulb, is packed in 
an attractive leatherette-covered box. The retail price is $3.50. 




or chair, and will hold the lamp rigidly. Once the lamp is placed 
there is no danger of it slipping off, as there is with spring-wire 
devices. All points of contact are protected by rubber, so that 
thehe is no danger of scratching. When the hooks are not in 
use they lie flat against the base of the lamp, below the rubber 
feet. 

The cord of the average "portable" after a few weeks' use, is 
a fearful tangle of knots and kinks. A number of devices have 
been proposed to wind the superfluous wire on a reel in the base 
of the lamp. The "Rubes" lamp has avoided their defects b> 




using phosphor-bronze spring contacts between reel and lamp; 

a flat spiral spring for winding, and a positive catch which is not 

-A by accidental jerks on the cord. By a twist of the 

it, with the reel, can be removed, to inspect the reel 

mechanism. 

Eight feet of silk-covered cord and a separable plug are sup- 



* 



In every switchboard installation, protection against accidents 
should receive careful consideration. This applies particularly 
to the industrial plant, and doubly so if the panels are mounted 
in such location that access to them can be had by employees com- 
paratively unfamiliar with electrical devices. In the latter case 
the safety first truck type switchboard units here shown are emin- 
ently fitted. 

All live parts are enclosed, and danger of coming in contact 
with live circuits is practically eliminated. Oil switches, busses 
and other live parts are in compartments. This tends to reduce 
fire hazards and to limit disturbances to a single point. Ex- 
tensions can be readily made or the units moved to other loca- 
tions if desired. 

Another marked advantage of this type of construction is the 
ease of inspection or replacement. The switchboard panel is 




mounted on a carriage which can be readily removed from and 
replaced in a stationary structure, but only when the oil switch 
is open. With the oil switch closed it is impossible to remove 
or insert the truck because of an interlock between the operating 
toggle of the oil switch and the stationary unit. In plants where 
feeeders are standarized, spare panel trucks will permit systemat- 
ic inspection of equipment with the least possible interruption 
of service. 

The stationary member of the switchboard carries current and 
potential busses and disconnecting switch studs Barriers between 
the current bus studs prevent accidental contact by any one who 
enter the compartment. The rear ends of the current discon- 
necting switch studs run to busses and incoming or outgoing 
leads ; the potential bus wires to small contact studs near the top 
of the compartment. The side walls have hand holes, so that the 



56 



ELECTRICAL AGE 



August, 1916 



bus bars and bus wires can be continued from unit to unit. Ac- 
cess to the rear of a compartment can be had by means of a 
two-section sheet steel door. 

The removable truck is mounted on wheels, and when with- 
drawn, the equipment is dead and accessible from all "ides. The 
fore part of the truck carries a sheet panel on which is mounted 
the instruments, meters, oil switches and other appliances as 
shown. The current transformers are mounted on steel brackets 
on the back of the instrument panel. The rear of the truck car- 
ries the movable parts of the disconnecting switches, the potential 
transformers and small wire accessories. To center the truck 
and to assist in placing it in or removing it from a compartment, 
rails are provided for the wheels to run on. 

The field of application of standard size units is limited to 
7500 volts and 2000 amperes at 60 cycles, and 3000 amperes at 
25 cycles, on the main bus. Special units can be obtained for use 
up to 15,000 volts and 300 amperes. The current capacity of the 
removable element is limited to 500 amperes at 2300 volts and 
above, and 800 amperes up to 600 volts. The units illustrated 
are 76 inches high, 24 inches wide and 52 inches deep. The 
General Electric Company is the manufacturer. 

4» 4f # 



Of interest to the building contractor as well as to the oper- 
ating man is the telescopic ash hoist manufactured by a New 
York City firm. The removal of ashes from a city basement 
involves a lift of from ten to thirty-five feet and where there 
is not enough "traffic" to justify an elevator, the hoisting of 
heavy cans is a serious job. As everywhere else, electricity 
lightens labor, and by the installation of motor-operated hoist 
one man can handle the work readily. 







. W9TAU.M10N AT 

GERWANIA FIRE JNS. C0.&LD6. 

64 WiUf AM ST. NEW YORK CITY 



In operation the cans are placed at the foot of the shaft ; by 
the turning of a crank the operating head is pushed up into 
position, raising the doors as it goes ; and the operator then 
climbs to the sidewalk. By means of a specially designed hook 
he catches the bail handle of one can, and raises it by the mo- 
tor to the sidewalk level. The illustration shows how he turns 
the hoisting head to swing the can through the safety-door on- 
to the sidewalk. When all cans have been raised, the device is 
lowered into the shaft and the gates are closed. 

The electrical equipment of the hoist consists of a 1 h.p. en- 
closed motor, series-wound for direct current ; squirrel-cage for 
alternating current ; single-speed controller with brake and au- 
tomatic upper-limit stop. The gears run in oil, and the bearings 
are fed by the splash system. The maximum capacity is 500 
lbs. at 30 ft. per minute. For the hoist alone the price is $275.00 
f . o. b. New York City ; complete with doors as shown, the price 
is $385-00. 



C2®2tcl@Ilg@I , Type, Bluest Cmir@iit 
laijjji&tsiisig) Aire^t®* 

The arresters illustrated, designated as type K-3 and recently 
placed on the market by the Westinghouse Electric & Mfg. Com- 
pany, East Pittsburgh, Pa, are for use on voltages from 100 to 
1,500, direct current. They are especially adaptable for the 
protection of direct current railway and power motors, direct 
current generators, and rotary converters. When properly con- 
nected they are also of value in preventing flashovers on the 
commutators of rotary converters. They are furnished for 
car, pole, or wall mounting. 

These arresters are the result of several years' experience 
with a condenser arrester known as the type K, which has 
proven eminently successful in the protection of apparatus under 
the most excessive static conditions prevailing in any part of the 
country. The K-3 however, due to later developments in the 
method of building condensers, is smaller in size, of less weight, 
and of greater electrostatic capacity than the type K. 

Type K-3 arresters are made in two forms, one consisting of 
a condenser with a spark gap in series with it and a high re- 
sistance in shunt with it, for car and station service, the other 





consisting of the condenser alone, without series gap or stiunt re- 
sistance, for line mounting. The condenser is of the flat plate 
form, of high electrostatic capacity and amply tested for break-* 
down voltage. For car mounting, the condenser is of 1 micro- 
farad capacity, equivalent to the capacity of 100 miles of average 
line. For line mounting the capacity is .3 microfarad, equivalent 
to the capacity of 30 miles of average line. In the line mounting 
form, without gap or resistance, the condenser is connected dir- 
ect to the line and ground terminals. In the forms that include 
gap and resistance, the line terminal is connected through an 
adjustable spark gap in a separate chamber. This gap is in series 
with the condenser, the ground lead being connected to the case, 
and a resistance is connected in shunt across the condenser serv- 
ing to keep it discharged to zero value This resistance is so 
high that even with the spark gap closed only a negligible amount 
of direct current can flow. The spark gap provides a means of 
noting the discharge of the arrester by placing a test paper in the 
gap. It can be easily adjusted and set so close as to just pre- 
vent line voltage from bridging it. 

Both forms of these condensers are mounted in a rectangular 
cast box with waterproof cover. The spark gap chamber is 
accessible by removing a small separate cover. They are easily 
mounted underneath or on roof of car, and in any position on 
car, pole, or wall. 

*& *& <& 



A new electrical cooking device has recently appeared which* 
does not make use of heat developed in resistance wires but in- 
stead forms steam by the passage of current directly thru a 
small quantity of water in sufficient quantity to cause the water 
to boil. This device is used principally for cooking eggs and in 
this connection the use of a graduated quantity of water will al- 



August, 1916 



ELECTRICAL AGE 



57 



low of regulation of the degree to which the eggs are cooked 
without any further watching ; the circuit breaking automatically 
when the water has been boiled away. The cooker is so ar- 
ranged that it will cook the eggs to the same extent whether there 
is one egg or more and whether the eggs are large or small. 

Referring to the figure a porcelain dish A is held in a nickel 
plated base B by means of a special bolt. The porcelain dish A 
has a small well C located in its center and in which the two car- 
bon electrodes D are placed. The cover F sits in the groove G 
of the dish A. This groove is of sufficient capacity to hold as 
much water as the well C will hold. 




The operation is as follows : A measured quantity of water is 
placed in the well from a measure. This measure is filled up to 
the desired point by covering one or more of the holes with the 
fingers thus determining the degree to which the eggs will be 
cooked, whether soft, medium, or hard. The eggs E are placed 
in a perforated metal holder H. When the current is turned 
on a sufficient quantity flows thru the water between the carbon 
electrodes to cause the water to boil almost immediately. The 
resistance of the water is materially reduced by the carbons which 
contain sufficient salts to insure satisfactory operation at all times. 
Salt must never be added to the water in the bowl as it is impos- 
sible to add a sufficiently small quantity. 

For the uniform cooking of different size or different numbers 
of eggs it will be apparent first of all that the amount of steam 
condensed on the surface of the egg will be approximately pro- 
portional to the amount of heat absorbed by the egg. Thus when 
steam first begins to form the eggs are cold and will absorb a 
great deal of heat and the condensation on their surface will 
be great. It is obvious that a large egg with greater surface 
will condense more steam than a smaller egg. Now, as the eggs 
are placed directly over the sloping sides of the bowl all this con- 
densed steam will run into the well and will be evaporated by 
the heating action of the electric current. On the other hand the 
steam which is condensed on the inside of the cover will run 
down into the groove G and remain there. Therefore when 
the eggs have become heated to the point where condensation no 
longer takes place on their surface the water in the well will 
boil out and be condensed on the cover meantime cookitig the 
eggs to the desired point. Finally the water will all be boiled 
out of the well thus automatically turning off the current just 
when the eggs have reached the desired turn to fit the individual 
taste for which the water measure was set. 

♦ ♦ * 

Fan Oscillator 

Of interest not only for its results but for its excellent 
mechanical design is the oscillating mechanism used on the 
fans of a western manufacturer. As shown in the illustration, 
the oscillator operates on the wheel-and-worm principle, wh : ch 
gives positive oscillation. At the bottom of the vertical shaft 
is a ratchet adjustment by means of wh : ch the range of the fan's 
swing may be varied. Thus an arc of from 15 to 90 degrees 
may be secured by simply releasing the lever and moving it to 
indicate the desired magnitude of swing. Independent of this 
is the adjustment of the position of the fan about the centre of 
the motor-support. The entire motor including the oscillator 



ADJUSTING COLLAR 
CONNECTING LINK 
WING SCREW 
LATCH HANDLE 
RATCHET CASE 
RATCHET DISC 
CEAR CASE 
RATCHET' 
HANDLE 



may be turned to cover another part of the room by pulling out 
on a pin which then alllows the mechanism to turn. Such an ar- 
rangement is especially desirable for wall-mounted fans. There 
is no danger of injury while making adjustments with the fan 

- running. The mechanism 
is enclosed in a dust-proof 
case which can be very 
easily removed with a 
screw-driver. 

There is a safety clutch 
in the ratchetcase which 
automatically reduces the 
arc of oscillation if the fan 
guard or the motor body 
strike an obstacle. Another 
safety device is the pro- 
vision against the motor's 
falling forward if the wing- 
screw should work loose. 
On account of the greater 
diffusion of the breeze, a 
more powerful motor is 
supplied than with a 
stationary fan. The extra 
power goes into driving more air; the oscillator consumes a 
neglighble amount of power. 

♦ ♦> ♦> 

Auto *Ms@°I0Fp lEeelL 

The growing popularity of light autombiles for "trouble- 
shooting" and light construction work has led to the development 
of the wire-reel illustrated. To put it into service, one rear wheel 
of the car is jacked up, and the reel clamped to it by two bolts. 
As will be seen, the frame of the reel is large enough to rest 
against the side of the tire, so that there is no danger of the paint 
being scratched, and for the same reason the bolts have wooden 
blocks which bear against the spokes. A guide for the wire is 





attached to the running-board of the car, and the wire is passed 
through this and attached to the reel. While winding, the car's 
gears should be kept in first or second speed, and the driver, 
by means of the guide, distributes the wire uniformly. Over 
a half-mile of wire can be wound in ten minutes into a smooth, 
solid coil, which can be removed from the reel by withdrawing 
a single rod. 

A light iron frame on which the reel can be mounted converts 
it into a pay-out or hand take-up reel. In this form it has the 
advantage of being light, and of the proper size to fit small open 
wagon-bodies. The price complete is $16.50. 



5* 



ELECTRICAL AGE 



August, 1916 



A Novel Short Circuiting Hug 

Rule 23-B of the 1915 National Electric Code specifies : 
"That automatic cutouts (fuses) must not be placed in any 
permanently grounded wiring, except at the last cutout pre- 
ceding the socket or other means of leading the current 
to its load." 
This means that a fuse cannot be used in the grounded wire 
in the entrance cutout, or in any of the intermediate cutouts. To 
provide ready means for complying with this specification, the 




makers of a line of switches have brought out their No. 
509 Short Circuiting Plug, which has been approved for 
use under this rule when the plug is soldered to the screw shell 
so that the plug cannot be removed. This plug is made of a por- 
celain body with a copper shell threaded to fit the screw shell of 
the cutout. A slot in the top of the plug permits of the use of 
screw driver for turning the plug firmly into the screw shell. A 
projection on the base of the plug — similar to the contact pro- 
jection on the fuse base — insures positive contact at this point. 
As will be noted in the illustration, a depression is provided in 
the procelain and an adjacent hole is provided through the side 
of the screw shell of the plug for conviently soldering the plug 
to the screw shell. These plugs can therefore be used with al- 
most the same convenience as the ordinary fuse plug. The list 
price of the device is only 5 cents. 



The "Regulator Iron," illustrated, is said to be the only 
electric flat-iron made in which the heat can be accurately 
controlled while in use, and maintained at any required de- 
gree of temperature. Four different heats (five in the larger 
irons) are controlled by the finger tips of the operator by 
the simple movement of the regulator lever on the iron, gen- 
erating a heat from that suitable to the daintiest fabrics up to 
the high heat necessary for the heaviest damp material. The 
heat can be lowered or increased at will, by a simple move- 
ment of the finger tip. The ability to regulate the current to 
produce just the heat desired obviates the danger of scorch- 
ing, and permits of continuous work at the proper heat for 
any material. A saving of 40 per cent, in consumption of 
current is effected to the construction of the element which 
concentrates the entire heat at the base of the iron, and only 
uses sufficient current to generate the degree of heat re- 
quired at the moment. There is also a 25 per cent, saving in 
time as against the single heat iron, due to the greater 
efficiency of the worker with regulated heat. 



The heating element is practically indestructible, thereby 
almost entirely eliminating the necessity for repairs. An ele- 
ment under current for 3,600 hours, after measurement in the 
Electrical Testing Laboratories in New York, was found to 
have suffered no appreciable deterioration after this severe 
test. There is no quick-break mechanism with its attendant 
weakness. The method of control being by the regulator 




lever on the iron itself, with a sliding contact, the lever en- 
gaging the contact for the next heat before leaving the one in 
use, consequently there is no arcing or resultant deterioration. 
Installations have been made in over five hundred of the 
garment factories in New York where the type of work and 
the necessary speed of the operators necessitate a flat-iron 
that will stand up under the roughest and hardest use. Un- 
der these conditions this iron is now used exclusively in every 
one of the above factories, and some of the irons have now 
been in constant daily use for over five years. It has -demon- 
strated beyond question its greater serviseability in lower con- 
sumption of current (in many cases the purchasers having 
made the most thorough tests to satisfy themselves on this 
point before installation) increased output by the operatives, 
its ability to take care of all classes of work, and its com- 
plete freedom from mechanical defects. 

♦+♦ ♦♦♦ ♦♦♦ 

M. P&smamemt H@©t Bl®w®r 

The necessity for working steam boilers up to their maximum 
capacity during peak-load hours of the day requires that every 
obstacle shall be removed from the rapid transfer of energy from 
the fire-bed to the steam-space. With high rates of combustion 
and high velocity of flue gases, the surfaces of the tubes must 
be kept clean outside and in. Removal of the deposit of fine ash, 




soot, and clinker particles is one of the most important things 
to be looked after in the maintenance of a boiler. 

The old practice of doing this was by means of a hand-operat- 
ed steam lance, which inserted through hand-holes in the boilei 
setting. This was a hot, dirty, disagreeable job, and usually in- 



August, 1916 



ELECTRICAL AGE 



59 



effective, as it was impossible to reach the farthermost tubes, 
and the farce of the jet was much interfered with by the rows of 
tubes. A Western Pennsylvania manufacturer of soot cleaners has 
developed, as a substitute for the old method, a device which is 
permanently installed in the furnace and operated from the floor 
by cocks and controlling chains. As shown in the illustration, 
pipes carrying steam-nozzles project into the tube-space, and the 
jets of steam impinge on the su faces at such an angle that the 
steam can readily scour deposit from the tubes. Operation 
should be about every six to eight hours. 

The first cost of this equipment, installed, is from 5 to 10 per 
cent, of the cost of the boiler, but its regular use will increase the 
efficiency of the boiler so much that its capacity will be increased 
50 to 100 per cent. On one particular installation, with approxi- 
mately equal furnace temperatures, the flue gas decreased from 
640 degrees to 476 degrees due to the greater absorption when 
the soot-cleaner was used. 

♦ <$► ♦♦♦ 

The "Motrola" 

The Motrola is a small, compact, neat, electrical device which, 
attached in place of the usual crank keeps any talking-machine 
always wound. The principal part is a motor for either a-c. or 
d-c, and obtainable for any commercial voltage. On the axle of 
this motor is a worm gear that operates a wheel. This wheel, 
in turn, is fastened to the winding-rod. 

Connected with the electric current, the Motrola winds up the 
talking-machine to about Y$ of its capacity. The resistance of 
the spring then becomes large enough to automatically shut off 




the electrical current. When the talking-machine runs down to 
about l / 2 of its capacity, this spring resistance is lost and the 
current automatically turned on again. 

Thus the Motrola keeps the spring of the talking machine 
constantly wound up between y 2 and i/s, of its full strength — 
which is the strength required to give even time and true tones. 

If the electric current fails, the Motrola can be removed and 
the winding-crank re-attached. This operation takes but a mo- 
ment's time and requires no knowledge of mechanics. 

4. * * 

Two Speed Alternating Current 
Elevator Motor 

The two speed-alternating current elevator motor ilustrated, 
is designed for operating high speed elevators. Until recently, 
the speed of the car for an alternating current elevator equipment 
was limited to 200 to 250 feet a minute owing to the necessity of 
using a single-speed motor. This limitation of speed was due 
to the fact that in slowing down for a stop, an alternating cur- 
rent equipment with a single-speed motor had to be stopped by 
mechanical brake. On a direct current outfit with field control, 
slow down and dynamic braking are employed. By the use of 



the two-speed alternating current motor a car speed of 400 feet 
a minute is now possible, and starting and stopping is* accomplish- 
ed as smoothly as with an equ'pment driven by a direct cur- 
rent motor. 

The unique feature of this two-speed alternating current 
motor, which is made by the Westinghouse Electric & Mfg. 
Company, is the use of two separate windings in both stator 
and rotor. Mechanically, the construction of this type of motor 
is the same as that of the standard single-speed Ci elevator mo- 
tors made by the same company. Special attention has Tjeen paid 




to securing the quiet operating e~sential for apartment house, 
hotel, and office building service. The motor develops a high 
torque at low speed with a starting current only 50 per cent, 
above the current at full speed with full load. 

For starting, a 24-pole connection is used, giving a motor speed 
of 250 r. p. m. When the motor attains sufficient speed the con- 
nections are changed to give eight poles, and the motor then 
comes up to a speed of about 850 r. p. m. In slowing down, the 
24-pole connection is again employed. At the instant this is 
done, the motor is running at a higher speed than the synchron- 
ous speed for this connection. As an induction motor driven 
above synchronism acts as a generator, this produces an electrical 
braking action that quickly brings the motor speed down to syn- 
chronism. Then by disconnecting the motor from the line and 
applying an electrically operated mechanical brake, the car is 
easily brought to rest. Both rotor windings are connected to the 
same slip rings so that only three collector rings are necessary. 
In operation, the 8-pole rotor windings responds only when the 
8-pole stator connection is made and the 24-pole winding is only 
active when the stator is connected for twenty-four poles. 

This line of two-speed alternating current elevator motors 
permits the use of alternating current for high-speed elevator 
service, and eliminates the loss in transformation, heretofore 
necessary, where direct current is not furnished by the central 
station. 25, 30, 35, and 40 horsepower are the standard sizes 
of these motors. 

The controller employed consists of a number of magnetically 
operated switches and relays mounted on a slate panel and oper- 
ated by a car switch located in the elevator car. When the car 
switch is thrown to either the full up or down position the con- 
troller connects the low-speed winding to the line resistance in 
the rotor circuit. As the motor accelerates, this resistance is 
automatically cut out by magnet switches, whose rate of operation 
is controlled by series current limit relays, bringing the motor 
up to the full speed of the low speed windings. A change-over 
switch then closes, opening the low speed winding and impressing 
voltage on the high speed winding with resistance in the rotor 
circuit. This transition is made so smoothly that it cannot be 
sensed in the elevator car. The resistance is then cut out auto- 
matically as above, bringing the motor and car to full speed. 



6o 



ELECTRICAL AGE 



August, 191 6 



The necessity for keeping a close watch on the steam gauge 
and water column in the boiler-room has made the use of some 
form of electric illumination invariable. Only too often, how- 
ever, the draft gauge is installed in some position where the 
general illumination is not sufficient to allow it to be read with 
ease. A busy fireman has enough on his mind to make him 
willing to take special pains to read the draft guage when neces- 
sary for him to come up close and light a match or bring up a 
portable lamp. A manufacturer of gauges has recently equipped 




his entire line of draft gauges with tubular-type lamps as shown 
in the cut, and reports that the popularity of the innovation 
shows that it meets a real need. The draft gauge may be locat- 
ed in the place most convenient for the necessary piping, and at 
any time the fire-room chief can tell just what conditions are. 
The model illustrated has two tubes one of which should be pip- 
ed up to the space over the fire and the other to the last pass, if 
a water-tube boiler is used, or to the base of the stack if a return 
tubular type. Any loss of draft due to soot accumulations can 
then be readily detected. 

»> ♦ ♦> 

C@^ti?©I Switeta 

The Type R, Form C, Electrically Operated Remote Control 
Switch is the latest development of the General Electric Com- 
pany, in central control of lighting circuits, motors not subject 
to heavy overloads and other electrical apparatus located at a 
distance from the controlling button or buttons. 




Control may be centered in one special push-button switch or 
in different locations by the use of a number of these push-but- 
tons, wired in multiple. This special control button operates at 
finger-pressure and sends current through the two solenoid 
coils on the switch only at the moment of opening or closing. 
It is a single-pole, double-throw specially designed push-button 
and is normally in the open position. It remains closed only 
when held by the operator. One such switch with escutcheon 
plate ready for the wall mounting is furnished as part of full 
equipment and must be used as the solenoid coils are not intend- 
ed to carry current continuously. Little current is used for 
operation. One coil opens the switch and the other closes it. 
This approximates on direct current 1.6 amperes at no volts and 
0.81 amperes at 220 volts and on alternating current of 60 
cycles, 10 amperes, at no volts and 6 amperes at 220 volts. The 
device is made specially for use on currents of the above volt- 
ages. There is also an insulated handle on the switch for 
manuel operation. 




The switch itself is a self contained unit with two sets of con- 
tacts. The main set has the special G-E laminated brushes that 
make an "end on" contact with the switch blade with no tend- 
ency to force the laminations apart. The cross section, of the 
brushes, is correct for the current it is designed to carry and its 
arrangement permits a firm, strong, closing contact. The con- 
tact surfaces are kept bright and a good contact is assured by the 
wiping effect given the contacts every time the switch is closed. 
The secondary set of contacts take the arc on breaking the 
current. They are of blocks of selected carbon fastened with- 
out screws or bolts to flat phosphor bronze strips, shaped into 
holders at their upper ends. 

£&. Tm^lLMtm's for ©II gwitelte^ 

Any power-plant or substation man who has helped to remove 
the oil-filled tank from a switch or circuit-breaker will welcome 
the extension of the General Electric Company's line of tank- 
lifters to include switches up to 1500 amperes. As shown in the 
illustration, the operation is very simple. The lifter is placed 
on the frame and fastened by two wing nuts ; the operating han- 
dle is turned by a worm gear until the two triangular supports 




are brought snugly against the bottom of the tank; the catches 
which hold the tank to the frame are unfastened and the tank 
is then lowered to the floor. 

For use on varying sizes of the form of switch shown, the 
lifter is adjusted by moving the pulleys forward or back in order 
that the cords may be directly over the center of gravity of the 
tank. 



August, 191 6 



ELECTRICAL AGE 



61 



termined. The maximum potential drop permitted 
here was 4 per cent, from the service to the farthrest 
lamp, with all lights burning. For the long feeders the 
allowable "drop" was divided unequally, allowing ap- 
proximately 2.^/2. per cent, in the feeder and iy 2 per 
cent in the circuits. In the shorter feeders the drop 
was divided equally, i.e., 2 per cent, in the feeders and 
2 per cent, in the circuits. This scheme made the ar- 
rangement of sizes about the best that could be de- 
termined. Each and every individual feeder and cir- 
cuit was figured carefully, and its circular millage 
fixed. It was found advisable for many of the long 
and the heavily-loaded circuits to make them 3-wire 
from the panel out, connecting alternate outlets on al- 
ternate sides. This limited practically all the circuit 
wires to the range of sizes that may be solid conduc- 
tor, viz : No. 14, No. 12 and No. 10. There were a 
few No. 8 circuits where the runs were exceptionally 
long. The 1,000 watt outlet circuits which carry a 
load averaging about 11,000 watts were all made 
3-wire, the outlets being alternately connected one on 
each side of the 3-wire circuit, which was easily accom- 
plished by the use of the three to two wire cutouts de- 
scribed above. 

The total lighting load is approximately 160 k.w. 
The total quantity of wire used is over 102,000 feet, 
single conductor, or almost 20 miles. 

The structure was designed by J. G. Bassenger, of 
New York, and the electrical installation was planned 
and carried out by L. K. Comstock & Company, of 
New York, Chicago and Montreal. 

«S» *f» «{* 

Coming Conventions 

International Association of Municipal Electricians. Annual 
convention, Baltimore, Md., August 22-25. Secretary, C. R. 
George, Houston, Tex. 

Association of Edison Illuminating Companies. Annual con- 
vention, Hot Springs, Va., September 4-7. Secretary George C. 
Holberton, San Francisco, Cal. 

Pennsylvania Electric Association. Annual convention, Eagles 
Mere, Pa., September 5-8. Secretary, H. N. Muller, Duquesne 
Light Company, Pittsburgh, Pa. 

American Institute of Electrical Engineers. Pacific Coast con- 
vention, Seattle, Wash., September 5-8. Secretary, F. L. Hutch- 
inson, 29 West Thirty-ninth Street, New York City. 

Illuminating Engineering Society. Annual convention, Phil- 
adelphia, Pa., September 18-21. Assistant secretary, C. D. 
Fawcett, 29 West Thirty-ninth St., New York City. 

Association of Iron and Steel Electrical Enginers. Annual 
convention, Chicago, 111., September 18-22. Secretary, W. O. 
Oschmann, Oliver Steel & Foundry Company, Pittsburgh, Pa. 

American Electrochemical Society. Semi-annual meeting 
New York City, September 28-30. Scretary, J. W. Richards, 
South Bethlehem, Pa. 

New England Section, N. E. L. A. Annual convention, Pitts- 
field, Mass., October 17-20. Secretary, O. A. Bursiel, 149 Tre- 
mont Street, Boston, Mass. 

Telephone Pioneers of America. Annual meeting, Atlanta, 
Ga., October 19-20. Secretary, R. H. Starrett, 15 Dey Street, 
New York City. 

* * ♦ 

Mr. Arthur Stanley has been elected second vice-president of 
Stanley & Patterson, 23 Murray Street, New York City, jobbers 
of electrical supplies, and will devote his time to the firm's sales 
work. 

♦ ♦ 4> 

Mr. L. H. Mesher has been appointed sales manager of the 
Kearney & Trecker Company of Milwaukee, Wisconsin. 



il Planned for Westinghonie 

A memorial to the late George Westinghouse, Jr., in the 
form of a park and statue at his former home, "Solitude," 
Homewood, is said to be under way. 

Business associates of the famous inventor propose to pur- 
chase the estate at Homewood and convert it into a public 
park, it is said, turning it over to the city at no cost whatever 
save that of maintaining the grounds. It is understood that 
several hundred thousand dollars have already been raised 
for the project. 

<$> 4$> $ 






■■^i.ii'ji' 





ELECf 







AnraELtuTMHEfk 



A few of the nearly 800 designs submitted in the competition 
for posters for "America's Electrical Week" , held by the Society 
for Electrical Development. 



IMew ¥©srk MsM Po(g©s 

July 31, 1916 

Copper, prime Lake* 25.25(^25. 75 

Electrolytic* 26.26@26.75 

Casting* 24.25@24.50 

Wire, base* 31-50 

London std. spot 11 1 — 0/0 

Lead 6.50 

Nickel 45.00@50.00 

Zinc, sheet, f. o. b. smelter* 15.00 

Tin, straits •. . . 3850 

Aluminum, No. 1 Virgin, o8@99% 59.00@61.00 

Spelter 9-55@ 9-8o 

Old Metals 

Copper, heavy* 20.50@21.00 

Brass, heavy* 12.00@12.50 

Brass, light* 9.oo@ 9.50 

Lead, heavy* 5.oo@ 5.25 

Zinc, new scrap* 9.oo@ 9.50 

♦Nominal. 



edg 



3BE 



3BE 



62 

r 

EXCLUSIVE MANUFACTURERS 

OF 

"FULLMAN" 
FLOOR OUTLETS 



August. iqi6 



10 

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ADJUSTABLE 
AND 
NON-ADJUSTABLE 
TYPES 



WRITE FOR CATALOG 



STEEL GITY ELECTRIC CO. 

1207-1219 Columbus Avenue 
PITTSBURGH, PA. 



ESE1E 



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BOOKS FOR THE 
ELECTRICAL INDUSTRY 



WRITE US FOR CATALOGUE 



TECHNICAL JOURNAL CO., Inc. 

WOOLWORTH BLDG. 

NEW YORK 

III 




NEW eRTALOG No- 22 

LATEST LISTING ON 

PANEL BOARDS and STEEL CABINETS-SWITCH BOARDS-KNIFE SWITCHES 

See Catalog Page 27 to 65 See Catalog Page 74 to 84 See Catalog Page 6 to 23 

CATALOG MAILED ON REQUEST 

^ran/c^tdam £/ectr/c Co. St. Louis, Missouri. 




The IContMy ^mtiaaiDraty ©il ttHa<s Trade 

Technical Journal Company, Inc., New York 

Copyright — All rights reserved 



Vol. 49 



SEPTEMBER, 1916 



No. 3 



Lighting a Mowaiag] Ffislbjare Stu< 



A very up-to-date film manufacturing plant has re- 
cently been erected by the Universal Film Manufactur- 
ing Company, at Leonia Heights, N. J. It is composed 
of three buildings, known as the Laboratory Building, 
Studio, and Administration Building. They are gen- 
erally of steel and reinforced concrete construction. 
The Studio Building is partitioned off on the lower 
floor, almost entirely into dressing rooms ; whereas the 
upper floor is enclosed on three sides and top by 
ground glass, held in place between structural iron. 
The roof is shaped in the form of a large inverted V, 
being supported by twelve trusses. This is one of the 
largest and finest-equipped moving-picture studios in 
the East, so far as facilities for taking pictures inside, 
during the day as well as by artificial lighting at night. 
are concerned. The night lighting equipment is fully 
described hereafter. 

The main service to the building is alternating cur- 
rent, 2300 volts, 2 phase, 60 cycle and is transformed 
to 110-220 volts, single phase, 3-wire for general light- 
ing and small motors ; 220 volts, 2 phase, 3-wire for 
larger motors; and to 125-250 volts, 3-wire direct cur- 
rent through motor generator sets, for stage lighting. 
The service is brought in underground to a trans- 
former vault in the admin' 
istration building, by th: 
local lighting company. 
There transformers are in- 
stalled for the general 
lighting of two buildings, 
and the high tension line- 
continued to transformers 
in the laboratory building 
for light and power in the 
latter. The laboratory 
building has a local 
switchboard for the con- 
trol of all light and power 
therein. The transform- 
ers in the administration 
building provide general 
light and power for that 
and the studio building. 
The lighting throughout 
is provided in the usual 
manner, through distrib- 
uting feeders, panel- 
boards, local push button 
switches, etc. 




As direct current has been found far more advan- 
tageous for studio lighting than alternating current, a 
converting plant was installed in the administration 
building, that consists of a 200 k.w. and a 100 k.w. 
motor generator set, with space and provision for a 
future 200 k.w. outfit. Each of these sets was built 
by the Burke Electric Company, and consists of a 2,300 
volt, 2-phase squirrel-cage alternating current motor, 
and a 125-250 volt, 3-wire direct current compound- 
wound generator. The motors are each provided with 
auto-starting compensators, equipped with no-voltage 
and overload relays. The two generators are paral- 
leled by the aid of a differential voltmeter, which reads 
"O" when the voltage of the two machines is equal. 
It has two coils, acting in opposition, one being con- 
nected to each machine. 

The larger outfit operates at a speed of 690 r.p.m. 
and the smaller 860 r.p.m. Each motor starter is con- 
nected to the high tension line through an oil switch, 
the operating handle of which is on the main switch- 
board, and the tanks in the transformer vault behind 
the switchboard. 

There is quite a saving to the owners by their pur- 
chasing power from the lighting company directly 

from the high tension line 
rather than through 
transformers and low vol- 
tage motors, as is usually 
done. The efficiency is al- 
so naturally higher, as the 
losses of transformers are 
eliminated. The load for 
the studio is quite large 
and occasional, and this 
consequently means some 
appreciable saving, as 
rates are much lower for 
high tension supply than 
for low tension. 

These sets are installed 
for supplying direct cur- 
rent to the Cooper-Hewitt 
and arc lamps used in the 
studio, which is divided 
by overhead trusses into 
six stages, each approxi- 
mately eighty feet long 
by twenty-five feet wide. 
Each stage is compos- 



Ftp. 1. Interior of the Universal Studio 



26 



ELECTRICAL AGE 



September, 1916 



ed of the space included within three trusses, the 
area between any two consecutive trusses being 
known as a "bay." Hence one stage equals two 
bays. Each truss is provided with a pair of tracks 
running parallel to the length of each bay, as can be 
clearly distinguished in the illustrations. A lamp car- 
rier, the length of which is about equal to the width of 
a bay, is arranged with a set of wheels at each end. 
These wheels are run into the tracks at the sides of any 
bay in question. The carrier may thus be drawn from 
one end of the bay to the other by a rope pulled from 
the floor. At one end of the studio is a gallery and a 






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Fig. 2. Assembly of Trolley Hanger and Current Collector 

traverser track, on which is mounted a truck arranged 
to receive a lamp carrier. By running a carrier onto 
this truck, it can be shifted from one bay to another. 

Heretofore, and in even in plants under construction 
at the time this was completed, a system of flexible 
cords was hung from above and extended over pulleys, 
through separable plugs, to the overhead lamps. This 
meant cables always hanging about, too long or too 
short, continuously drawn over pulleys, caught under 
wheels and roughly handled, thereby soon becoming 
worn and torn and eventually a dangerous fire hazard 
among such highly inflammable materia: as illms and 
stage scenery. From the standpoint of appearance 
alone, such an equipment' could not begin to compare 
with the trolley system that was installed in this 
studio. 

A set of three bare solid copper trolley wires, No. o 
B. & S. Gauge, are suspended by special insulated 
hangers from the truss work, immediately beneath the 
centre line of each pair of tracks. These trolley wires 
and their supports are clearly in view in boiri photos. 
The trolleys are held in place by strain insulators at 
one end and insulated turnbuckles at the other end. 
The hangers are of the "clinch type," being tightly 
hammered around the wires to form k liush edge, so 
that the trolley wheels can readily slide over them. 
A set of three wires is provided for each bay. Each 
bay is fed by an independent sub-feeder from the stage 
switchboard, described below. Connection is made to 
each trolley wire at one end by means of a rigid copper 
bar, thoroughly insulated, with varnished cambric 
tape, which is passed down through a slot cut in the 
vertical bar on which a pair of tracks is supported, as 
can be seen in the detail sketch. The trolley ear near 
this po'.nt is provided with a lug, into which a piece of 



solid round copper wire is secured, this wire being 
soldered into the above-mentioned rigid copper bar. 
By this means any possible interference between the 
moving carriages and the supply feeder is avoided. 

A specially-designed current collector is installed on 
each carrier, by means of which contact is made to the 
trolley line. The main contact is made by copper trol- 
ley wheels, which are held tight against the bare wire 
by heavy rolled springs. Figure 1 shows one of these 
contactors very clearly. The lamps on each carrier 
are connected alternately on both sides of the 3-wire 
system, thus balancing each carrier within itself. This 
is required to avoid any unbalance on tne generators. 
At times, one and a half stages may be used for one 
setting ; that is, three bays ; under whic»i conditions, if 
but one bay were on a 2-wire system, and balanced 
against the adjacent bay, then with three bays in use, 
with equal loads in each bay, there would ;be an un- 
balance of 50 per cent. There are also times when sev- 
eral carriers are operated on one trolley, consequently 
if one-half of the stage had more carriers on it than the 
next, there would again be an unbalance on the 3-wire 
system. It can easily be seen that with each trolley 
being a 3-wire system- and each carrier balanced with- 
in itself, an unbalance is impossible. The capacity of 
each trolley is 30 k.w. — that is, 60 k.w. per stage or a 
total of 360 k.w. for overflow lighting on the entire 
floor of six stages. 

Fig. 1 shows the lamp "tanks" attached immediately 
to the carrier, and the luminous tubes hung therefrom 
by cables ; there being one pair for each outfit. These 
cables are wound on drums by means of a shaft operat- 
ed through a worm gear by a long pole. There are ab- 
solutely no cables hanging below the lamps proper, 
only the cords for the adjusting of the position of the 
tubes. The entire design and full working details of 
all the electrical work were completely drawn up, and 
all special parts such as insulating hangfe s. current 
collectors, etc., manufactured and installed by L. K. 
Comstock & Company. 

This system is highly recommended for moving pic- 
ture studios, as it has passed the close scrutiny of the 
Fire-rating experts, and its use results in an appre- 
ciable reduction of the insurance rates for the owner. 
As a matter of fact, the first year's fire insurance sav- 
ing almost pays for this stage equipment. 




Fig. 3. Close-up View of Trolley System 

In addition to the overhead lighting, stage-plug 
pockets are provided, set flush with the floor, for por- 
table lighting standards. Figure 1 shows a few Coop- ' 
er-Hewitt and also some arc lamp types. There is a 
capacity of 40 k.w. for portable lighting of each stage, 
or a total of 240 k.w. for the entire floor. The stage 
switchboards are of front-connected type, mounted in 
steel cabinets. There is a 3-pole fused switch for each 
trolley and another for each floor pocket. One cabinet 
is provided for each pair of stages, the control switches 
for both being on one board. All in all, the stage 
Continued on page 50 



September, 1916 



ELECTRICAL AGE 



27 



/i. 




Mj € a n* c&ewe&i 

Assistant Professor of Electrical Engineering, University of Pennsylvania 



The planning of industrial lighting systems may be carried out 
according to a method of comparison, that is to say, by compar- 
ing the given location to be lighted, with other similar loca- 
tion, which is equipped with lamps and by test has demon- 
strated its success for the class of work and the surroundings 
involved, and making the new system conform to the old. In 
the hands of one who has the data of the old system in hand, 
and who knows the conditions surrounding it in detail, a scheme 
of this kind may be used with a fair degree of success. If, how- 
ever, the designer of a new lighting system merely has data of 
an older system in hand without a fairly accurate knowledge of 
the surrounding conditions, such as ceiling and wall colors, de- 
tails of work performed, and similar items, there are a number 
of ways in which errors of judgment may be made. It is 
principally for such cases, as well as for the ability it may give 
even to the experienced designer in checking given plans, that 
it is well to have a working knowledge of the general principles 
of illumination design in hand when plans are to be made. 

Legislation 

Another reason of growing importance is the fact that legis- 
lation is beginning to be enacted here and there for the purpose 
of enforcing definite lighting standards. In the commonwealth 
of Pennsylvania, for example, a code of lighting for factories, 
mills and other places, was put into effect so as to be operative 
on and after Tune 1st. of the present year. One of the prin- 
cipal sections of this code is a tabulated statement of the illum- 
ination intensities which shall be maintained in that state. Ac- 
cording to this table, fine manufacturing operations must have 
a minimum intensity of 3.50 foot-candles, and other classes of 
work have similar intensity. Factory lighting must now be plan- 
ned, at least in this particular state, not in the haphazard manner 
which has characterized so much lighting in the past, but rather 
in such a way that the factory owner and manager may be as- 
sured in advance of the installation, that it will conform to the 
legal requirements for the class of work involved. It means 
likewise, that in older shops, the lighting must be tested to de- 
termine whether or not it conforms to the code, and if not, in- 
telligent steps must te taken to rearrange the layout of the 
lamps and wiring so as to make the results accord with the 
regulations of the code. 

Factors Involved in an Unsatisfactory System 

An interesting and. profitable way in which to summarize the 
factors which constitute the successful industrial lighting sys- 
tem, is to consider it first from the negative point of view, that is 
to say, to view the elements of the system from the standpoint 
- scertaining what the things which cause a lighting system 
to be unsatisfactory. On a basis of this classification, it is then 
readily possible to set forth positively or constructively the re- 
quirements which should be met in the successful system. 

Prominent causes of unsatisfactory factory illumination may 
be listed as follows :' 

1. Insufficient illumination. The number of lamps or their 
mzc may be too small, or they may be arranged in such an ir- 
regular manner as to result in dark spaces where certain work- 
man are located. 

2. Glare. The lamps may be used without reflectors or globes 
'hat the intense filament or arc produces a temporarily blind- 
ing effect of more less extent, on those whose line of vision in- 
tercept- a lamp or lamps now and then. This may also be 
caused even when glass reflectors are employed, but where the 

'Several of these causes have been suggested by and adapted 
from the First Reportof the Department Committee on Light- 
ing in Factories and Workshops in Great Britain, page xi. 



units are mounted so low that they are almost continuously in 
the line of vision. 

3. Unsteadiness and unreliability. These difficulties are 
sometimes caused by poor voltage regulation due possibly to ex- 
cessive loads on inadequate supply circuits. Many electric lamps 
are very sensitive even to slight voltage changes, so that fluctua- 
tions in the supply voltage are likely to cause very objectionable 
changes in the illumination intensity. Similarly, if the operation 
of the power house, connected with a factory, is unreliable, so 
that the lighting system fails now and then at a time when most 
needed, for example, on dark winter afternoons, or during night 
shift, the demoralizing effect will likely be such as to produce 
wage losses considerably in excess of the actual time of failure 
of the service. 

4. Antiquated methods of lighting. As a rule the method of 
lighting adopted (such as flame arcs, inverted incandescent and 
high pressure gas, and metal filament electric lamps), are modern 
and efficient, but instances are to be found of the use of antiquat- 
ed systems which can be justified only in special circumstances. 
In some engineering processes, for instance the work on boring 
machines and power hammers, gas jets are still commonly em- 
ployed on account of the rough usage to which the local light 
sources are necessarily subject, but apart from these special in- 
stances they are objectionable in many ways. (From British 
Report.) 

5. Neglect of upkeep. Considerable loss of light may re- 
sult from the accumulation of dirt on the surface of reflectors, 
globes and lamps, and particularly so if these accumulations are 
allowed to gather from month to month without systematic at- 
tention to the details of the maintenance of the system. Again 
where the lighting system consists of a number of small or med- 
ium sized lamps, one and another of these small units may 
gradually become dim with age or even burned out completely, 
and yet remain unnoticed unless regular care is given to inspec- 
tion and renewals by the proper department in the factory. 

6. Inside obstruction. The British Report calls attention al- 
so to inside obstructions as being less noticeable, perhaps, in 
artificial lighting than in naturalj lighting, since in the former 
there is wider choice in the placing of the lamps as light sources. 
It may occur, however, in factories, where large and complicat- 
ed machines (such as Jacquard looms) are used, or where the 
sources are situated over a traveling crane or other obstruction, 
as in some foundries. Some cranes, in fact, have lamps mount- 
ed on their surface, which travel with the crane, and when 
overhead lamps are blocked out during a loading operation by 
the interference of the crane itself these under lamps serve to 
illuminate the space immediately below the crane. 

7. Shadows. Objectionable shadows and sharp contrast? 
sometimes result from interference due to the machinery or belt- 
ing or both, which intercepts the light in certain directions from 
overhead lamps, and thus casts a deep shadow at the position oi 
a workman here and there. (Pennsylvania Code of Factory 
Lighting.) 

Characteristics of a Successful System 
Constructively, every successful factory lighting system should 
possess the following characteristics : 

1. Adequacy. The Humiliation should, in general, be suf- 
ficient to meet the needs of each workman irrespective of his 
exact location on the floor space. 2 

^Several of these items of classification have been suggested 
by and adapted from the Code of Lighting for Factories, Mills 
and Other Work Places, issued by the Illuminating Engineering 
Society in 1915 at 29 West 30th. St., New York, N. Y. 



28 



ELECTRICAL ACE 



September, 1916 



2. Avoidance of eye strain. Glare should be minimized by 
the proper use of reflectors or globes, and the selection and 
installation of the lamps should be such as to avoid eye strain, 
that is to say, the size of the lamps should be adapted to the 
ceiling height and they should be installed high enough, when- 
ever possible, to be above the ordinary line of vision. 

3. Circuit capacity. To reduce unsteadiness in the illumina- 
tion, lighting circuits should be run independently of power 
circuits, a course which will tend to prevent the severe voltage 
fluctuations which are so common due to heavy motor loads which 
are supplied from lighting circuits. Furthermore, the lamps 
should be operated from circuits which, in themselves, are suf- 
ficient in capacity to assure reasonable constancy in supply volt- 
age with changes in the number of lamps turned on. It is obvi- 
ous, that the ordinary precautionary measures should be provid- 
ed in the factory power house to increase the possibilities of re- 
liable and continuous lighting service. 

4. The type of lamp should be selected with due care as to 
its efficiency and adaptability to the conditions which constitute 
the location to be lighted. 

5. Systematic maintenance, as a part of the routine of the 
shop electrical department, should be conducted with regularity 
so as to prevent undue accumulations of dirt and dust on lamps, 
reflectors and similar auxiliaries. Large losses of light result 
from such accumulations. Care should also be excerised to re- 
new burned out lamps promptly and to attend to all the items 
which tend to reduce the illuminating efficiency of the system. 

6. Distribution. The system should be so designed that it 
may be satisfactory in regard to distribution, that is, sharp con- 
trasts and shadows should be avoided in as far as possible. 

7. Lamps mounted overhead. As a general policy, it has 
teen found satisfactory to mount the lamps overhead and to de- 
pend on these overhead units for the entire illumination in a 
given factory section, without the ordinary hand lamps close to 
the work, except in special cases which make such an addition 
desirable. 

8. Shade holders. There are numerous types of shade hold- 
ers on the market, but it is most important that the shade hold- 
er selected for use in a given lighting installation, be such that 
the reflector with which it is used shall be supported in a way 
to assure that the filament of the lamp (or other source) be 
housed in the reflector so as to prevent glare and to secure the 
most effective distribution of light that is possible with said re- 
flector. 

9. Side components of the illumination. In addition to the 
illumination which reaches the work in a downward direction, 
it is often important to consider also the proper illumination of 
the sides of machine tools and work, which will sometimes call 
for a fair intensity of side components in addition to an adequate 
measurable vertically downward component. 

10. Control by switches. It is a good plan to arrange the 
wiring so that a few lamps may be controlled in a group from a 
single switch. This makes it possible, conveniently, to turn on 
only such lamps as may be required at any one time. 

11. Light surroundings. It is an economy to keep the ceil- 
ings and at least the upper portions of side walls, light in color, 
for the purpose of increasing the efficiency of the illumination 
system and to assure better diffusion of the light than could 
otherwise be the case. The lower portions of side walls may be 
a darker tone as they are thus more restful to the eyes, and for 
this purpose a medium or darker tint may be used. 

Checking up the Design 
It is important for the designer to realize that calculation does 
not tell the whole story. A useful guide in all cases is knowl- 
edge of the effects secured in similar installations, and this 
knowledge may be obtained without special effort by observing 
the details of the design in well lighted rooms into which one 
comes every day. It is also wise where circumstances permit 
to install a few fixtures as a trial, especially where the situation 
is new to the designer. After the system has been installed., 



observations of the foot-candle intensity on the working area 
should be secured by means of a portable photometer or illum- 
inometer, at a sufficient number of representative points to make 
it possible to secure an average or mean value of the illumina- 
tion. There is practically no other way for gaining the assur- 
ance that the design has been handled correctly and the sur- 
roundings correctly sized up, and that the system fulfills the con- 
ditions which formed the basis of the calculations. If possible, 
too, the lighting effects should be observed by the designer dur- 
ing one of the periods of service and the employees questioned 
regarding its degree of succss or satisfaction from their own 
individual standpoint. All data resulting from such tests and in- 
quiries, besides serving to check up previous calculations, help 
a great deal in new plans under similar or even different con- 
ditions, and in case of errors in previous instances, they tend to 
an avoidance of like occurrances in subsequent experiences. 

* * * 

Peiii^ylvasiia'g Hew Illumination Code 

The Industrial Board of the Department of Labor and In- 
dustry, Pennsylvania, has adopted a comprehensive and valuable 
code for proer artificial lighting in factories, mills and other 
manufacturing establishments in the state. This code covers 
every essential feature of general industrial operations with con- 
cise and effective data, and indicates an important move in the 
right direction for the consistent regulation of lighting arrange- 
ments for workmen's benefit. 

By the inauguration of this measure, Pennsylvania becomes 
one of the few states to institute adequate standards of artificial 
illumination for its various industries. It sets an interesting 
and notable example for other states to follow, offering excep- 
tional possibilities for the general welfare of industrial employes 
in the adoption of suitable laws for this important phase of 
working conditions in plants and factories. 

The provisions of the Pennsylvania lighting code, sum- 
marized in six rules, are as follows : 

Rule i — General Requirements 

Working or traversed spaces in buildings or grounds shall be 
supplied during the time of use with artificial light in accordance 
with the following rules whenever natural light falls below the 
intensities specified in Rule 11. 

Rule II — Intensity Required : 

The desirable illumination intensity to be provided and the 
minimum intensity which shall be maintained are indicated in 
the accompanying table. 

This rule is intended to provide adequate illumination at the 
work. For purposes of measurement a horizontal reference 
plane 30 inches above the floor is to be taken, and a properly 
standardized portable photometer or illuminometer used. 

For purposes of very rough estimate, it may be stated that 
with a good overhead system of lighting one candlepower 
(spherical) per square foot of floor area should produce an il- 
lumination intensity of about three foot candles. 

At the Work. 
Ordinary Accept- 
Minimum able Practice — 

Ft. Candles. Ft. Candles. 

i. Roadways and yard thoroughfares.. .05 .05-0.25 

2. Stairways, passageways, aisles and 

storage spaces 0.25 0.25-0.5 

3. Rough manufacturing operations, 

such as foundry work, rough ma- 
chining, rough assembling, rough 
bench work 1.25 1.25-2.5 

4. Fine manufacturing operations, such 

as fine lathe work, pattern and tool 
making, light colored textiles, to- 
bacco manufacture 3.50 3.50-6.0 

5. Special cases of fine work, such as 

watch making, engraving, drafting, 

dark colored textiles 5.0 10.00-T5.00 

Continued on page 52 



September, 1916 



Tm 



ELECTRICAL AGE 

!§itaall§ifttaa ©3 lite 

Instructor, New York Electrical School 



29 



A perfect understanding of the methods of calculating 
the number and size of lamps required to illuminate an 
area can only be obtained by first geting a working 
knowledge of the measurement by means of which these 
calculations are made. 

LET us consider first the luminous intensity; this could be 
likened to the pressure at which the light rays are con- 
centrated about the luminous portion of the light source. 
The unit is generally known as candle-power, although to be 
correct this should be called simply "candle" as it does not 
represent any power in the sense usually used. It has, how- 
ever, been called candle power so long that we shall use 
this term. At one time spermaceti wax candles were used 
as a standard of light by which all other illuminants were 
measured, their values being stated in terms of "candles." 

The luminous intensity is measured in this way. The lamp 
is set up on a measurement bar or photometer so that the tip 
points up. The rays are directed along a horizontal plane 
which passes through the luminous center of the lamp, and 






.. _ — _ . 

Percentage Light Tlux 


Unit 


A 


B 


C 


D 


Total li^ht from lamp 

Lightabsorbed by reflector ... 

Light in upper hemisphere 

Light in lower henrisphero 


100.0 

37.0 

0.0 

630 

53-4 


100.0 

18.6 

0.0 

81-4 
50.2 


100.O 

14.8 

6.4 

78* 

413 


100.0 

0.0 

486 

514 

203 



Fig. 1 

in order to get a mean value of the intensity — all around the 
lamp, it is kept revolving while the measurement is being 
made. This is the value referred to when the rating of the 
lamp is given, namely, the mean horizontal candle power. 

If the lamp is turned so that its axis makes varying angles 
with the horizontal, and candle-power is measured for each 
of these angles, we may then plot the values obtained on a 



polar coordinate paper, obtaining the familiar diagrams, Ji^. 
1. From this it is possible to calculate the total iight given 
off; this is called the luminous flux and is measured in 
lumens. If we have a point source of intensity I — 1 candle- 
power, then the total flux is 4"!. Hence if we know the total 
flux F we can readily calculate the average intensity, for it is 
F -*- 4*. 

Power Requirements 

This will probably raise the question as to how many watts 
are required to produce one candle, and how many to pro- 
duce one lumen. These values depend upon the type of lamp 
used and are given in the table below: 

Illuminant Watts per Candle Lumens per Watt 

Tungsten vacuum type 1 to 1.35 12.5 to 9.3 

Tungsten gas type 0.8 to 0.55 15.6 to 24.0 

Mercury Vapor 0.43 29.2 

Mercury Vapor Quartz 0.43 29.2 

By means of this table, the quantity of light can be obtain- 
ed from any of the lamps mentioned, provided the wattage is 
known thus: What quantity of light will be delivered from 
a bare tungsten lamp, vacuum type if the label on the lamp 
bulb reads 100 watts, 115 volts. 

A 100 watt lamp has an efficiency of about 1.02 watts per 
candle; then I = 100 -s- 1.02 = 98.1; F = 98.1 X 4 1 - 1232. 

The foregoing calculations deal with what the lamp is cap- 
able of doing, but the calculations must also be made for 




Fig. 2 

this light after it has been received. If a person goes into 
a perfectly dark room, no impression of any object in that 
room can be registered on the brain through the eye but let 
a ray of light be allowed to penetrate and the object which 
it strikes is instantly seen and that object is said to be il- 
luminated. If the light source is large enough, the whole of 
the room can be illuminated and everything registered per- 
fectly on the brain. The illumination striking these objects 
depends upon the distance they are from the light source as 
will be seen by Fig. 2. Suppose the two radial lines CC rep- 
resent the boundary lines of the light rays given out by the 
illuminant D, there will be a certain amount of light em- 
braced between these lines, all of which will strike the line 
drawn at A, which is touching the lines CC; now lower this 
line, keeping it the same length, to position B and it will be 
readily seen that some of the rays escape without striking it. 
Therefore the illumination is less in the second position or 
where the distance from the light sources is increased — in 
fact, the amount will vary inversely as the square of the dis- 
tance from the lamp. 

The unit of illumination is experessed by the symbol B 
and is called the foot-candle. Any area is said to be il- 
luminated to a value of one foot candle it is receiving a 
quantity of light equal to one lumen per square foot. Roughly 
speaking one candle power per square foot of illuminated area 
with lighting units hung from 12 to 16 feet from the floor 
will produce about 2.75 to 3 foot candles. 



30 



ELECTRICAL AGE 



September, 19 16 



Example: A certain area of 1200 sq. feet is illuminated by 
10-100 watt lamps of the tungsten gas-filled type. What is 
the value of the illumination assuming that all the light given 
out by the lamps is received upon the area to be lighted and 
none is lost? 

Efficiency of gas filled lamp about 0.8 watts per candle 
100-^- 0.8 = 125 C.P. 125 X 4"= 1570 lumens, 
for ten lamps 1570 X 10 — 15700 lumens, 
foot candles or lumens per sq. ft., 15700 -*- 1200 = 13.2 
In practice there is a great deal of the light lost during its 
journey from the lamp to the plane to be illuminated, and this 
example must be used only to illustrate the procedure. Con- 
sidering the loss of light brings in the question of efficiency 
and great care must be exercised in not confusing them with 



Utilization Constants 1 
Tungsten Lamps 25 Watt to 1000 Watt 
Per Cent. Lumens Effective 

Ceiling lig t medium 

Walls Light medium dark light medium 
0.64 O.56 0.51 O.55 0.51 

O.54 O.50 0.45 O.50 O.45 

0.51 O.49 O.47 O.50 0.48 

O.58 O.55 0.51 O.54 0.51 

O.54 O.49 O.45 O.48 O.45 

0.49 O.45 O.41 O.44 O.41 

O.56 O.54 0.51 O.55 O.52 

0-43 O.37 0.31 O.37 0.31 



Sizes 



Reflector 
Prismatic Clear 

Prismatic Satin Finish 

Bowl Steel 

Dense Opal 

Medium Density Opal 

Light Density Opal 

Dome Steel, etc. 

Bare Lamp 



light 
0.48 


dark 
medium 
O.44 


dark 
0.42 


0.43 


0-39 


0.38 


0.47 


O.47 


O.47 


0.49 


O.49 


0.49 


0.41 


0-39 


0.38 


0-37 


O.36 


0.3.5 


0.51 


O.51 


O.51 


0.26 


O.25 


O.23 



one another. The "watts per candle" efficiency has already 
been spoken of, and it is known that the value will vary with 
the type of lamp used. It would be far more desirable to 
have an efficiency which would be the same for all illumin- 
ants. This can be obtained by getting the ratio of the total 
light given by a lamp and the total light received upon the 
plane of illumination, which is called the efficiency of utiliza- 
tion and is equal to: 

Efficiency = effective lumens, -*- total lumens. 

The effective lumens are the amount of light received on 
the plane of illumination. 



Fig. 3 — Foot-candle Intensities for Various Interiors 




Armory 


2.0 


Office 


3-5 


Art Gallery Walls 


5-o 


Operating Table 


10.0 


Auditorium 


2.0 


Pattern Shop 


30 


Auto Show Room 


5-o 


Power House 


2.5 


Billiards : 




Press Room 


4.0 


Room 


1.0 


Residence : 




Tables 


4.0 


Pantry and Kitchen 


2.0 


Bowling Alley 




Laundry 


1-5 


Pins 


4.0 


Furnace Room 


0.6 


Car Barns 


1-5 


Restaurant 


3-o 


Carpenter Shop 


2-5 


Rug Rack 


150 


Church 


2-5 


Sewing Room: 




Dance Hall 


2.0 


Light Goods 


4.0 


Drafting Room 


3-o 


Dark Goods 


8.0 


Tables 


8.0 


Skating Rink 


2.0 


Engraving 


10.0 


Spinning 


3-5 


Factory: 




Stable 


1.0 


General (with local) 


i-5 


Stock Room 


1.0 


General (no local) 


4.0 


Stores 3.0- 


-5-0 


Local (bench work) 


4.0 


Store Room 


0.6 


Foundry 


3° 


Swimming Pool 


2.5 


Freight House 


i-5 


Telephone Exchange 


3-o 


Garage 


2.0 


Train Shed 


1.0 


Gymnasium 


2-5 


Type Setting 


8.0 


Laundry 


2.0 


Warehouse 


1-5 


Laboratory 


35 


Weaving 


5-o 



'From "A Handbook of Incandescent Lamp Illumination" 
— Edison Lamp Works. 



This conception of efficiency is valuable as a means of esti- 
mating the quantity of light required for a given area but it 
is not the true efficiency, nor is it possible to calculate the 
true efficiency. It might be called the operating efficiency 
or service efficiency, in that it has to do with the length of 
time the lighting can be worked under without eye-fatigue. 
The longer a person can use this equipment without bad ef- 
fect, the higher will be the service efficiency, which would 
depend upon the positions, mounting heights, correct shading,, 
and spacing of the lighting units, together with the correct 
amount and quality of light. No matter how much light is 
used or how much current is supplied, whether too much, too' 
little or exactly the right amount, if the lamps are not arrang- 
ed so as to eliminate all possible glare, deep shadows and 
contrasts, eye-fatigue will result and consequently decrease 
the efficiency of the system. 

It has been known for a long time by manufacturers who 
have collected statistics along these lines, that the majority 
of accidents and mistakes occur in the later hours of a day's 
work when the eyes are getting tired, thus causing a decrease 
in the efficiency of the worker. This has been corrected to 
such an extent that the output of the factories has been ma- 
terially increased by altering the existing lighting, and pay- 
ing more attention to the decorations of the walls and ceil- 
ings. It has been a common failing in the past to pay more- 
attention to the amount of current consumption than to the 
quantity of light required, and in consequence a great many 
establishments cannot get the best results even with a cor- 
rectly designed lighting unit properly spaced. 

Calculations for a Typical Installation 

To illustrate how the problem of designing a lighting 
scheme should be attacked we will give an example and show 
the procedure for both direct and indirect lighting. 

It is required to illuminate a floor, used as a grocery store,. 
150 ft x 80 ft. having 14 ft. ceilings. The decorations are light 
ceilings and medium dark walls. The ceiling is to be wired, 
in conduit having the control switches in panel boxes which 
are supplied by three-wire feeders 1 10-120 volts. 

Direct Method of Lighting 

Referring to Fig. 3, it will be seen that a grocery store re- 
quires from 3.0 to 5.0 foot-candles or what is the same thing 
3.0 to 5.0 lumens per square foot. This amount must be 
placed on the working plane which will be in some parts of 
the store on the counters and in other parts upon the floor. 
In order to give a comparison figure, it requires 2.5 foot- 
candles to read fine print, so unless the store wishes to have 
a large quantity of light for advertising purposes, 3 foot-- 
candles should be ample, however, allowing a little for adver- 
tising purposes, we might use a value of 4 foot candles for the 
area under consideration. 

The area of the floor is 150 by 80 ft. = 12000 sq. ft., so> 
that 12000 x 4 = 48000 lumens of light required for the whole 
area. 

Of course much of the light produced will fail to reach the 
working plane, the fraction depending on the color of the 
walls and ceiling. Average values are given in the accom- 
panying table. Let us assume that in this case we will have 
to produce 48000 -r- 0.60 = 80,000 foot-candles. 

It would not be possible to place this quantity of light in 
one fixture in the room on account of the dense shadows . 
that would be produced, so it must be distributed over the 
entire area so as to give as even an illumination curve as pos- 
sible. A maximum variation from the average foot-candles of 
about 30 per cent, is for all practical purposes uniform. In 
stores, churches, factories, etc., a maximum of 50 per cent, 
might easily be allowed, that is to say, the average illumina- 
tion in a room being say 4 foot-candles a maximum of 6 and, 
a minimum of 2 foot-candles. 

Continued on page 49 



September, 1916 



/?. 



E L U. C T RICAL AGE' 

/"> 1 f ! «-< V I fl If I Oil II -*r BLW 



31 



IB j CM^sm Maffsttsu 



/« f/a* rar/v />arf of August an amateur theatrical per- 
formance for the benefit of a charitable organization 
- given on the estate oj Mr. James L. Brecse at 
Southampton, Long Island. The production was a 
"girls-and-music" affair such as "gets over" anywhere 
from Maine to California, and is frequently staged by 
local organizations. While in the setting of this play no 
expense zeas spared, many elements were common to 
less pretentious productions. 
"THE entertainment was given in a large tent, in which a danc- 
*- ing floor was built, with an elevated stage at one end. In 
order to avoid "tent-show" atmosphere the stage was banked 
solidly with trees and shrubbery at the sides, but the back was 
left open, giving a view of two apple trees several hundred feet 
away. Behind these trees was a hedge, and just a glimpse could 
be seen of the white corner and big red chimney of a neighbor- 
ing cottage. This constituted the "back-drop." 




The Back-drop of this Stage was 200 ft. Away 
It was impossible to hang a curtain without erecting a frame- 
work which would have detracted much from the beauty of the 
stage setting, yet some sort of screen between the stage and 
the audience was essential to the action. The village road roller 
was run up beside the stage, connected to a pipe under the stage, 
and holes were bored in the floor to correspond with small holes 
in the pipe. When steam was turned on, a striking curtain ef- 
fect was produced, by colored lights from projectors playing on 
it. 

For illumination of the tent there were rings of lights around 
the poles, but when the steam came on, these lights went out, 
and when the steam disappeared, there was the stage in nearly 
total darkness. Then the front of the stage became luminous 
from some indistinguishable source of light, but all the rest was 
still dark. The light crept further and further back, changing 
color as it went, until all the "nations" of the grand opening 
tableau were alight, save one. Just as the general lighting of 
the stage, all in subdued colors, came to its height, a spot-light, 
hung from a platform high up in the centre of the tent, focus- 
ed its rays on the central figure, "America," and gradually 
brightened until she stood dominating the entire scene, bathed 
in a radiance of pure white light. The spectators were very 
much impressed with the beauty of the scene, as their applause 
showed. Throughout the performance the amateur actors had 
their audience "right with them," and while this was due large- 
ly to their skill, yet the scenery and lighting played a large 
part. A description of these will be of interest to any who 
have to arrange lighting effects for an amateur show either in- 
door! or out. 



Pi^tribufion Cwvc 
5Z7 
5% 




W 

X-R££ Z/o.600 
Reflector 

100-watt Type "C Lamp 



The stage setting was unexpectedly beautiful, simple though it 
was. There were a few marble statutes, and a wonderful bronze 
tripod from some ancient Roman ruin, but the really important 
part of the setting could be approximated by going forth into 
the fields and cutting suitable boughs 
and branches. The stage was made to 
seem illimntable by not following the 
usual practice which hedges in three 
sides and leaves open only the fourth. 
We left the back open and let nature 
help us with the setting. A complete 
light-plot was prepared in advance for 
the entire show by conference with 
the stage director. From this a light- 
plot for each lamp was made out, and explained to the man who 
was to operate that particular lamp. All operators were in- 
experienced, save the two spot-light men, and the smoothness 
of thier team-work was remarkable. Quite a help was an im- 
promptu telephone system which was rigged up by robbing a 
couple of automobiles of their loud-speaking instruments. These 
were attached to three dry cells, and connected the main switch- 
board telephone with the opposite side of the stage and with the 
spotlight operators in the top of the tent. 

The lighting equipment was designed with the understanding 
that it was to be useful for other purposes than the particular 
performance under discussion. In order to keep it as simple as 
possible, so that it could be handled by amateurs on occasion, the 
light-sources were confined to a few units. The entire equip- 
ment consists of only nine easily portable pieces, in addition to 



Cottage 



Hedge 







& Tree 



a 



Projector 



§ 

-Si 








No.5l XrRau Projector..^ 
STAGE 



150 WafJamp 



1-No. 600 X-Rau Reflectors 
. in HousingsJSO Waif Lamps 
(5tere Opticon Lamps) "'"■- 

■■holes for Sfeam-Curtain 



M- 



EEL' 




Steam 
Roller 
Y 



-41 

Pipe\2. 



Po/e..-^ ^ 
.y Projector orchestr* p,t 



Telephones 

>/ x- 

{iSOm Lamp)- 



K> 



Center.' 
Pole 



oW 



Spotlights. 
(Carbon Arcs) 



General Arrangement of the Stage 



32 



ELECTRICAL AGE 



September, 1916 



the spotlights. There were five "X-Ray" flood-lighting pro- 
jectors mounted to bring them about 6 ft. from the floor. For 
floor lighting metal boxes were made up just large enough to 
accommodate two No. 600 "X-Ray" containing 250-watt lamp 
units side by side. These were turned so that the light was 
thrown horizontally and upward. From the light-distribution 
diagram shown in the figure, it will be seen that most of the light 
goes out at an angle slightly above the horizontal and that enough 
goes vertically upward to illuminate a player's face when he 
comes quite close to the lamp. Each of the two sockets was 
wired in cable to the switchboard, so that different colors could 
be controlled separately. 

By the zone system each lamp lights a certain area of the 
stage, and is confined by reflectors to that area only. In the 
central part of the stage, of course, all the zones overlap, and 
give a mixture of all the colors used on the individual lamps. 




The Extemporized Switchboard : Simple but Sufficient 

In outdoor lighting one cannot depend on diffused light re- 
flected from the surroundings. There is a little reflected light, 
but the quantity is so small as to be useless, and what there is 
is bad because it is green. Therefore all shadows from one side 
must be cut by direct illumination from some other direction. 
In this performance we concealed in one floor-box as described 
above, two 250-watt lamps behind the piano, the filaments of the 
lamps being even with the stage-level. These were dimmed or 
cleared as occasion demanded for the cutting of shadows which 
would have otherwise been unpleasant. No color screens were 
used on these lamps at any time, their intensity being always 
only enough to eliminate shadows, but not enough to give the 
impression that there was direct illumination from the front oi 
the stage. 

The location of the various lamps is shown in the accompany- 
ing diagram. Four projector units were used, mounted on ex- 
tension stands. Two were on the stage, giving light from about 
six feet above the stage floor. Two were on the ground before 
the stage, giving light about three feet above the stage floor. 
In addition to the clear footlights mentioned above there were 
two floor boxes, one at either front corner of the stage. The 
diagram shows roughly the areas covered by each zone of light 
and indicates how the concentration of all lamps on the centre 
of the stage gives good illumination at that point, though in 
the central area it is not possible to mix colors and have any 
single one stand out clearly. In one of the dances one side was 
all pink, and the other side all pale green, the lights of one 
side brightening up the shadows of the other. There was, of 
course, a definite "shadow line," which prevented the faces from 
appearing flat, but strictly speaking the shadow did not exist ; 
there was merely a difference in color. 

In the Quaker dance all operators were instructed to use pale 
green, pink, and purple colors "hit-and-miss," which means that 
they were not to be governed by one another, but to make the 
changes at will, the effect being a gradual melting of one color 



into another on the very pale grey of the costumes, and impart- 
ing warmth and variety to the number. 

In the surf-bathing dance the participants wore purple bath- 
ing suits with cerise colored cloaks. The action assumed that the 
girls were in the water when they came to the front of the stage. 
The twn projectors on the ground were colored green for this 
number, and when the green color fell on the purple of the cos- 
tumes the result was a surprising degree of "wetness" on the 
costumes. A little study in the properties of color will frequent- 
ly make possible unexpected effects. Costumes can be com- 
pletely changed in color, brilliant ones darkened, and dark ones 
brightened, by the proper color screens. 

Color effects are secured by sheets of gelatine placed in frames 
of the size to fit the opening before the light source. Grooves 
are placed on each piece of apparatus into which the color 
frames slide as their use is demanded, so that frames can be 
used for all equipment. I have found the most advantageous 
size to be 12 x 12 or 13 x 13. The gelatines and frames can be 
obtained from any .stage-lighting firm. 

The chief advantage of this lighting equipment is its great 
flexibility. Any organization giving a performance involving a 
hundred performers or so will find this equipment sufficient to 
meet ordinary needs. It is easily movable, and the dimmers are 
interconnected so that one or all can be operated at a time. 
The next advantage is that the cost is within reach. The 
essentials of this equipment can be purchased for something 
like $300, excepting the spotlights, which can be hired for a 
reasonable sum. It is not advisable to purchase spot lights for 
pageants or amateur performances because they require ex- 
pert operation, and generally the light and the operator can 
be hired together for a figure little more than the cost of 
either separately. 

Lighting Plot for Left Foreground Projector 

Make sure you have the following screens : Red, green, 

light green, amber, magneta, pink. 

After Overture. 

STEAM CURTAIN— Hit and miss red, green, amber. 

1. Tableau. About 10 min. 

Light green, until characters start down stairs, 
then clear and spot them to exit. 
STEAM CURTAIN— red, amber. 

2. School days, 6 min. Buster Brown costumes. 

Pink throughout. 

3. Dance of seasons. 10 min. Four girls at a time, 

in long ruffled shirts. 

Spring. First 4 girls, 1%. min. 

Open blue. On signal change to magenta for 
five second, then five seconds of pink, then 
amber to the end of dance. 
Summer. Four more girls. 1^4 min. 

Amber throughout. 
Autumn. Four more girls, with canes. 1% min. 
Open amber for 45 seconds, then magenta to 
finish. 
Song and ensemble. Clear. 

4. Tarantella. 10 min. white shirtwaist, red, and 

green costumes with sashes. 
Open red until solo, then amber,- after solo, clear 
to exit. 

5. Surf-bathing Rag. 4 min. Girls, cerise cloaks 
over bathing suits. 
Green throughout. 

6. Quaker dance. 8 min. Grey costumes, men with 

big hats. 
Hit and miss, pink, purple, green, use green very 

little. 
Intermission 2 minutes. 

The balance of the program was covered in a similar manner. 



September, 1916 



P^lft, 



1 ft ^ 



ELECTRICAL AGE 



33 



Jy Bajasroil 



r/n"j is f/ze yir^f 0/ a series of articles by Mr. Christy 
on the general subject of Patents, The author's long 
experience as a patent attorney qualifies him to tell our 
readers the important points to be observed in the secur- 
ing and marketing of patents.. .Fundamental definitions 
are dealt with in this issue. 

The natural order in which these questions should stand is, 
What is Invention? What is a Patent? For invention comes 
first : the invention must be made before a patent for it can be 
granted. But the inverted order is better. People know in a 
general way what an invention is, and their first concern is 
to find out more exactly what a patent is. 

Let us begin then with an invention already made, and let us 
be specific. Let us take the case of Mr. Marconi, for example, 
and his invention of apparatus for wireless telegraphy. If there 
were no patent law his invention would be of little value to him, 
for he could not use it without letting other people understand 
it, and other people seeing and understanding could duplicate 
the apparatus and use it, and Mr. Marconi would be powerless 
to prevent 

But Government intervenes : it says to Mr. Marconi (and to 
even- inventor), in effect, this: "Prepare and submit to Govern- 
ment an accurate and intelligible description of your invention — 
a description which others may understand and follow. Gov- 
ernment will thereupon issue letters patent in your favor. The 
letters patent (which are open to the public) will have attached 
to them your description of your invention. Under those let- 
ters patent no one but you and those authorized by you may, 
during seventeen years, enjoy the invention. When seventeen 
years have passed the invention will become public property : 
any one who wishes may then enjoy it." 

A Patent Confers no Right to Enjoy 

It is to be very carefully noted at the outset (for there is a 
common misunderstanding here, which leads to a great deal 
of difficulty) that a patent does not confer upon the patentee the 
right to enjoy his invention. The right to enjoy an invention 
before there was any patent law. All that the patent law does 
is to impose limitations upon that right to enjoy. The voice oi 
the law is not directed to the patentee, saying, "You may enjoy 
this invention," but it is directed to the rest of the public, say- 
ing, "You may not enjoy this invention." The patent law con-, 
fers upon the patentee only the right to prevent others from 
enjoying the invention. In other words, the mere fact that a 
man has a patent is no assurance that he has the right to use the 
thing patented. 

This is a hard saying; and, to understand it, one must con- 
sider the case, not of one inventor alone, but of two successive 
inventors. The first inventor — Mr. Marconi, let us say — invents 
apparatus for a system of wireless telegraphy and patents it. 
Subsequently, the second inventor invents, let us say, a new and 
better sort of detector for the Marconi system ; and he gets a 
patent for it. Now, manifestly, the fact that the second man 
has patented a detector is no reason why he should be permitted 
to use Mr. Marconi's patented system of wireless telegraphy. 
This is true, even though his patented detector has no practical 
value, except as a part of the Marconi system. On the other 
hand, Mr. Marconi may not in his system use the second in- 
ventor's patented detector. Of course, Mr. Marconi might 
license the second man, and authorize him to use the patented 
system ; or the second man might license Mr. Marconi, and auth- 
orize him to use the patented detector. And, in addition to that, 
since Mr. Marconi's patent is the earlier, it will expire first, and 
a/ter it has expired, the second inventor may use the system 
freely, and may then freely enjoy his patent for the remainder 
of its term. But neither may, without authority, use the invention 



of the other. This illustration will suffice to show that the Gov- 
ernment, in granting a patent, does not grant a right to use it: 
it grants only the right to prevent others from using it. Wheth- 
er he may use it depends on other circumstances. 
No Obligation to Secure a Patent 

An inventor, then, is not obliged to get a patent. He may, 
if he wishes, and if the invention is of such a kind as to make 
it possible, keep his invention a secret. But if he does not get 
a patent, and if his secret should happen to be d : scovered, he 
could not prevent a stranger from enjoying the invention. 

A patent is a grant by Government, and it confers upon the 
patentee for a term of seventeen years the right to exclude 
others from making, using, or selling the thing invented. It is 
this exclusive right which is the essential feature of the patent. 
If there were no patent law, any one who had knowledge of the 
invention might enjoy it; but, under the patent law, a patented 
invention may during the life of the patent be enjoyed by no one, 
except the patentee and those authorized by him. If the others 
infringe, the courts are open to the owner of the patent: he may 
stop infringement by injunction and he may have redress for 
damage done him. 

Invention is Discovery 

We come now to the second question, What is Invention? 
What is it that may be a patented? The Constitution provides 
that "The Congress shall have power , , . to promote the pro- 
gress of science and useful arts by securing for limited terms to 
authors and • inventors the exclusive right to their respective 
writings and discoveries." Patentable invention then, in the 
contemplation of the Constitution, is discovery related to "the 
progress of science and useful arts." 

Congress, exercising the power conferred in the language just 
quoted, has enacted that "Any person who has invented or dis- 
covered any new and useful art, machine, manufacture, or com- 
position of matter, or any new and useful improvements thereof 
. . . may . . . obtain a patent therefor." There are four categor- 
ies then, four classes of subjects, in any of which, according to 
law, patentable invention may lie. (1) art, (2) machine, (3) 
manufacture, and (4) composition of matter. 

The Four Categories 

An Art, in the meaning of the patent law is commonly spoken 
of as a method or process. Novelty here lies neither in ma- 
terial under treatment nor tools employed but in the way in 
which material is treated, the method employed, the operation to 
which material is subjected. A good illustration of a patentable 
art is Goodyear's invention of mixing sulphur with India rubber 
and subjecting the mixture to heat. Therein was a new process 
— a new art — the art of vulcanizing India rubber. 

A Machine, in the meaning of the patent law is nothing else than 
a machine in common understanding : it is the inanimate physi- 
cal means for accomplishing an end, doing work, producing an 
article for use or sale. Its value may lie in its operation, as 
is the case with an air-brake apparatus or a telephone ; or its 
value may lie in the tangible, physical thing which it produces, 
as is the case with a glass-bottle machine or knitting machines. 
A patentable machine may be simple as a can-opener or a cork- 
screw, or intricate as a cash register or a player piano ; if it be 
new it is patentable. 

A composition of matter is exemplified in the article of com- 
merce, carborundum, chemical union of carbon and silicon, dis- 
covered not many years ago. But it is not chemical combinations 
alone which are patentable as compositions of matter. Physical 
combinations too are patentable, as for example, a metallic al- 
loy of new composition and new commercial value, or a mixture 
of unctuous substances having peculiar value as a lubricant. 



34 



ELECTRICAL AGE 



September, 1916 



The remaining one of the four categories named in the statute 
(the third in order) is Manufacture. And when we come to 
this we have to realize that the enumeration which the statute 
affords, though exhaustive and all-inclusive, is nevertheless not 
logically exact ; for a machine is a manufacture, and so is a com- 
position of matter. Strictly speaking, there are three categories, 
and only three, in which inventions may be grouped : an inven- 
tion may concern a method of working, that is an art; it may 
concern the mechanical means of working, that is a machine; 
or it may concern the result of working, that is a manufacture. 
And that is all. The phrasing "machine, manufacture, and 
composition of matter," though redundant, is inclusive. And in 
the term manufacture, as commonly used in patent law, are in- 
cluded those products of invention which are not (in common 
readers' ranking, at least) machines, on the one hand, nor yet 
compositions of matter, on the other. In this category are or- 
dinarily included such matters of invention as games, toys. 

The statute says that patentable invention may lie in any one 
of these four categories, or in an improvement upon that which 
lies in any one of these categories. The distinction between a 
patent for what is altogether new and one for an improvement 
upon what is old is theoretical rather than actual, and may be 
dismissed with very brief notice. It is very rarely that invention 
is made of something altogether new : Goodyear's invention of 
vulcanizing rubber is an outstanding instance, and Acheson's oi 
carborundum is another. Ordinarily invention is by way of 
improvement, and there have been improvements made and 
patented in both of these particular fields, as well as in every 
field of industrial work. 

One thing more needs to be said before turning from the sub- 
ject-matter of invention. A single invention may lie in more 
than one of these classes or categories. Take Goodyear's in- 
vention, for instance, he invented, in a single inventive act a 
process that is the art of vulcanizing rubber and also a product, 
a manufacture (a composition of matter, if you will), vulcan- 
ized rubber. Acheson invented at one and the same time a 
method of treating sand and coke (an art) and also the pro- 
duct, carborundum (a composition of matter, or manufacture). 
So a man may, in a single invention, invent a method and a ma- 
chine by which the method is performed. In all such cases the 
invention is one single act, though in the adaptation of human 
law to a natural condition there is a seeming duplication. 

What is Invention 

One essential question remains, What is Invention? We have 
considered the subject-matter of invention: that which, under 
the law, may be patened. But it is true that any change in in- 
dustrial method, any alteration in machine structure, any varia- 
tion in proportion of the ingredients in a mixture may be patent- 
ed? Surely not. 

Take the case of a workman who has learned a trade or an 
engineer who has studied his profession. Each is possessed of 
peculiar expert knowledge, and it is his business to apply that 
knowledge, to work intelligently. Each of these men in the 
course of his work has presented to him constantly new prob- 
lems : he is required daily to apply his peculiar knowledge and 
skill to ever changing circumstances. In doing this he is not 
ordinarily making invention. The skilled workman will modi- 
fy his methods and adapt them to variations in material ; the en- 
gineer, when called upon to build a machine, will go ahead and 
build it; though the method in one case may be in some re- 
spects unique, and the machine in the other case may be in some 
respects unlike any other machine, still there may be no patent- 
able invention involved. So long as the workman uses the com- 
mon knowledge of his trade, and nothing more; so long as the 
engineer merely does what any other trained engineer would do 
under the same circumstances, there is no invention. 

Invention is Creation 

Invention is a creative act — a creative act of the mind. It 
involves in the very essence of its meaning the doing of some- 
thing not obvious; taking a short-cut, where common experience 



would go round ; leaping to a conclusion which otherwise is 
laboriously attained ; seeing in the dark, and proceeding to pre- 
viously undiscovered places. 

The line which divides the realm of invention (the realm of 
the creative faculty of mind) from the realm of mechanical 
skill is not easy to trace. Many a case rises of which it is 
doubtful, whether there be invention or no. All that can be 
done is to indicate the principles involved. Every case must be 
resolved in and of itself, and herein even the ablest and most 
intelligent inventors need and seek the asistance of patent lawy- 
ers. And indeed it is a large part of the function of the courts 
sitting in patent cases to resolve this question, Is the thing pat- 
ented a matter of invention, as distinguished from mere mechan- 
ical skill? 

Novelty and Usefulness Essential 

Finally, an invention to be patentable must be new and it 
must be useful. A man to-day, having no knowledge of what 
Goodyear did sixty years ago, might, conceivably, do precisely 
the same thing which Goodyear did. So far as he is concerned, 
he would then be just as truly the inventor of the process oi 
vulcanizing India rubber as Goodyear; he would, as an able and 
intelligent person, be entitled to just the same praise and high 
esteem as ever Goodyear was. But he could not have a patent. 
He would be an inventor but not the first inventor. His inven- 
tion would not be new, and it is only a new invention which, 
under the law, may be patented. 

And the patentable invention must be useful. Sometimes and 
under particular cirumstances, novelty of invention is tested by 
the result — whether the end attained is a better end, a more use- 
ful end (if you will) then had previously been attained. But, 
ordinarily, to be patentable an invention need not be useful be- 
yond what has gone before. It must be practicable, serviceable, 
leading to a certain and desireable end. But, beyond that, the 
patent law makes no requirement. 

We shall, in subsequent articles consider The Way to Obtain 
a Patent, and The Enjoyment of Patent Rights. 



Recently a movement was started in Independence, Kan., for 
a municipal electric plant. The campaign to date is having an 
early death, and the Independence Daily Reporter in an editorial 
has this to say of Municipal ownership : 

"Independence has just about as much need of a city owned 
electric light plant as it has of another city hall and a second 
set of city officers. There isn't a man, woman or child on the 
town site who can justly complain of the service given the city 
and its citizens by the electric light company now operating 
under a franchishe granted it by the city. The plant is one of 
the finest anywhere in the middle West and not even the loudest 
advocate of municipal ownership has ever said otherwise. 

"There is no sense whatever in plunging this city farther into 
debt when the thing desired — lower electric light rates — can be 
secured by a simple and inexpensive appeal to a state board 
created to hear exactly such cases and to render decisions that 
are fair, just and impartial. 

"Taxes and rents in Independence are high enough now. A 
city-owned light plant would simply mean a tax increase on 
every foot of property, on every dollar of merchandise, within 
the corporate limits — taxing a man's property whether he used 
electricity or whether he didn't use it. It woud mean higher 
rents for every non-home-owner and these people are having 
hard enough times to make ends meet now. The only beneficiar- 
ies would be a few of the local industrial plants — owned by the 
richest men in the community — who might profit in the com- 
petition for power business that would probably ensue between 
city-owned and private-owned electric plants. And herein, in- 
cidentally, is one of the numerous bugs under the chip in the 
agitation for city-owned electric light plant. Others can be driv- 
en out and shown up if necessary." 



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In accordance with custom, this issue is our Fall 
Lighting Number. The return of cooler weather and 
the lengthening evenings draw our attention to light- 
ing needs, and the time is auspicious to begin to push 
sales. 

Elsewhere in this issue we publish a number of 
articles on various phases of illumination, treating the 
subject from both theoretical and practical standpoints. 
All of them are written by men who have a first-hand 
knowledge of their subject, and treat it in a clear and 
concise manner. Professor Clewell gives the general 
considerations to be observed in designing an installa- 
tion ; Mr. Thistlewhite explains the underlying theory ; 
Mr. Gross and Mr. Marston describe actual installa- 
tions ; Mr. Duncan tell about portable lamps and how 
to sell them. We feel that each of these articles comes 
up to Electrical Age's standard : to help its readers to 
solve problems in their own daily work. 

So much for the articles ; they must speak for them- 
selves. If they are to serve their purpose, our readers 
must make the practical application themselves. It is 
an apt paraphrase which says : "You can lead a boy 
to college, but you can't make him think." The only 
way to get any good out of a technical paper is to 
read it over slowly and carefully, check the author's 
computations, and try out his formulas on a familiar 
case or installation. If an obstacle is encountered 
which will not yield to conscientious study, write to our 
Question and Answer Department about it; we are 
always glad to help you out. 

But beyond the calculation of physical values is 
another form of mental exercise — the use of the 
imagination. It is that which makes some men and 
some organizations go ahead faster than others. The 
dealer who learns that certain shades will be in style 
six months hence for decorations can proceed to order 
his lamp-shades accordingly ; the astute Mr. Coffy, of 
Everett, Washington, uses his imagination to tell him 
that charitable organizations would be glad to hold 
their sales in his central-station show-room. Countless 
opportunities lie at the hand of every business-getter 
to put two and two together and find that they make 
five ; the extra unit being a sale. 

Anyone who talks with the smaller dealers about the 
opportunities which lie beyond their door-sills will 
hear the iterated answer, "Yes, but I don't have time to 
get away." In some cases that is true, but in many 
more what ties a man to his desk or his counter in 
sheer inertia. The routine work is ther~ to be done 



and it envolves no mental strain. Pushing sales, how- 
ever, requires effort from start to finish. If one could 
put an oscillograph on the mental voltage of one of 
those fellows, the record would show a bad "dip" when 
any aggressive sales work might be suggested. 

These points apply particularly to illumination. 
With a little effort it should be possible to place a 
portable lamp or two in every home, and to suggest 
the purchase of better lighting fixtures where they are 
needed. Illumination has much of the aesthetic in its 
appeal, and the exercise of imagination in planning for 
the customer will yield a handsome return. 

* * * 

Department Stores and Appliance 

The practice of department stores in conducting cut- 
price sales of electrical appliances, such as irons, per- 
colators, toasters, etc., is often embarrassing to the ap- 
pliance department of a central station. As a result 
of such a sale, the appliance store is liable to be har- 
rassed by housewives who bring in their appliances for 
repairs or renewal of parts. Usually the department 
store has no repair man, and so the central station is 
looked upon as the logical place of resort. 

This situation is hardly fair to the central station. 
The latter has not enjoyed the benefits of profit derived 
from the sale of the appliance, and it is clear, should 
not be expected to keep the appliance in repair, though 
it is to its advantage that the apparatus should be kept 
in working condition and connected to its lines. 

Some central stations are in the habit of sending 
the purchaser back to the department store, which in 
turn is likely to take the appliance and return it to the 
manufacturer for what is usually a trivial repair, or 
the replacement of a part which would cost less for 
renewing at the store than the postage or expense 
would amount to, if sent back to the factory. 

A cure for the evil is in the provision, by the depart- 
ment store, which goes into the electrical appliance 
business, of a competent repair man who will give the 
appliances the care and renewal which they require. 
This employe need not be on extra man ; often an elec- 
trician who is employed about the store in the care of 
the lights can be trained in the construction and up- 
keep of household electrical devices. Having such a 
man in readiness to serve will relieve the central sta- 
tion and the manufacturer alike of needless bother and 
expense. 

* * * 

IP©Mtil(gaa IPower Ws a Arbitration 

The passing of the crisis in the dispute between the 
railroads and their trainmen has left us easier in mind 



3° 



ELECTS! 



as to the regular receipt of freight shipments and the 
possibility of meeting delivery promises. The action 
of the President and Congress has brought to an end 
an industrial dispute as unjustified in its cause and 
discreditable in its settling as any in our history. 

So extensive have been the newspaper accounts of 
the proposals made by both sides that the reading 
public are quite familiar with the claims of both em- 
ployers and employees. We shall refer only briefly to 
the facts which lie at the root of the controversy, while 
pointing out the conclusions which flow from them. 

The interest of every person in the United States is 
best served when each receives a wage which fairly 
represents his contribution to the common good. When 
wages are so adjusted, each worker does his best, for 
he knows that excellence will be rewarded as promptly 
as inefficiency will be punished. If, however, one man 
or one class of men are paid more highly than they 
deserve, a much larger group must be penalized to 
make up the excess. What this means in the case in 
hand is apparent from the following figures : 

During the year ending June 30, 1914, the railroads 
paid to men of the classes represented by the four 
trainmens' brotherhoods $387,587,000 in wages. If ten 
hours' pay should be given for eight hours work, there 
will be a 20 per cent, increase, which on the basis of 
1913-14 would be $77,400,000 a year for the same num- 
ber of man-hours. Should time-and-a-half be paid for 
overtime, the increase will be considerably more than 
that sum. Now during the year referred to, there were 
309,174 men of this class employed, so that their aver- 
age annual wage was about $1,253. I* 1 order to in- 
crease this sum by 20 per cent, to $1,510, every man, 
woman and child in the country is to be asked to con- 
tribute seventy-five cents a year to the prosperity of 
309,000 men whose power is great enough to extort 
it. 

It has been said that the primary contention of the 
Brotherhoods is for the eight-hour day. Many of our 
readers have first-hand knowledge of railroading, and 
know thaf the hours of a man's service depend on the 
nature of his run, and that in a great number of cases 
while he may earn a day's pay in four or five hours 
he may be kept away from headquarters for ten hours 
or more through circumstances over which no one has 
control. We are in favor of a day of eight hours where 
the workers can speed up their production to accom- 
plish a day's work in that time, but we doubt whether 
that is possible in railroading. 

Just where savings have been made in railway opera- 
tion in the past and who has benefitted from them, is 
interesting in view of certain claims made by Brother- 
hood leaders. Figures from a responsible source show 
that during the eight years from 1906 to 1914 the fol- 
lowing percentage increases were made : 

Passenger Freight 

miles ton-miles Wages 

Conductors 29 23 42 

Engine Men 37 30 42 



C A L AGE September, 1916 

Firemen 37 30 47 

Other Trainmen 23 17 49 

Obviously the trainmen have been well compensated 
for their extra productivity, yet any one familiar with 
the engineering side of railroad operation will realize 
that the increases in units handled have been due to 
the longer trains handled, which in turn have been per- 
mitted by heavier permanent way and larger locomo- 
tives. We grant that firing a heavy freight locomotive 
is an arduous task, but we cannot see that the conduc- 
tor or other trainmen who take out a long freight- 
train have much more to do than on a short one. 

Concerning the attitude of the Brotherhood chiefs 
toward arbitration, we are compelled to say that it 
is contrary to the spirit of our democratic institutions. 
Long ago it was found that the only way men could 
live together was by their agreeing to be bound by the 
decisions of tribunals when they could not settle their 
differences by other means. If in any particular in- 
stance an individual resorts to force, the community 
through its officers quickly steps in and compels sub-- 
mission. The only reason that this method has not 
been applied to industrial disputes is because both 
courts and common-sense agree that a man cannot be 
compelled to work for another against his will. Hence 
statutes for compulsory arbitration will always be one- 
sided in that they cannot be enforced against the em- 
ployee. If, then, voluntary arbitration is the only al- 
ternative to costly strikes, every individual or organi- 
zation which refuses to arbitrate is doing his share 
toward discrediting and destroying an institution 
which will become more and more necessary in our 
future industrial life. This distinct disservice to the 
community is one which we call to the earnest con- 
sideration of every one of our readers. 

There is another aspect of this refusal to arbitrate 
which is most significant. The contestant with a poor 
case dreads the courts, and will settle outside when- 
ever he can. If the trainmen were conscious of the 
justice of their demands, and the practicability of the 
granting of them*. thfyi should; h^v|- enough .o.f^jslftience 
s and confide nCe/m^he j^stfcV^-^b^ ; Opraparlo -go be : 
fore any of the ^available' tribunals with their case./ 

Electrical Age does not side with any political party, 
and avoids questions of party politics. But the 
actions of the President and Congress have been 
such that we cannot pass them by without com- 
ment. Having taken upon himself to settle this 
controversy, Mr. Wilson immediately announced that 
the Brotherhoods' claim for the eight-hour day was 
just. Without hearing a particle of evidence, he came 
out for a twenty per cent, wage-increase to one of the 
best-paid classes of labor in America. Throughout the 
conferences he has been the champion of their cause 
and a special pleader in their interest. The Congress, 
with cowardice unparalleled, made concessions such as 
no special class has ever before obtained. The dis- 
gusting spectacle of our representatives abandoning 
without a struggle such a contest is one which fills 
us with gravest concern for the future of democracy. 




nation 




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LOADS that may be carried by a underground cable with 
safety in the winter time or possibly during months 
of normal weather conditions may result in ex- 
cessive heating and eventual if not rapid failure if resorted 
to during excessively hot and dry weather. The recent hot 
spell, when the heat has been excessive and rain absent for 
more prolonged periods than is usually the case has resulted 
in an increase in the number of cable failures. These fail- 
ures did not occur immediately with the commencement of 
the really hot dry spell but increased and continued to in- 
crease at the later stages, due no doubt to the time lag be- 
tween atmospheric and subterreanean temperatures. 

The large number of cable breakdowns have revived, and 
rather acutely, the question of varying the rating of cables 
at different times of the year. Such a practice is not a new 
one, for it has, indeed, been in force for several years by some 
companies and with very satisfactory results. While the 
basis upon which the reduction has been made has in the 
most part been empirical — one company reduces its loading 
fifty per cent, during the summer — in all cases the aim is 
to reduce the number of burn-outs by "playing safe." 

Causes of Heating 

The heat generated in a high voltage underground cable is 
due the PR losses in the conductor and the losses in the in- 
sulation. Up to a certain loading, and for a definite voltage — 
the point where dielectric losses require careful considera- 
tion seems to be at voltages above about 9,000 volts— the PR 
losses in the conductor are the predominating cause of heat- 
ing. This heating is more or less uniformly distributed 
throughout the conductor's length and varies with the load- 
ing and temperature of the conductor. The heating dut to 
dielectric loss is not necessarily a uniform loss, as for ex- 
ample where insulation is defective, joints poorly made, air 
pockets, ionization, sharp curves, etc., and at such places hot 
spots will exist. The resistance of a dielectric decreases as 
the temperature increases, and thus as the temperature rises 
due to the load carried by the cable dielectric losses start to 
increase. Since these dielectric losses increase with heating 
hot spots cause a further increase in the losses — it is a cumu- 
lative effect — and the cable becomes self-destructive. Ex- 
treme cases of heating due to dielectric loss have occurred 
where a cable has been kept alive but with no load on it, and 
yet the low dielectric resistance was such that the dielectric 
es causes breakdown. 

During extreme hot weather the top and sub-soils become 
heated which causes a decreased current-capacity of a cable 
for a definite temperature. In the absence of rain and with 
an extended period of heat the soil dries out the moisture and 
as its heat resistivity rises the soil becomes less of a con- 
ductor and more of a heat insulator. A cable is thus very 



Mm 



'Irwifijp 



t\o)ie 



liable to become overheated throughout, and the likelihood 
of hot spots occurring in enhanced. Still another possibility 
tending to increase the internal and external temperatures of 
a cable during such time is that the drying up of the soil 
tends to affect the resistances of ground plates, etc., and in 
this way the relative resistance of various grounds existing in 
the city change, shunting foreign current to the cable 
sheath. This feature may be present far more often than 
supposed, and while not being a predominating cause of hot 
spots may easily contribute toward them. 
A Complex Problem 

While the effects of high voltage upon rating and dielectric 
loss, and the influence of extreme prolonged summer weather 
must, from the nature of the problem, be rather indefinite 
and difficult to determine, the advantages of doing so are 
very great. The problem is necessarily one that is complex 
because of the exceptionally large number of variables and 
unknowns entering. Of these the more obvious and the num- 
ber and type of ducts installed; number of cables installed 
and in use and the load and load factor of each; the nature 
of the surrounding soil and subsoil, its relative heat con- 
ductivity, etc.; the cable itself, its voltage, the insulation its 
specific heat, and whether varnished cambric, paper, rubber 
or graded. Knowing all these factors it is not commercially 
possible to determine with any degree of accuracy the inter- 
nal or sheath temperatures of a large number of cables, be- 
cause of the inability of determining them for all conditions 
that may arise and to know when they have arisen. 
Cables Which Gave Trouble 

It would appear, prima facie, that the cables operating at 
the higher voltage would be the ones requiring the greater 
reduction in rating during the summer months. This is 
borne out by experience this summer, and cables operating 
at 12,000 and 20,000 volts have given more trouble from 
breakdown than have those operating at 9,000 volts. In one 
notable instance in one large underground network the 
cables of higher voltage have given more than unusual 
trouble, and also have the lower voltage cables, namely 4,000 
volt, whilst the 9,000 volt cables seem to have been affected 
only in the ordinary way. At first this might suggest that the 
theory of dielectric loss was not the real and predominating 
cause of cable breakdowns during hot weather, yet on look- 
ing into the matter a little more closely another factor arises 
that offers a reasonable explanation. The 4,000 volt under- 
ground cables in question supply an extensive overhead net- 
work of 4,000/2300 volt conductors. These overhead con- 
ductors have been subjected to atmospheric conditions dur- 
ing thunder storms in the immediate proximity as well as 
over distant territory. Some of these circuits opened during 
the storms others did not. In this case, while dielectric 
losses and heating therefore occur, of course, to some extent, 



38 



ELECTRICAL AGE 



September, 1916 



the probable explanation of their increased failure is that the 
insulation was somewhat damaged and weakened by the 
surges, induced charges, etc., of the lightning storms, trans- 
mitted to them over the aerial conductors. The heating of 
the conductors due to I 2 R loss and dielectric losses also con- 
tributed, no doubt, to their failure. 

The hot spell has brought to light still another annoying 
and expensive occurrence, namely that since, and during 
the hot spell failures of the same cable in quick succession 
have occurred. Often the failure has been found to be at the 
joint last repaired. This is also due to the hot weather, al- 
though only indirectly so. Frequent failures keep men of 
the underground departments busy, resulting in longer hours 
with accompanying fatigue. At the best of times manholes 
are unpleasant places, but during torrid weather they become 
almost unbearable — the temperature is high and the atmos- 
phere noxious. Working under these conditions does not 
tend to the best of workmanship, with the result that splices 
fail when subjected to high potential test or after only short 
time in service. 

Man and beast requires more careful and judicious handling 
in the hot weather than in cold, otherwise they may become 
hors de combat through prostration brought on from internal 
or external causes. Underground high voltage cables, like- 
wise, are prone to failure if worked as hard in summer as in 
winter, from internal heating whether due solely from inter- 
nal causes or assisted by external conditions. Seasonal 
ratings will effect fewer shut downs with their accompanying 
expense to the central station company and the customer. 
Data are too vague, are in fact lacking, upon which to base 
summer ratings. They must be such that the temperature of 
the hottest spot will be below that at which the dielectric re- 
sistance begins to become self-destructive, and serious die- 
lectric losses occur. That each company interesting itself in 
this matter has formed a different opinion is emphasized by 
the fact that the safe sheath temperatures are stated to be 
from 90 to 125 degrees fahr. It is probable that in the ab- 
sence of a means upon which to base the change of rating 
due to the inability to determine at all times the transitory 
condition of the medium surrounding the cable that each 
company will continue to adopt a rating based upon empirical 
factors of safety or operating data, this latter being after all 
the criterion of safe ratings. 

»;- <$> 4> 



The Spring Lake Drainage and Levee District is located in 
Tazewell County, Illinois, along the Illinois river, and extends 
from a point about five miles below Pekin to a point about three 
miles below the Copperas Creek locks. This district has an 
area of about 12,500 acres and is 18 miles long, the width vary- 
ing from y 2 to 3 miles depending upon the distance from the 
river to the bluffs. Before the levee was constructed and the 
drainage system put into operation this land was considerably 
below the level of the river for the greater part of the year. 
Now, the levee with its ditches, canals, and pumping plant, 
makes it possible to remove the water to a level that permits 
the land to be farmed. 

The pumping plant is at the extreme lower end of the dis- 
trict along the river, and is about fifteen miles from Canton. 
Power is furnished by the Canton Gas and Electric Company, 
over a three-phase, 60-cycle, 13,000 volt transmission line, ex- 
tending from a substation in Canton to Bell's Landing, about 
three miles above Copperas Locks on the opposite side of the 
river from the pumping plant. From Bell's Landing the wires 
are carried across the river on four steel towers of the four post 
type set on concrete foundations and piers, the base of the tow- 
er being three feet above high water mark. The total distance 
spanned in crossing the river is approximately 2,000 feet. From 
the river crossing the line then extends for about six miles along 
the levee district to the pumping station. A substation is main- 




Outdoor Installation of the Pumping Plant 
tained at the pumping plant. It consists of four 25 foot poles, 
one on each corner of a concrete foundation 5 ft. wide and 15 
ft. long. On these poles are mounted lightning arresters, dis- 
connecting switches, choke coils, and fuses. The transformers, 
each of 200 kva., 13,000 to 460 volts, are mounted on the con- 
crete base. 

The orginal equipment of the pumping plant in 1909 consisted 
of two 48 inch R. D. Wood and Co. pumps driven by two cross 
compound Russell engines direct connected, and operating at 
speeds of from 170 to 215 r. p. m., and one 24 inch Worthington 
pump direct connected to single cylinder Russell engine driven at 
250 r. p. m. The pumps were primes by means of steam ejectors, 
and the lighting of the plant was furnished by a small vertical 
engine directly connected to a direct current generator. The 
boiler equipment consisted of two 300 horse-power water tube 
boilers with hand fired grates, the necessary draft being obtain- 
ed from a steam driven induced draft outfit. 

Due to the difficulty of obtaining coal, in obtaining and holding 
good engineers and operators, and to the further difficulty oi 
obtaining repairs in case of emergency, the commissioners of the 
district decided to change the plant over from steam to electric- 
ity. In 1914 they advertised for electric motors with controllers 
and sprocket drive for operating the pumps. 

The preliminary work leading up to the electrification of this 
pumping plant was done by Hoppin and Rich, engineers and 
constructors of Peoria, 111., who made a thorough investigation of 
the proposed change and the method of making the same, for 
the Canton Gas and Electric Co., who are now furnishing the 
power. At the t : me of the proposed electrification the Canton 
Gas and Electric Company had no schedule of rates which 
could be applied to this class of service. The schedule of rates 
now in effect in Canton and vicinity applying to drainage and 
pumping was devised by Hoppin and Rich after a study of ex- 
isting rates and the cost of power at the company's switchboard. 
The power is sold at a certain rate per kilowatt hour per acre 
per month, the rate depending o- the amount of land served and 
the amount of power used. 




Pumping Equipment of the Spring Lake Plant 



September, 1916 



ELECTRICAL AGE 



39 



The pumping plant as now operated consists of the following 
equipment: Two, 300 horsepower and one, 100 horsepower, 440 
volt, Westinghouse induction motors with controlling equipment 
consisting of auto transformers operating three switchboard 
type oil circuit breakers. The larger motors are connected to 
the 48 inch pumps by two 25 inch silent chain belts. The 24 inch 
pump is driven by a 10 inch chain belt. Sprockets are placed on 
the pump shafts in the position orginally occupied by the fly- 
wheel and eccentrics when the plant'was steam driven. A 16 by 
8 inch Ingersoll-Rand compressor used as a vacuum pump re- 
places the steam jets which were used for priming the pumps 
when operated by steam engine. 

The specifications required that the pumps should be operated 
at two speeds, as the maximum efficiency of the pumps and the 
motors is obtained with different speeds. By selecting two sep- 
arate motor sprockets to be fitted to the shaft as the head 
changes against which the pump must work it is possible to oper- 
ate the pumps at two different speeds. The lower speed is used 
when the pump is operating against low heads, and the higher 
one when the lift is near maximum. 

The plant does not operate continuously at its full capacity nor 
does it operate every day. The pumping depends largely on the 
season of the year and the amount of rainfall. Heavy pumping 
is required for only about three months of the year, 65 to 75 
per cent, of the total yearly work being done from March 15 to 
June 15. The remaining work is distributed about evenly 
throughout the other nine months. The usual load on the plant 
is 250 kw., and during a part of the year this load is on the lines 
about ten or twelve hours per day. During the heavy pump- 
ing season the motors are sometimes operated from 18 to 20 
hours a day. In extremely wet periods all the pumps, taking 
practically 600 kw. have been operated a few hours at a time. 

The cost of operation has compared favorably with steam 
operation and the certainty and freedom from interruption have 
made the service very satisfactory to the commissioners. 

Three Wire Generators 

By R. H. Willard 

On account of a considerable saving in copper the three wire 
system is often used for direct current distribution, the common 
voltage being no volts from either line to neutral and 220 volts 
between lines. There are several arrangements for getting three 
wire power. One scheme which would give the desired result 
would be two no volt generators in series with the neutral 
wire brought from their common connection. This scheme has 
been largely superseded in practical installations by the three 
wire generator. This is a standard d. c. generator wound for 
the voltage between outside wires with the addition of a pair ot 
slip rings which are tapped into the winding 180 electrical de- 




110 Volte 



A C B 



Fig. 1 

grees apart. Connected to these slip rings is a "balance" coil 
which is a reactance coil with a tap at the center making it in 
effect a 2 to 1 ratio auto-transformer. Fig. 1 shows the connec- 
tions. Coil A is always connected to end A 1 of the balance coil 
through the slip ring; similarly, B is connected to B\ As the 
armature revolves coil A passes first under a North pole then 



under a South while B is passing under a S and a N so that the 
voltage impressed on the balance coil is alternating. When A 
and B are under the brushes full machine voltage is across the 
balance coil; when they are half way between, the voltage is 
zero. At any other position the voltage across the balanc 
is equal to that generated in the part BA U of the winding since 
the potential generated from A 11 to D is cancelled by the potential 
from D to A. Since the balance coil tap is in the middle its 
potential will be half way between the potentials of coils A and 
B at all times because of its action as an auto-transformer. On 




> Series Field 
-t- Equalizer 



Com mutating Field 




Commutating 
Field y 

/. _ Equalizer 



•*•"" Series Field 



...r 



Fig. 2 

account of the rings being tapped into the winding the equiva- 
lent of one pole pitch apart, the part of the winding between A 
and the + brush is equal to the part of the winding between B 
and the — brush. The middle of the balance coil is not only 
half way between the potentials of A and B but also half way 
between the potentials of the + and — brushes, so that it is a 
true neutral to the line wires in all positions of the armature and 
the voltage from it to either line wire is half the machine volt- 
age. With no direct current load, then, the balance coil carries 
a small alternating exciting current like any aut-.-transformer. 

Suppose a load be put on between the outside wires. This will 
not affect the current in the balance coil or the voltage of its 
middle point. 

Now suppose a load connected from the + line to neutral. 
The current comes from the + brush, through the load, back 
through the neutral wire to C. From here it has four paths in 
parallel to complete its circuit to the + brush : 

(1) CB^BA^D 

(2) CA'AD 

(3) CB'BEAD 

(4) CA'AEBD 

The voltages of all the paths are equal since the center C of the 
balance coil is kept at all times at neutral — i. e. at a fixed poten- 
tial to D. Since the voltages of these parallel paths are 
equal the current will divide according to their resistances which 
change constantly as the armature revolves. The resistance is 
a minimum when A and B are under the brushes. Th : s would 
tend to cause the current to flow mostly first through one end 
of the balance coil then through the other. Due to the induct- 
ance of the balance coil when the current from C to B 1 starts to 
increase a voltage is induced acting from B 1 towards C which 
opposes this increase (Lenz's Law). Sinces A*C is wound on the 
same core as CB 1 this counter e.m.f. shows up also in A'C as a 
voltage acting from C toward A 1 . Consequently there is a volt- 
age induced in CB 1 tending to limit the increase in current and 
also a voltage in A*C tending to increase the current through it. 
Both these tendencies are toward maintaining equal currents in 
the halves of the balance coil. The induced voltage depends on 
the inductance and the rate of change of current so with a giv- 
en coil if the alternations are very slow, the curren is each 
half of the balance coil will pulsate more than when they are 
fast as in a turbine driven set. Hence, to obtain the same de- 



40 



ELECTRICAL AGE 



September, 1916 



gree of even distribution more inductance is required for slow 
speed, low frequency machines which means a bigger balance 
coil. The current in the balance coil on unbalanced d.c. load is 
seen to be an alternating exciting current combined with a more 
or less steady direct current. The current in the neutral wire is 
a pure direct current. 

Although the balance coil does not distribute the unbalanced 
current absolutely uniformly in the armature conductors the 
extra heating is so small that it is not found necessary to reduce 
the rating for three wire operation on unbalanced loads up to 10 
per cent, which is as high as commercial systems usually run. 

In operating three wire machines in parallel it is found neces- 
sary to split the series and commutating fields putting all the N 
poles on the + side and all the S poles on the — side or vice 
versa. The reason for this is that if the unbalanced load were 
drawn from + to neutral with the series and commutating fields 
on the — ■ side there would be no current through these fields and 
consequently no compounding or proper commutating field. 
This necessitates two equalizers. In applying circuit breakers it 
is necessary to use four pole breakers breaking +, — and both 
equalizer connections for if the equalizer connections were not 
broken the machine would be driven from the bus as a shunt 
motor. 

»♦♦ ■•$► *?* 

A Handy Chart f@r Figuring Pumping 

Capacity 
By W. F. Schaphorst 

This chart will be found useful for finding the horse power 
necessary to do almost any pumping job up to 100 h. p.; 
for finding the gallons of water a given pump will lift per 
minute; for finding the head; or for finding the efficiency 
of a given installation. 

For example, how many gallons per minute will be pump- 
ed by a 40 h. p. motor through a 40 ft. head, the efficiency 



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COPYRIGHT, I31G, BY W.F.SCHAPnO«S1 

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of the pump being 50 per cent. ? Join the 40 (column A) with 
the 50 per cent, (column E) and locate the intersection with 
column C. Then run a straight line through that intersec- 
tion (column C) and the 40 (column D) and the answer (1950 
gallons per minute) is found in column B. 

The principal point to remember is — always connect A and 
E; B and D. The two outside columns must be used to- 
gether, and B and D must be used together. 

It is plain, now, that knowing three of the values in A, B, 
D or E, the fourth one is easily and quickly found without 
any computing. 

Whether the motive power is electric, steam, gas, or water, 
makes no difference. And it doesn't matter about the pump 
either — whether duplex, triplex, reciprocating steam, centri- 
fugal or air lift. 

When figuring efficiencies I usually allow about 80 per cent, 
for duplex, triplex, and reciprocating pumps in general; a 
good modern centrifugal pump, about 60 per cent.; and for air 
lift pumps 40 per cent, is considered pretty good. Higher 
efficiencies than these have been obtained with all of the 
above pumps, to be sure. It you know the exact efficiency of 
your pump or the pump you have in mind, that is the effi- 
ciency to use in the chart, of course. 

♦♦♦ <j* %* 

lew York Metal Prices 

Aug. 31, 1916 

Copper, prime Lake* 27.00@27.50 

Electrolytic* 25.75@28.00 

Casting* 25.op@25.25 

Wire, base* 33.00 

London std. spot 109 — 0/0 

Lead 6.50 

Nickel 45.00@50.00 

Zinc, sheet, f. o. b. smelter* 15.00 

Tin, straits 38.875 

Aluminum, No. 1 Virgin, g8@99% 60.00@62.00 

Spelter 8.80 

Old Metals 

Copper, heavy* 22.00@23.00 

Brass, heavy* 13.00@13.25 

Brass, light* 9.75@10.25 

Lead, heavy* 5.5o@5.625 

Zinc, new scrap* 7-75@ 8.00 

*Nominal. 

C®mlftfj Conirei&tioits 

Indiana Electric Light Association. Annual Convention, An- 
thony Hotel, Fort Wayne, Ind., September 12-14. Secretary, 
Thomas Donohue, Lafayette, Ind. * 

Illuminating Engineering Society. Annual Convention, Belle- 
vue-Stratford Hotel, Philadelphia, September 18-20. Asst. 
Secretary, G. B. Fawcett, 29 W. 39th St., New York City. 

Association of Iron & Steel Electrical Engineers. Annual 
Convention, Chicago, September 18-22. Secretary, W. O. Osch- 
mann, Oliver Steel & Foundry Co., Pittsburgh, Pa. 

American Electrochemical Society. Semi-Annual Meeting, 
New York City, September 28-30. Secretary, J. W. Richards, 
South Bethlehem, Pa. 

Electrical Supply Jobbers Association. Quarterly Meeting, 
Hotel Statler, Cleveland, Ohio, October 10-12. Secretary, Frank- 
lin Overbaugh, 411 South Clinton St., Chicago. 

New England Section, N E. L. A. Annual Convention, Pitts- 
field, Mass., October 17-20. Secretary, Miss O. A. Bursiel, 149 
Tremont St., Boston. 

Jovian Order. Annual Convention, Indianapolis, October 18- 
20. Secretary, Ell C. Bennett, Syndicate Trust Building, St. 
Louis. 

Telephone Pioneers of America. Annual Meeting, Atlanta, 
Georgia, Oct. 19-20. Secretary, R. H. Starrett, 195 Broadway, 
New York City. 




Wmm&m 



uiiEiiiiiiiiigiiiiiiiii: 




The how and why 
of generation, trans- 
mission, installation 

aimia ^Tistraction. 



Qmeg^ssis smfl MiTLWwmw, amfl W^mtm&il ©admissions ©2 T%mL<m Affairs 




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A most efficient method of digging pole holes is by the use 
of dynamite. Dynamite has been used very successfully for 
years in digging small post holes and in loosening up the ground 
to be dug. This process, all are well acquainted with, but the 
digging of deep pole holes with explosives is probably a new 
proposition to many. 

This new method has been found to be so successful that it 
is fast supplanting the old and expensive hand work, and in these 
days of labor scarcity the employment of any agent that will 
lessen the number of laborers required is of great value. An 
advantage not to be lost sight of is that the force of the explosive 
tends to pack the dirt solidly around the sides of the hole, mak- 




The Hole should be Started with a Shovel 

ing a much firmer hole than is possible to make by hand. Then 
again, in putting down hand holes in hard soils the tendency 
is to make them shallow, and this danger' is completely eliminated 
by using explosives. 

To determine the best and most economical methods of doing 
this work many experiments were carried on carefully in various 
classes and conditions of soils. From these the following meth- 
od has been determined : 

In order to relieve the pressure on the soil that is to be ex- 
cavated and to prevent the excessive shattering of the sides, a 
hole from six to ten inches dep is put down to the full 
diameter of hole required. The sides of this shallow hoie 
should be trimmed straight and clean. The next step is to put 
down a small bore or loading hole in the center of this shallow 
hole to the depth of the hole desired. This work is done by 



drills, bars or augers, depending on the nature of the ground 
and the particular preference of the operator. The ordinary 
punch bar, however, will not work well in deep holes. 

The dynamite must be placed at intervals in these bore or 
loading holes and the best method of spacing the explosives 
is with the aid of a lath or some other small piece of wood. 
The charge intended for the bottom one is tied on the end of 
the lath and the other charges, consisting of a piece of a 
cartridge up to a whole cartridge, are tied to the lath at inter- 
vals varying from six to twenty-four inches. The space between 
the charges is determined by the hardness of the soil and the 
required diameter of the desired hole. 

The top cartridge or piece of cartridge is primed with a 
No. 6 blasting cap and fuse or with an electric blasting cap. 
This primer is tied on the lath so when it is placed in the bore 
or loading hole it will be from twenty inches to two feet below 
the surface. 

The dynamite thus tied to the lath is lowered into the hole, 
the primed cartridge, of course, being placed up. In placing 
these charges in the hole, it should be seen that no loose dirt, 





An Auger is Then Used 



Hots.' the Dynamite 

is Placed 



42 



ELECTRICAL AGE 



September, 1916 



clots of sod, loose stones or any other similar matter fall in, 
as these would interfere with the proper loading and firing. It 
generally adds to the result of the explosion if there are a few 
inches of tamping in the top of the hole. Here, again, care 
should be taken to see that no dirt or other tamping material 
falls below the priming charge. If the hole is filled with water 
no tamping is necessary. The primer is then fired and the bal- 
ance of the charges are exploded by the concussion of the prim- 
ing charge. 

Following the methods of loading and firing as described 
above, many test shots were made in soils that varied from hard 
dry clay to those of wet clay with more or less shale. The bore 
holes were put down to a depth of four and one-half feet with 
a hand chisel. Some of the results are as follows : 

In one hole one-half cartridge of Low Freezing Extra 40% 
dynamite was used, untamped, in the bottom of the hole. A large 
cavity was blown in the bottom of the hole and the dirt for two 
and one-half feet was thoroughly disturbed. Results poor. 

In the bottom of another hole was placed one-third of a 




BPa?a©tta©afl ©eg&gjaa mm<H C©sas£itfia<g£i©ii ©f 

By Norman G. Meade 
There is probably no one piece of electrical apparatus that is 
used to a greater extent or has a wider application than the 
electromagnet. It is the purpose of this article to give details 
of the design and construction of direct-current electromagnets 
of various types, for different kinds of work. 

Direct-current tractive magnets are designed to exert a certain 
pull and may be divided into short-range and long-range types. 
The conventional type of short-range magnet, commonly called 
"horseshoe" type is shown in Fig. 1. Such a pair of magnets 
consists essentially of round wrought-iron cores, wrought-iron 
yoke and armature, fiber heads on the cores, insulation and the 
winding. The plunger type of magnet shown in Fig. 2 is best 
suited to long-range work. The illustration shows a pair of 
magnets forming a closed magnetic circuit the same as the 
short-range magnets shown in Fig. 1. The coils are wound on 
brass or bronze spools, insulated with mica or fiber. The yoke 
is provided with two stops of the same material as the yoke it- 
self, generally wrought iron, which project a short distance into 
the magnet core. This form of construction has a wide range 
of applications among which may be mentioned the operation of 
brakes on electric traveling cranes. 

The iron-clad magnet shown in Fig. 3 is the most efficient 
type for a single-plunger magnet and is mechanically the best 
protected from injury. The frame of the magnet is generally 
an iron forging or steel casting with a spool or bobbin on which 
the wire is wound, made of brass or some other nonmagnetic 
material so that the core will not stick to the frame. 
The core is usually constructed of soft iron. A highly effi- 



The Charge Ready to be Placed 

cartridge of 60% dynamite, another charge of same size eight 
inches from the bottom, and one-half cartridge of 40% Low 
Freezing Extra twenty inches below the top. Cap placed on top 
charge and no tamping. A good, clean, straight, open hole was 
blown. Results very satisfactory. 

Another clean and open hole was dug by placing a whole 
cartridge of 60% Straight dynamite at the bottom of the bore 
hole, another cartridge of the same kind twelve inches up, and 
twelve inches from that still another cartridge of the same 
kind. The results secured were excellent and more dirt was 
thrown out than in the hole mentioned just before this. 

It will be interesting to note that in one, a wet blue clay soil, 
a bore hole was put down to a depth of six feet. Seven charges 
were placed six inches apart, beginning at the bottom. Each 
charge contained one-third of a cartridge of 50% Straight dyna- 
mite. This blew a clean-cut uniform hole seventy-eight inches 
deep, which required but little hand work to clean out. The 
earth was well compacted back into the walls of the hole. The 
results were as good as any we could desire. 

Other tests were made with practically the same results as 
have been described. It will Le noted from these various ex- 
periments that it is a good practice to rru.ke trial or test shots 
to see what charges and spacings will work best in the soil to 
be dug. 

Sometimes a plug or bridge of earth is left over a well blown 
hole. This can readily be shoveled out in a very short t' :e. 
Generally speaking, from two to six minutes of h&*id v •rk is all 
that is required on the blasted holes. 

Straight dynamites probably give better results in warm 
weather, while the Extra and Low Freezing grades will be 
found satisfactory in both cold and warm weather. 




A B 

FIG.5. 



FIG.3. 



FIG.4. 



cient modification of the iron-clad magnet is shown in Fig. 
4. The winding is partially surrounded by a' rectangular forg- 
ing or casting with a area which is equivalent to that of the 
core. As with the iron-clad magnet, the spool or bobbin 
should be constructed of nonmagnetic material. Where space 
will not permit or the design of the apparatus is such that it 
is desirable to use a single short-range magnet, the designs 
shown at A and B in Fig. 5 are applicable. 

Proportions of a magnet depend upon the purpose for which 
it is designed, but as a general rule the length of plunger mag- 
nets are determined by the range of action and the area of the 



Septemrer, 1916 



ELECTRICAL AGE 



43 



core by the pull desired. The diameter of the coil should be 
about three times that of the plunger, or the core, and the length 
of the coil two or three times its diameter. In open circuit 
plunger magnets the pull is exerted between the windings and 
the core since the flux density is greater at the center of the 
core. 

Definitions and Formulas 

For those readers who are not familiar with the design of 
magnetic circuits, a few definitions and formulas will be given 
as an aid to the design of magnets which will be taken up later. 
The relation between the magnetizing force and the actual 
amount of magnetism produced in the core of an electromagnet 
should be throughly understood before beginning the design. 
The magnetic density- in air depends entirely upon the intensity 
of the magnetomotive force. The magnetic density, however, 
which is produced in a magnetic substance such as iron when 
placed in a field of magnetic force depends also on another 
quantity, the magnetic permeability of the substance. The most 
convenient way to consider the relation between flux density and 
magnetizing force is as follows : 

Let B = magnetic density in lines per square inch. 

H = magnetizing force in ampere-turns per inch of mag- 
netic path. 

Then B = 3.192 H in air, where the permeability is constant 
for all values of flux density. The permeability of iron and 
its alloys decreases with increasing flux density, so that the re- 
lation between B and H is generally expressed by curves, Fig. 
6. The tendency of the substance to become less permeable is 



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so 100 iso zoo eso 300 

Ampere-Turns per Inch Lenath. 

Fig. 6. Magnelization Curves 

called magnetic saturation and is well illustrated by the curves 
in 6. A limit is never reached where actual SLturation takes 
place, but there is a limit beyond which it becomes impractable 
to magnetize the substance. The practical saturation point in 
wrought iron, soft annealed sheet iron, and cast steel is when 
the density is between 120,000 and 130,000 lines of force per 
square inch. Hence in these metals, B may have any value from 
o to 130,000. In gray cast iron the practical saturation limit is 
from 60,000 to 70,000 lines of force per square inch. The in- 
tensity of the magnetomotive force is very seldom carried be- 
yond 15,000. 



The pull of a short range electromagnet is determined by the 
formula 

B 2 A 

P = in pounds, in which 

72,134,000 
P = pull in pounds, 

B = magnetic density in lines per square inch, 
A = area of the core in square inches. 
For an electromagnet the capacity is limited by the amount o\ 
heat which it can dissipate without exceeding a given tempera- 
ture rise. The general equation for the final temperature rise 
in a given coil is 
P 

T = k in degrees C, 

A .. 
In which P = power in watts dissipated in the coil; A = out- 
side cylindrical surface of the coil ; k = the temperature rise in 
centigrade degrees per watt per square inch of outside cylindri- 
cal surface. For electromagnets open, k =95 ; for electromag- 
nets iron-clad, k = 130. 

For determining the area of the wire for a given electromag- 
net the following formula is used, 
12 / H 

A = 

E 
where A = equals sectional area of conductor in circular mill, 
H = ampere turns, and 1= mean length of one turn in feet. 
Mechanical Considerations 
Where a great number of magnets are to be wound, special 
machines have been developed to do the work rapidly and allow of 
quickly placing and removing the cores or forms. For only a few 
pieces, a lathe is generally used. It should be run at slow speed 
until the operator becomes proficient at guiding the wire into 
place on the coil. Where fine wire is used, it must generally 
be laid by hand, but coarse wire can be guided by a rest held 
in the tool-post, which is moved by the screw-cutting motion. 
Wire reels usually have grooves in the edge of each head, in 
which a cord held by a weight to provide some tension on the 
wire. Where a treadle control of the lathe can be devised, its 
use will effect a great saving of time and patience. The best 
form is that in which pressure of the foot removes a brake and 
applies the power. This device allows of a quick stop being 
made if the turns become crossed. 

(To be Continued) 
♦♦♦ ♦> ♦ 

^iaestfi®aas ©sad Sm^wmsw, 

Why the Circuit-Breaker Blew 

Q. In the testing department of a manufacturing company 
the order was given to shut down quickly a motor-generator set 
while it was driving a number of .direct-current machines on test. 
The man in charge pulled the generator field switch as it was 
nearer his hand than the circuit-breaker trip. Immediately the 
circuit-breaker opened, the flash showing that a considerable cur- 
rent had been broken. Why did this happen? 

A. Under normal running conditions the counter — e. m. f. of 
the motors is almost as great as the line voltage. As soon as 
the generator-field is de-energized, its generated voltage drops, 
but the motors continue to run by their momentum, becoming 
self-exciting shunt generators, and holding the line voltage at 
nearly its former value. The armature of the former generator 
being still connected to the line, offered a path of low resist- 
ance, through which a very large current immediately flowed, 
and which at once operated the circuit breaker. 
Belt Slips on Gasoline Generating Set 

Q. (1) What is the proper distance a belt driven generator 
and engine should be placed apart, from center to center of pul- 
leys? 

(2) What is the usual belt slip of small dynamos .3 k.w. to 
1.5 k.w. running at 1700 to 2800 r.p.m. using iron pulleys 1.5 in. 
to 2.5 in. face, 1.5 in. to 2.5 in. dia., in per cent of dynamo speed? 



44 



ELECTRICAL AGE 



September, 1916 



The above has arisen out of an experiment of a iy 2 h.p. gaso- 
line engine, speed 450 r.p.m. pulley 10 in., and a shunt wound 
generator size .3 k. w. speed 2800 r.p.m. pulley 1.5 in. face, 1.5 in. 
dia. The generator is designed to deliver 7.5 amperes at 40 
volts, but will only deliver 6.5 amperes at about 37 volts, when 
full load is thrown on, using a lamp load, the more of a load 
there is put on after this point is reached, the more the voltage 
drops then. No load voltage is 54 volts. A 12 ft. belt, 1.5 in. 
wide is used. The above trouble, not being able to obtain 7.5 
amperes at 40 volts I believe is due to excessive belt slip. 
Should a larger engine pulley or a smaller dynamo pulley be 
attached to overcome this trouble? 

A. (1) The distance center to center between pulleys is 
given in the American Handbook for Electrical Engineers as 
follows : 

Ratio of Pulley Diameters Minimum Distance Between 

Centers (in feet) 
2:1 8 

3:1 10 

4:1 12 

5:i 15 

6:1 20 

A ratio of six to one should not be exceeded. In your case 
the ratio is 10:1.5 or 6.67:1 which may be made to give satis- 
factory results. 

(2) The usual belt slip is between 2 per cent: and 4 per cent, 
divided between the two pulleys. This means a 2 per cent, to 4 
per cent, loss in speed from no-load to full load, and hence a 
drop in voltage. 

Your difficulty is undoubtedly due to belt slip, which is ex- 
cessive at the generator pulley. The best remedy is to install 
an idler pulley, arranging that the belt on one side of the gen- 
erator pulley shall be parallel to the belt on the other side. Lib- 
eral applications of belt-dressing and adhesive compound should 
be made. If an idler is used, it will not be necessary to have the 
machines any farther apart. 

Induction Motor Starting Characteristics 

Q. (1) Why does a squirrel-cage motor give such a small 
torque at starting although it is taking several times full load 
current? 

(2) How or why does the insertion of resistance in a wound 
rotor circuit improve the starting torque? V. F. M. 

A. (1) In order that the torque of an induction motor should 
be a maximum, the current in the rotor should lag 90 deg. be- 
hind the flux set up by the stator. The rotor current is produc- 
ed by an e.m.f. in its windings which always lags behind the 
stator flux by 90 deg. Therefore the rotor current will lag be- 
hind the position of maximum torque by an angle which depends 
on the power factor of the rotor circuit. Now power factor is 

R 

n where 



P. F. 



-\j{2 w F L) 2 



R 2 



R = rotor resistance. 

F = frequency of fluxcutting rotor conductors. 

L = self-induction of rotor. 

R = resistance of rotor. 

For any induction motor L is always large, and for a squirrel- 
cage rotor R is small. The frequency f is proportional to the 
slip, so that at starting it is about 10 times what it is at running. 
Hence the denominator of the above fraction is very much larg- 
er than the numerator and so the power-factor is small. That 
means that the rotor currents lag far behind the position which 
would give them maximum torque. 

At the instant of starting, the low-resistance squirrel-cage 
acts just like a short-circuited-trans former secondary — i. e. — 
the current flowing in it tends to demagnetize the primary and 
thus allow a larger primary current to flow. As the speed picks 
up, / decreases, and the angle of lag of the rotor current de- 
creases, thus reducing the demagnetizing effect. Hence the 
current in the stator rapidly decreases with increasing speed. 

(2) Referring to the equation, we can increase the power- 



factor P.F by increasing R, that is, by winding the rotor with 
wire and cutting in a series resistance. This will increase the 
torque and cut down the primary current ; in fact R may be so 
selected as to make these practically the same at starting as at 
full-load running speed. 

Steam Turbine Design 

Q. (1) Where can I get formulas to find the dimensions of 
a steam turbine for a given brake horsepower, including the 
number of blades in both stator and rotor, and the size of the 
turbine complete for about 90 or 100 brake horsepower. 

(2) What would be the steam consumption? 

(3) How high would the pressure go when a charge of ex- 
plosive gas is exploded in a closed container if pressure before 
explosion was atmospheric? 

A. (1) The formulas require too much explanation to give 
here, bull may be found in "Steam Turbines," by J. W. Roe. 
143 pages, $2.00 or "Steam Turbines," by L. G. French, 418 pages, 
$3.00. We can send either book on ten day's examination, on 
receipt of the price named. 

(2) For a 100 b.h.p. turbine at full load the steam consump- 
tion will be about 43 lb. per hour, operating non-condensing. 

(3) The final pressure varies enormously with the kind of 
gas, and the material of the container. If you will give us this 
information, we can get the answer. 

Separate or Common Ground Wires 

Q. Can I ground primary and secondary arresters on the 
same ground wire when arresters are on the same pole? 

A. There is nothing in the National Electric Code nor the 
handbooks to prohibit the use of a common ground wire. How- 
ever, if by any chance the circuit to ground should be opened 
below the common connection, a lightning surge from either 
line would be discharged into the other. The result of this 
might be disastrous if the high voltage surge reached circuits 
which enter buildings. A safer method would be to run separ- 
ate wires down opposite sides of the pole to separate ground- 
cones. 

It is not usual to provide secondary arresters on local dis- 
tribution systems, as primary arresters give sufficient protection. 
In the rare cases where lines of considerable length — say a 
half-mile are connected by transformers, the extra expense of 
two ground wires is easily justified by safety considerations. 

Commutator does not Share Load 

Q. An electroplating generator has an output of 2000 amperes 
at 6 volts, there being two commutators on one armature. From 
the brushes of like sign leads are brought to terminal blocks 
from which cables run to the switchboards. The leads from one 
commutator run very hot while the others run cool. Could you 
explain 'the trouble and how to overcome it? J. R. 

A. The trouble is due to more load being carried by one end 
of the commutator than by the other. This is due to the volt- 
age across one pair of brushes being higher than that across 
the other. The remedy is to shift one set until its voltage is 
that of the other. To do this, disconnect one set of brushes, 
and with a load of 1000 amperes on the others, place them at 
the position of best commutation. Measure the voltage across 
brushes carefully, then lift this pair and re-connect the other 
pair. Shift these until, with iooo amperes flowing, the voltage 
across them is exactly equal to that measured across the first 
pair. The two sides of the machine will then operate in parallel 
satisfactorily. Should it be necessary to move both sets oi 
brushes for better commutation, each should be moved exactly 
the same distance as measured on the commutators. 

Questions to be Answered 

Q. Will you or some of the readers of the Age give me 
the directions and kind of material for making an electric air 
heater large enough to warm or keep a room say 10 or 12 ft. 
square from freezing. The heater is to be used on 120 volts 60 
cycles alternating current. F. M. G. 



September, 1916 



ELECTRICAL AGE 



45 



Q. What will cause copper to lose its conductivity? In a 
plant where I am located we had a pair of 800 amp. S. P. swit- 
ches, and one pole about two years ago began to heat with about 
600 amps, flowing and it was at first though that the contacts 
were not good. We removed the switch from the board, clean- 
ed thoroughly all contact surfaces, but on putting it back into 
service the heating gradually became worse. We removed and 
cleaned and tightened three times, but it finally got so we could 
not carry more than 200 to 300 amps, without abnormal heat- 
ing, and we had to replace the blade with a new one when the 
trouble ended. 

A notable feature of this was the change in color of the cop- 
per. From the time the switch began to heat, it began to change 
in color to a yellowish-green. 

I would like to have some one explain the cause for this heat- 
ing. The system was 125 V. D. C. F. C. D. 

Trial Installation ©f Comtg^satsa© Wfisrisag 

at CMe&i® 

For the purpose of ascertaining comparative costs of con- 
centric and standard types of wiring the Commonwealth Edi- 
son Co., of Chicago, has installed the General Electric Comp- 
any's concentric wire and fittings in a small frame 2-flat build- 
ing. The wiring was for a total of 20 lighting outlets and 2 
wall switch outlets. Two circuits for each flat being installed. 
A total of 24 lamps connected. Each flat was wired for one 
wall switch, one base board outlet, one wall outlet and seven 
ceiling outlets. The total cost of the material including ser- 
vice wires, was $38.90; and 33 hours of wiremen's time and 
50J/2 hours of helper's time was used. The cost of the fix- 
tures was $39.86. Figured on the basis of flexible metallic con- 
duit and armored cable, this job would have required $24.73 worth 
of material, 33 hours of wiremen's time and 33 hours of 
helper's time. While it is expected that reductions in cost of 
material will be made by the ordering in quantity which is 
bound to follow an increase in use, yet it is not expected that 
this reduction will amount to more than 25 per cent. The 
largest saving is expected to come in the labor cost 
which it is hoped can be reduced to amount to about one- 
third of the present figure when the workmen become accus- 
tomed to handling this sort of work. 

Bostoi Tarassa'Dii ?%imA<s>j&e8 ©e3 IFflsrsfc 

Aid Kits 

Each of the 9,000 employees of the Boston Elevated Rail- 
way Co. has received a first aid kit consisting of a small 
rolled bandage, a tube of healing ointment, a bottle of alco- 
hol-iodine solution and instructions for use. The outfit is 
contained in a box suitable for carrying in the pocket, and 
provided with; a hanger by which it may be hung upon a wall 
by men who are always at the same post. The idea is that if 
small wounds are treated promptly they will heal much more 
readily than if neglected until after infection has taken place. 
In a letter accompanying the kits, the company's officials 
take this view of employees' responsibilities. 

"We have not only ourselves to look after, but millions of 
people who are passengers on our cars, pedestrians, people 
riding or driving, and our fellow employees. Others are apt 
to be more careless than we; at least, all do not have the 
advantages of safety committees and safety instruction, so 
we are often called upon to do more than our share." 

♦ ■ ♦ ♦ 

The South Carolina Light, Power & Railways Company, 
Spartenburg, S. C, has awarded to The J. G. White En- 
gineering Corporation, 43 Exchange Place, New York, a con- 
tract for the consulting engineering in connection with the 
design and erection of a concrete dam 600 feet long and 45 
feet high, on the Broad River, near Gaston Shoals, approxi- 
mately thirty miles from Spartanburg. This dam will be in 
connection with the company's hydro-electric development at 
Gaston Shoals. 



America's Electrical Week 

Outlining the plans for America's Electrical Week, the Society 
for Electrical Development is sending out a booklet outlining 
what can be done by central stations, manufactures, jobbers, 
contractors and dealers. All are advised to keep in touch with 
their local committees, and to let the society know what items 
of publicity material can be used. These include 8-sheet post- 
ers, window lithographs, car cards, window cards, poster stamp-,, 
folders, lantern slides, newspaper electros, muslin signs, and 
pennants. Suggestions for specializing on certain lines are also 
given. 

As the result of careful consideration of nearly 800 designs the 
judges of the Society of Electrical Developments poster com- 
petition have awarded prizes as follows: 

First prize of $1000 — Harold von Schmidt, San Francisco, 
Cal. 

Second prize of $500 — John A. Bazant, Bronx, X. Y. 

Art Students prize of $200 — Edward Staloff, Jersey City, 
N.J. 

First school prize of $100 — Harold H. Kolb, Sommerville, 
Mass. 

Second school prize of $50 — Wm. E. McKee, Jr., Holly- 
wood, Cal. 

Third school prize of $25 — Armand Moreda, Brooklyn, X. Y. 

Fourth school prize of $15 — Ruth M. Jameson, Buffalo, 
F. Y. 

Fifth school prize of $10 — Edna E. Crowley, Chicago, 111. 




"The Modern Aladdin" 

The Public Choice prize of $300 was awarded to poster X'o. 
41, the work of Vincent Aderente, of New York City. This 
was determined by the highest total of votes registered by 
the public attending the exhibition of posters at X T ew York, 
Philadelphia, Atlantic City, Chicago and Milwaukee. 

The society will issue, about August 22, an attractive book- 
let showing in colors the best posters submitted. The book- 
let will be sent free to 25,000 men of the industry. 

With the idea that electricity is the present day "Slave of 
the Lamp" to do our bidding at command, the society has 
given the prize-winning design the caption, "The Modern 
Aladdin." As far as possible, this caption will appear on 
all the 200,000,000 reprints of the design which the society 
plans to send out in its "America's Electrical Week Cam- 
paign." 

♦ * ♦> 

Cooking by wire is becoming popular among the birds of 
Southern California. On two occasions snakes were done "to 
a turn" by being dropped across the wires of transmission 
lines. 



ill 

1 



wmm 



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5m§Sm<s§s 3Fte©@ftii<3@ asi@l M@ftBa©<Ss ©i ©emteal S^iM©im§ 9 €2©mfeii(gf ©i 1 ® ©mcfl M.^mmi®,®tww%¥S 




HE first nip of Fall is in the air these cold 
evenings, and after the early twilight is 
over, indoors seems like a mighty good 
place. Mrs. Housewife begins to look 
about her furnishings and decorations, 
and wonders what changes and improve- 
ments she can make to brighten up the 
house and make the rooms attractive for 
the Fall and Winter. New furniture, wall- 
paper, hangings, are the obvious — and ex- 
pensive-solution; it is only the exceptional 
person who realizes what a difference can 
be made by a change in lighting methods — and at how little 
cost. There lies the electrical salesman's opportunity and a 
good one it is to secure orders profitable not only in them- 
selves, but as the entering wedge for further sales. 

Lighting furnishes an interesting field for any one who is 
willing to give the time necessary to become thoroughly acquaint- 
ed with it. The purchase of a fixture involves a considerable 
outlay, especially if really artistic results are to be secured, 
and the man who wants to build up a trade in fixtures ot the 
best class must know much about architecture and interior 
decoration. Fixtures, too, are bought but once in a long time, 
and the better the customer is satisfied the less chance for "re- 
peat" orders. Portable lamps, on the other hand, are within the 
reach of anybody's purse. The more substantial types are long- 
lived, but since they can be removed so easily they are shifted 
around to make room for newer ones. It is a curious fact that 
once a home-dweller buys a portable lamp, she (or he) catches 
the fever, and one after another new style is added to the col- 
lection. So useful and so decorative are well-chosen lamps 
that all remain in service, to form an ever-increasing central- 
station load. 

What the Salesman Should Know 

To be able to suggest the right sort of portable, the salesman 
should know something about the various styles of interior dec- 
oration, in order that he may be able to form a picture in his 
mind of the furniture which the customer calls Adam, Sheraton, 
or Chippendale. Such knowledge can readily be picked up from 
books. In addition there are certain principles of taste which are 
here briefly outlined. 

In general, the base of a portable should harmonize with the. 
furniture of the room, and the shade with the decorations. 
Thus oak or bronze will go with "mission" furniture, mahogany 
with any red finish, white laquer with the popular French Gray 
of bedroom suites, old gold with the gilded-brass-and-onyx 
stands still remaining as a relic of the nineties. As for the 
shades, pale gray and white, or black and white harmonize with 
the wall-paper of gray or white tone usually seen in bedrooms ; 



brown in one or two shades with natural leather upholstery, 
while green and gold would be most suitable for the principal 
light in a room where the curtains in those tones dominate the 
wall-space. So great is the variety in shade materials that prac- 
tically any color effect can be secured. 

While the light from fixtures is for but one purpose — to give 
illumination, that from portable lamps may be for either of three 
uses. It may be designed to throw most of the light up, as does 
the lamp in Fig. i. It may throw the light downward onto a 
table, or the book of one who sits nearby, as is the case with 
most of the lamps shown. Or it may be for frankly decorative 
purposes, being used to bring a spot of color into ah otherwise 
dusky corner When a lamp is used in this last way, it should 
not be too bright, and its color may contrast with the scheme 
of' the decorations. 

Lighting a Living Room 

It is becoming "the style" nowadays to light a living-room un- 
der normal conditions by portables exclusively, with rather a low 
intensity, having a few side-lights for higher-intensity general 
illumination when entertaining. Such treatment makes the room 
much more "homey," and this effect is an excellent talking- 
point for the salesman. There should be one lamp of good size 
to light the central part of the floor and table area to fair bril- 
liance. Lamps of this type are those in the back row of Fig. 2, 
some of those in Fig. 4, and the lamp in the initial at the be- 
ginning of the article. Such a lamp should have a wide enough 
circle of illumination to al- 
low a book to be read by 
any one sitting beside the 
table when the lamp stands 
in the center. The shade 




Fig. 1. This lamp, shown with outer shade removed, directs 
most of its light onto the ceiling 



September, 1916 



ELECTRICAL A G K 



47 



should come down far enough to prevent direct light from 
the filaments reaching the eyes of anyone in the room. To se- 
cure high efficiency of reflection, the lining of the shade should 
be white — either paper, silk, or opal glass, according to the ma- 
terial of the shade. 

Often a portable lamp can be used to advantage as the per- 
manent light in a reception hall or other room which is merely 
traversed by members of the family. A very low intensity is suf- 
ficient to distinguish objects in the room, especially by one who 
is thoroushlv familiar with its contents. Here one of the pot- 




Fig. 2. An Attractive Display in a Central Station Show-Room 

tery lamps on the front of the table in Fig. 3 can be used, as 
very little light is given out. In other words, here practically all 
the illumination can be sacrificed to decorative effect. Where a 
high intensity is demanded, a small ground glass enclosed de- 
sign may be used, set high up, as on a mantel or newel-post. If 
the globe is of clear glass, the bulbs should invariably be frosted. 

The most effective illumination of a dinner-table is by portable 
lamps, since they give a high intensity on the table, the center 
of interest, and leave the rest of the room in obscurity. This 
effect may of course be secured by a dome, but an interior looks 
better if the ceiling is clear, and the low-hanging fixture is in 
the way if the room is to be cleared for dancing. Whether "can- 
dles" or a single large lamp are used, especial care should be tak- 
en to screen the light-sources, as it is impossible to keep them 
out of the line of sight. The stem of the single lamp should 
be slender, and the shade high enough not to obscure the view 
of those at the table. 

Shades of Many Materials 

Passing now to the mechanical features of lamps, the mater- 
ials for shades first claim our attention. Silk is very popular 
just now, and no wonder, for it makes an attractive shade at a 
moderate price, it is light enough in weight to be used with a 
light wooden base, it has a wide range of colors, and is easily 
replaced. Its disadvantages are that it is a dust-catcher, fades 
readily in the cheaper grades, and soon dries out and goes to 
pieces. Paper is cheap, and lends it self, to hand decoration. 
Parchment is sometimes used, but it becomes brittle with age and 
is then easily damaged. 

Xone of these materials should be placed directly above a 
lamp unless protected by a mica shield, as the ascending cur- 
rent of hot air chars them, and may even singe them brown. 
Glass either solid or leaded is too common to call for comment. 
Pottery is opaque, and is now so high in price as to be almost 
out of the question. 

The purpose of the base of a portable lamp is to hold the shade 
and bulbs at the right height and nothing more. Yet how many 
stands are so slender compared with the size of the shades that 
they look, at least, as if they would topple over ! When a sales- 
man recommends a portable he must remember that the accident- 
al blast of air, or careless touch, is someday going to come along, 
and then if the lamp is top-heavy, over it goes. Even if the 
base passes muster on that score, its outlines should not be so 
conspicuous as to attract attention. A metal base should never 
have "ornaments" soldered to it, nor should it be a piece of stat- 



uary or serve half-a-dozen otlier purpo e An exception may 
of course be made in tlie case of a desk-lamp which begins life 
as a pin-tray, becomes next an ink-well and finally a pen-rack 
before achieving its end. In its surroundings, utility is par- 
amount, and it is well-designed when it gracefully falls in with 
the fashion. 

Wicker and Rare Porcelain 

There are two special types of lamp which deserve special 
mention. One is the wicker-frame portable such as stands at 
tue left of the second row in Fig. 2. This is especially suited 
for porch use, as it is not affected by dampness, and harmonizes 
well with wicker furniture. The salesman who keeps his eyes 
open may see quite a few porches being enclosed for the winter, 
and such a lamp can readily be placed on each of them — unless 
someone else has "beaten him to it." 

The second type is the porcelain vase made into a portable 
lamp. It is an easy matter to do this by fitting about the top 
a metal cap, which carries the lamps and shade. Wires are led 
in through the cap or, better, through a hole drilled in the vase 
near the bottom. Many people have a favorite vase in some rare 
design which thev would be willing to have converted were 
they sure the work would be done neatly. It is not difficult to 
drill porcelain, and the top can be attached by any wireman. 
Two beautiful examples of this treatment are shown in the 
initial letter and in Fig. 3. 

Openings for Lamp Sales 

The salesman's most perplexing problem is often that of se- 
curing "leads." One of the times at which people are most 
favorably inclined to buy a portable lamp is when re-decorating 
an interior. Cordial relations with dealers in wall-paper and an 
occasional call on each one of them will turn up a goodly num- 
ber of really "live" prospects. If the central station makes a 
periodical inspection of customer's apparatus the access to homes 
will afford an opportunity of seeing where a portable lamp could 
be used to advantage. Monthly bills may carry folders illus- 
trating various types of lamps. When talking with a prospective 
customer who has come into 
the show-room, it will be 
found that he or she has a 
pretty well-defined idea of an 
upper limit in price. The 
salesman should avoid this 
subject as long as possible, 
dwelling on the improvement 
in the appearance of the in- 
terior which will result from 
the purchase of a suitable 
lamp. A little conversation 
will bring out the general ar- 
rangement and size of the 
room, and will lead up to the 
very important point that a 
central table-lamp which 
leaves the corners of the 
room in darkness will make 
the, room seem more spaci- 
ous. As most entertaining is 
done in the evenings, and 
among people of moderate 
circumstances will include 
only a few guests, a modest 
interior may be greatly en- 
hanced by the use of an ar- 
tistis lamp. As it will be the 
most conspicuous object in the room it is good policy to 
spend enough money to get a thoroughly desirable article. 

The average purchaser looking over an assemblage of lamps 
will, nine times out of ten, be attracted by the ones which are 
most conspicuous. A wise salesman will remember, however, 
that the same qualities which make the lamp "stand out" in the 




Fig. 3. A Graceful Design 

in Black-and-JVliite 



48 



ELECTRICAL AGE 



September, 1916 



shop will make it conspicuous at home, and that if it is out 
of harmony with its new setting the customer will not be satis- 
fied. To be sure, he may not know what is the matter, but he 
knows he doesn't like the effect. He has to live with the lamp, 
and its unfavorable impresion will perhaps prevent his buying 
others. To avoid this, particular inquiry should be made about 
the present decoration when any decided pattern, such as Fig. 
3, seems to be favored. 

With the holiday season approaching, desirability of portable 
lamps for gifts should be emphasized. A home can always find 
place for another attractive lamp; endless variety of style makes 
duplication unlikely; and such a gift remains in use as a con- 
stant reminder of the giver. The silk-shade types are especially 
suitable, for without the shade they are comparatively inexpen- 
sive. If a dealer arranges to supply these lamps, including base, 
etc., and the wire frame, any deft-fingered woman can cover the 
latter with whatever material her taste and purse suggest. Oddly 
enough, this field has never been really cultivated ; while the 
department stores in some cities realize their opportunity and 
have put in stocks of bases, frames, etc., and give instructions 
without charge, the wire frames are almost impossible to get in 



bers are always glad to schedule a lecture which has "art" as its 

keynote. Such oportunity for arousing women's interest in 

lamps and for creating friendly sentiment toward the company, 
should not be overlooked. 

Portable lamps are particularly attractive as window displays, 
and every dealer should "go strong" on that form of publicity 
during the next few weeks. A window containing a well ar- 
ranged assortment of lamps works day and night, and with a few 
attractively lettered cards will arouse interest which will later 
develop into sales. It must be remembered, however, that the 
article is to be sold on the basis of quality, rather than price, so 
that this element should be inconspicuous or absent. 

Finally, the profits from portable lamp sales depend on many 
transactions at moderate expense. It would not pay to send a 
man out indiscriminately to talk lamps, unless his visit were of 
advantage from a "policy" standpoint. But if the salesman and 
his "boss" use their customary energy, enthusiasm, and imagina- 
tion to distribute artistic and useful lamps among their patrons, 
they will reap a bountiful harvest in good will as well as in 
money. 

♦ ♦ * 

a *Iaittl@ Miss Ma^da 9 ' 




Fig. 4. Portable Lamps made by Jefferson Glass Co. 

the smaller towns. A central station which has a large sales- 
room might profitably have classes in shade-making, selling its 
own materials and arranging with a dry-goods store to furnish 
the services of a clerk to handle a well-selected stock of fabrics, 
bindings, and thread. Arrangements can be made with a com- 
petent instructor through a domestic-arts school to be on hand 
one afternoon a week for four weeks before Christmas to give 
instructions in shade-making to all who apply. This scheme has 
the further advantage of getting people into the company's show- 
room where they are exposed to the contagion of "doing it 
electrically." 

Mention has been made of the paper-shade portable. While 
this shade is not durable, it is cheap, and easily decorated by 
even an amateur artist. A "hand-painted" object has a value in 
peoples' minds far above its merits, and especially when it has 
been presented by the one whose labor it embodies. By a little 
missionary work among art-schools and art departments of other 
schools, the pupils may be interested in making such gifts for 
Christmas. 

The central-station manager can get a picked audience by pre- 
senting a lecture on interior lighting given by a specialist of 
known ability before local organizations of women. Their mem- 




Miss Genevieve Brand, whose picture we are pleased to show, 
holding an Edison Mazda C lamp, is thirteen years old, yet is 
already in the Oakland High School. She has always stood very 
high in her classes and has the reputation of being a wonder- 
ful scholar. 

Her interest in Edison Mazda lamps started last Fall, when she 
enlisted as a "salesman" for the Kimball Electric Company of 
Oakland, California, during the Edison Day Contest. At that 
time she was a prize winner against a field of over thirty chil- 
dren. The next highest contestant sold but about one-half as 
many lamps as Miss Brand. She also made over $40.00 in com- 
missions. Her success was not in securing many large orders, 
but rather in the great number of small orders she brought in. 

After the contest was over, Mr. H. W. Kimball offered her a 
steady position during her spare time after school and Saturdays. 
He says, "Her scholarship has shown in her sales work, for, re- 
gardless of the great many small orders which she takes, they 
are always very accurate as to quantity, price, name, initials, 
address, proper voltage, etc. 

She has her own business card, which she designed herself. 
Beneath her name are the words "Little Miss Mazda" and 
"Agent for Edison Mazda Lamps, More Light for Less Money." 

Edison Sales Builder. 



September, 1916 



ELECTRICAL AGE 



49 



Calculation o-J 2M\safflaasiiattil©aa 

Continued from page 30 

Table 4 will serve as a good guide to find the correct spac- 
ing or distance apart of the lighting units. The values may 
have to be altered to suit architectural conditions such as 
pillars, galleries, etc. The spacing limits are here shown for a 
14 ft. ceiling as from 10 to 16 feet. This means that the 
large area of 150 x 80 ft. must be divided into small areas 
as nearly square as possible. Assuming that there are no 
pillars or other architectural conditions to be taken into con- 
sideration, make a selection of any value, as a trial say 10 
f ee t — this is a value which is not only between the spacing 
limits but also divisible into the dimensions of the large 
area. There will then be 8 ten-foot squares along the short 
dimension and 15 along the long dimension giving a total of 
8 x 15 = 120 small areas, in the center of each will be an 
outlet for some quantity of light. Lumens per outlet equal 
80,000 -=- 120= 666 or say 700. 

Fig. 4 — Spacing Distances For Direct Lighting 

Ceiling Height Spacing Limits 



Room 
Armories 
Auditoriums 
Rinks 
Stores 
Stores 
Stores 



in Feet 

12 — 16 

12 — 16 

Over 16 

Over 15 

8— 11 

11— 15 



Offices (with indiv. desk Its.) 10 — 20 
Offices (without" " " ) 9—12 
Offices (without" " " ) 12—16 
Offices (without" " " ) Ovn6 
Public Halls Over 16 



in Feet 

12 — 16 

12 — 16 

15—26 

14 — 22 

8— 11 

10 — 16 

12—18 

7— 11 

9—14 

11— 18 

15—16 



If tungsten lamps of an efficiency of I.I watts per candle be 
used, these outlets will have to have to be supplied for 
lumens X watts per candle 700 X 1.1 
= = 60 watts each. 

■f 12.7 

Before going any further with this value for spacing the 
outlets, it would be well to see how the arrangement will 
answer the purpose. First the maintenance would be high. 
It would cost about i?4 cents per unit to clean which should 
be done about once every three weeks in order to keep the 
lamps up to their full efficiency, making a cost of about $3.00 
per month. The lights could not be wired up to the best 
advantage, as it is not good policy to place more than five 
outlets at the very most on one circuit. This would mean 
that at least 24 circuits of about 300 watts each would be 
needed, or only one-half the amount allowed. The distribu- 
tion of light would be very good, and using so small a lamp 
the glare would be reduced to a minimum, but the decorative 




Spread m Feet 
Fig. 5. Illumination Cones for Direct Lighting 

effect of so large a number of single pendents hanging from 
the ceiling would not be at all good. Therefore, it would be 



better to space the outlets a greater distance apart and use 
larger lamps. 

For the second attempt, try 15 feet as a spacing, this will 
give 5 rows 16 feet apart by 10 deep 15 feet apart a total of 
50 outlets. Here the small area is not a square as the 15 foot 
spacing will not divide evenly into 80 feet, or 80-^- 15 == 5 1-3 
or 6 and a choice of either 5 or 6 outlets may be used on this 
selection can be made by making the ratio of the two dimen- 
sions of the room equal to the ratio of the number of rows of 
outlets to the number of outlets per row: 150:80 = 1.875:1; 
10:5 = 2:1. These two results are closer to equality than if 
6 rows were allowed so this is the value chosen. 

With 50 outlets, the lumens per outlet will be 80,000 -- 50 
= 1600, and the watts required for each outlet will be 

1600 x I.I 
= 140, or say 150 watts. 

Fig. 6 — Reflection Constants for Indirect Lighting 
Minimum Dimension of 



Room Divided by 

Ceiling Height 

1.0 

1.5 
2.0 

2.5 

3.5 and over 



Efficiency of Utilization 

Medium Walls Light Walls 

0.20 0.24 

0.22 0.26 

0.24 0.28 

0.28 0.30 

0.30 0.32 

0,32 0.34 



Four outlets each supplying a 150 watt lamp could be placed 
on one circuit, and would not exceed the good practice rule 
of 4 outlets and 600 watts per circuit. There would be a 
total of 13 circuits, 12 serving 4 outlets and one serving two 
outlets. 

These two outlets can be placed in a location where it is 
probable that more light would be required as at the center 
of the store or close to the show windows, as these two 
outlets will only be working on half load. 

The calculations completed for the distance between out- 
lets, the distance above the floor must now be considered, 
shows the mounting heights for various spacing, the spread 

Spacings for Indirect Lighting 
For such areas as banks, court rooms, hotels 
and clubs, barber shops, billiard rooms, card rooms, 
restaurants, writing rooms, offices, schools, assembly 
rooms, class rooms, laboratories, reading rooms, 
stores and sales rooms: 

For ceiling heights up to 12 feet maximum 
spacing should not exceed 1.5 times the ceil- 
ing heights. 

12 to 17 ft., 1.75 times ceiling height. 
Above 17 ft. twice the ceiling height. 
For such areas as drafting rooms, operating 
rooms, sewing machine rooms. 

For Ceiling heights up to 12 ft. maximum 
spacing should not exceed 0.75 times ceiling 
height and above 12 ft. should not exceed the 
ceiling height. 

For such areas as armories, are galleries, church- 
es, gymnasiums, ball rooms, corridors, dining rooms, 
lodge rooms, residences, station waiting rooms, stu- 
dios and the like the effect should be as even a ceiling 
illumination as possible, but the fixtures should not 
be so close to the walls that an undue amount of 
light will strike them. 

of the light being the same as the distance between outlets, 
this value for the case in hand is an average of 15.5 feet, 
following the line dotted in this curve up to the semi-concen- 
trating curve, and then at right angles until the line repre- 



50 



ELECTRICAL AGE 



September, 1916 



senting the suspension is reached, the value here being 13.5 
feet above the working plane. This value could not be used 
as the working plane for a grocery store will be about 2.5 
feet to 3 feet above the floor and the ceiling would not be 
high enough to allow for this. Commencing once 
more at the spacing distance and running up to the distribut- 
ing reflector-curve, the suspension height is given as about 
10 feet. 

To sum up, there will be required 50-150 watt pendant fix- 
tures each with a distributing reflector suspended 5 feet from 
the ceiling. The reflector and lamp must be arranged so that 
a line drawn from the bottom of the filament anr ! touching 
the edge of the reflector will produce a 60 to 70 degree angle 
with a line drawn vertically through the lamp filament, the 



Tungsten 

100 — 130 Volts 
Watts Lumens 



Fig. 7 — Lamp Data 

Vacuum Type — Straight Sides 

Tungsten Gas filled type 
200 — 260 Volts 105 — 125 Volts 

Watts Lumens Watts Lumens 



10 


75-5 










15 


117.7 




1 






20 


167.5 






100 


1257 


25 


215.0 


25 


186 


200 


2680 


40 


256.5 


40 


310.2 


300 


43io 


60 


550.0 


60 


484-5 


400 


5745 


100 


962.0 


100 


864.5 


500 


7180 


150 


1634.0 


150 


13300 


750 


1 1600 


250 


2723,0 


250 


2258.0 


1000 


16760 



eye will be protected from any glare under most conditions, 
as the design of the lighting units would have to be left to 
the customer as it is a matter of price as to how elaborate 
they are. 

Lighting by Indirect Fixtures 
The indirect method of distributing is one in which the 
rays are first directed up to the ceiling, which acts as a sec- 
ondary radiator, redirecting the rays back onto the floor. 
The complete limination of glare, and, with rough plaster 
ceilings a most perfect diffusion of light, makes this method 
much more desirable than the direct lighting. Further, the 



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fixtures can be spaced a greater distance apart and much 
larger lamps can be used, thus cutting down the first cost 
of installation and although the cost of operation is slightly 
increased, this disadvantage is more than ofset by the in- 
creased service efficiency. 

The calculations arevery much the same as before, (and 
using the same value for the intensity, the quality of light 
required will be the same as before or 48,000 lumes. The ef- 
ficiency of percentage of light lost will be a little greater as 
the rays have all to be reflected once before they arrive at 
the working plane. This efficiency will be found in Fig. 
6 which as will be seen varies with the ceiling height and the 
width of the room, in the present case being equal to 80-^ 14 
= 5-7 giviug an efficiency of 0.32. The total lumens to be 
supplied by lamps will then equal 48,000 -+- 0.32 = 150,000 
lumens. 

The spacing as given in the table for indirect lighting 
should be between 19 to 26 feet. Assume for the work in 
hand a value which is divisible into the short dimension of the 
room say 20 ft. This would give a layout of 4 rows of out- 
lets 7 deep or a small area of 20 by 21.5 ft. the lumens per 
outlet will equal 150000 -=- 28 = 5400 (approximately) and by 
referring to table 7, using gas-filled tungsten lamps, one 400 
watt lamp per outlet would be all that would be required, 
or using ordinary tungsten lamps two 250 watt or four 150 
watt could be used. In any case the outlets would have to 
be wired one per circuit giving a total of 28 circuits. It must 
be remembered that if 400 watt gas-filled lamps used a mogul 
socket would have to be used instead of a medium base 
socket. 

The mounting height will be found on Fig. 8 as follows: 
Find the average spacing distance — in this instance (20 + 
21.5) -T- 2 = 20.5 ft. Locate this value at the bottom of the 
table, and run up to the ceiling height 14 ft. reading 5 ft. for 
a concentrating reflector or 30 in. for a distributing reflector. 
This is the distance down from the ceiling to the top of the 
reflector; it may be used as a guide, while raising or lowering 
the fixture to suit the preference of the customer or the 
decorative effect desired. The best results will be obtained 
when the fixture is hung as near to this distance as possible. 

♦fr * * 



Fig. 8. Data for Indirect Lighting. (Courtesy National X-Ray 

Reflector Co.) 



wing Fietm?@ Studio 

(Continued from page 26) 
lighting capacity is 600 k.w. For the present, of 
course, the entire capacity is not utilized, tlie 300 k.w. 
plant being large enough for the business now being 
handled, but provision is made for an additional unit 
of 200 k.w. 

The laboratory building has many special dark 
rooms for developing, fixing, printing, perforating, etc., 
of the films. As a great quantity of films is handled 
in these dark rooms, and since unfixed films must not 
be exposed to any light other than a deep ruby light, it 
was necessary to devise a special means of controlling 
the lighting in these dark rooms, so that only respon- 
sible people can operate the switches ; also, at the 
same time, to avoid the possibility of white lights 
being thrown on accidentally by anyone while unde- 
veloped and unfixed films are exposed. There are 
often thousands of dollars' worth of films exposed 
in these dark rooms, in the process of development. 
The least carelessness on the part of anyone control- 
ling the lighting in these rooms would result in the 
ruining of such films, and consequently a system had 
to be devised for controlling the lighting which would 
be as nearly "fool-proof" as possible. Each dark room 
is provided with a few semi-indirect fixtures, giving 
red light, and a few white light fixtures to provide il- 
lumination required when repairing apparatus, mixing 
and preparing solution, cleaning out rooms, etc. 



September, 1916 



ELECTRICAL AG E 



The scheme devised is such that the white lights 
cannot be thrown on while red lights are burning. 
When red lights are on, it generally means that films 
are exposed and being handled. The red and white 
lights in any room in question, are controlled from a 
separate special lock type switch in the private cor- 
ridor among these rooms. The red-light switches 
have red tops, and the white, white tops. Each switch 
is also equipped with a red or white pilot lamp, as the 
case may be. these lamps being lit when their respec- 
tive switch is on and the lights burning. The red-light 
switches are of double pole type, but specially con- 
structed so that when one pole is closed the other is 
open. The white light switch, however, is of a stan- 
dard tvpe. One leg of a white circuit is connected to 
the pole of the red light switch that is open when the 




Fig. 4. Switchboards and Motor-Generator Sets 

red lights are on. Consequently, when the red light 
switch is on and the red pilot is lit, any manipulation 
of the white light switch cannot throw on the white 
lights. For further precaution, different keys are used 
for the white light switches than for the red, only a few 
highly responsible persons carrying the white light 
switch keys. These keys can also operate the red 
lights, as red thrown on at any time cannot cause dam- 
age. The red light switch keys, however, cannot con- 
trol the white lights. Where more than one switch 
for red lights in any room is required, due to excess 
capacity for one circuit, one wire of the white light 
circuit in that room is connected through the open 
poles on the two red light switches in series, so that 
if but one red light switch is on, the white lights are 
off and cannot be thrown on, by any manipulation of 
the white light switches. This was a very important 
system, and was given considerable thought in its de- 
sign. 

To transfer films from one dark room to another, or 
from a dark room to the adjoining wash room, a round 
sectional barrel type conveyor is used, similar to a re- 
volving entrance door. Films are laid on the floor of 
one section, and the barrel revolves so that that section 
faces the adjacent room. Since the partitions between 
the sections are made light-tight, there is no possibility 
of any light travelling from one room to the next. 

The buildings are also equipped with fire alarm sig- 
nal systems and public telephone equipment, and are in 
every respect — structurally, mechanically, electrically 
and otherwise — as complete as experienced and up-to- 



date engineers can design and erect for the manufa< 
ture of the chief necessity for the greatest industry or' 
this country and decade, 

♦ ♦ ♦ 

D©Ba<8rftj May &scend '(MympWi 

Mr. Henry L. Doherty of Henry L. Doherty & Company, 

New York City, lias announced his candidacy for the office 
of the next, Fifteenth, Jupiter of the Jovian Order. Mr. 
Doherty makes this announcement in final response to the 
urgent requests of hundreds of prominent men in the elec- 
trical industry and the Jovian Order who have been pressing 
him to agree to accept the office. 




From the days when he sold newspapers on the streets of 
Cleveland, Mr. Doherty has shown a genius for building busi- 
ness. "Service" was his slogan, then as now, when he is at 
the head of one of the largest public utility organizations o." 
the country. His ready affability and keen, though kindly, 
sense of humor, have made him welcome among magnates 
or laborers. 

The Jovian Order now numbers approximately twenty 
thousand members, with seventy-five Local Leagues, and 
both the membership and number of Leagues are increasing 
rapidly. Given the advantage of the splendid leadership of 
Mr. Doherty, together with the added prestige that his name 
will lend it, the Order will be able during the next adminis- 
tration to accomplish even more than it has done in the past 
as an instrument for the constructive development of the elec- 
trical industry. 

Colonel Robley S. Stearnes, the new President of the N. E. C. 
A., is a Southerner of the finest type. He was born in Virginia and 
educated in his native State, subsequently entering the employ of 
the General Electrical Company. His residence in the South be- 
gan with his engagement by the Southern Electric Company as 
manager. He organized a number of lighting and railway prop- 
erties, one of which the Algiers Railway & Lighting Co., he man- 



52 



ELECTRICAL AGE 



September, 1916 



aged for some time. Mr. Stearnes is now president of the Stand- 
ard Electric Construction Company of New Orleans, which does 
one of the largest businesses in the South. He has always been 
active as a Jovian, and has been an Apollo of that Order. 

In addition to bearing his part as a citizen of New Orleans, 
Mr. Stearnes has been active in the affairs of the state, one of 
his offices having been that of Colonel and Aide-de-camp on the 
Governor's staff in 1914. He is an Elk, and belongs to the New 
Orleans Country Club, and other social organizations. 

♦!•> ♦ ♦> 

Arthur H. Halloran (Vice-President and Managing Editor, 
Journal of Electricity, Power and Gas) the well-known 
electrical man, has been appointed Pacific Coast representa- 
tive of The Society for Electrical Development. Mr. Hal- 
loran's headquarters will be in the Crossley Building, San 
Francisco, Cal. He will represent the society in the states 
of California, Arizona, Nevada, Utah, Idaho, Oregon and 

Washington. 

**♦ »% <\ 

Harold Lomas, for over thirteen years a member of the Sales 
Department of the Crooker-Wheeler Company was killed on 
July 1, in the British Drive, Friecourt, France. Mr. Lomas 
served the Crooker-Wheeler Company as manager of its Den- 
ver office and also as manager of its Baltimore office. He later 
held the position of Acting Secretary of this Company. At the 
time of his death he was holding the rank of First Lieutenant 

in the 20th Manchester Regiment. 

4 * 

Tw® Interesting KssMMtioms 

The keynote of the New York Electrical Exposition of 
1916, which will be held in Grand Central Palace, New York 
City, October nth to October 21st, will be the improvement 
of working conditions in factories and shops. Exhibits of 
electric drive for all sorts of machinery will be shown. There 
will be model installations in full operation of a bakery, a 
dairy, a photographic studio, a silk plant complete, from 
cocoon to fabric, an electric welding outfit, a laundry, and a 
dentist's office. In addition there will be a large display of 
domestic appliances. A number of electric automobiles will 
be shown; the United States Government will make exhibits 



of aircraft, battleship fire-control, and field radis and tele- 
p'hone apparatus. Students of New York vocational schools 
will carry on their practical work in a large working ex- 
hibit. 

♦> ♦♦♦ 4 
At the Grand Central Palace in New York the w-eek of 
September 25th, there will be conventions of the American 
Electrochemical Society, American Chemical Society, Mining 
Engineers,, Technical Association of the Paper and Pulp In- 
dustry and the Society of Chemical Industry. The Second 
National Exposition of Chemical Industries will be held at 
the same time, and there will be lectures and conferences 
daily for the discussion of current problems. 

Pennsylvania's H®w Lighting C®de 

(Continued from page 28) 

Uncertain cases and intermediate requirements are to be left 
to the judgment of the State Industrial Board. 
Rule III — Shading of Lamps : 

Glare either from the lamps or unduly bright surfaces pro- 
duces eye-strain and increases accident hazard. 

Exposed bare lamps shall not be used except when they are 
out of the ordinary line of vision; lamps should be suitably 
fitted to minimize glare. • ., 

Rule IV — Distribution of Light on the Work : 

Lamps shall be so arranged as to secure a good distribution ot 
light on the work, avoiding objectionable shadows and sharp 
contrasts of intensity. 

Rule V — Emergency Lighting : 

Emergency lighting shall be provided in all work space, aisles, 
stairways, passageways, and exits ; such lights shall be so ar- 
ranged as to insure their reliable operation when through ac- 
cident or other cause the regular lighting is extinguished. 
Rule VI — Switching and Controlling Apparatus : 

Switching and controlling apparatus shall be so placed that at 
least pilot or night lights may be turned on at the main point of 
entrance. 

A penalty has been adopted for the violation of any of these 
provisions, making it a misdemeanor, and punishable by a fine 
of not more than one hundred dollars. 



Iwt M©mfMly Wto<fl©w IDagplny 




This attractive display of lamps and lighting glassware was arranged by the Window Display Service of the Society 

for Electrical Development 



A Review oil ftSa® ILaftsstt PsiMicatissis 



id Books 



Electrical and Ignition Supplies sold by Stanley & Patter- 
son, New York City, are listed in that firm's catalog No. 18. 
A very complete line of wiring devices, fans, portable lamps, 
batteries, and automobile accessories is shown. 

♦♦♦ ♦> 4* 

Vaughan Flow Meters, made by the Spray Engineering 
Company, Boston, Mass., operate on the ingenious prin- 
ciple of the gradual increase of an orifice as the rate of flow 
increases. They are illustrated in a booklet recently issued 

by the manufacturers. 

♦> .♦♦ $ 

"Spraco" Cooling System is described in a 16-page booklet 
issued by the Spray Engineering Company, of Boston. Where 
cooling or condensing water is scarce, the method of spray- 
ing it into the air reduces its temperature with a very small 
loss. Much space is also saved as compared with the use of 

cooling towers. 

<$» 4» 4> 

Posters for America's Electrical Week are pictured in a 
booklet just issued by The Society for Electrical Develop- 
ment, New York City. An account of the competition is 
given, and 52 of the best designs are reproduced in black-and- 
white. On the last page is a colored insert of the prize-win- 
ner, "The Modern Aladdin." 

* 4}» 4$> 

"Reliable Wiring Devices" is the title of an attractively- 
bound pocket catalogue of the General Electric Company's 
wiring specialties. Sockets, receptacles switches and cutouts 
in great variety are illustrated and briefly described in the 
book's 200 pages. An index and several pages of general in- 
formation add to its usefulness. The size, 3*4 by 4$^ in. 
makes it easy to carry in the vest pocket. 

$» fy 4$ 

Public utility properties in which Standard Gas and Elec- 
tric Company is interested are described in a profusely-illus- 
trated book just issued by H. M. Byllesby & Company, En- 
gineers and Managers. The company's investments extend 
over sixteen states, and comprise a controlling interest in 
thirteen operating companies and a large interest in two more. 
Sixty-nine per cent, of these companies' gross revenues are 
from the sale of electricity. While the book is written prin- 
cipally for the stockholder and investor, yet the excellent 
ideas it gives of the state of development of many Western 
communities will be of value to those interested in them. 

4> 4> 4> 

In a laboratory in which a large number and variety of 
electrical instruments are tested, it is important that means 
be provided for the rapid and accurate control of the electric 
generators which provide the current for testing. In Scien- 
tific Paper No. 291 by P. G. Agnew, W. H. Stannard, and J. 
L. Fearing, published by the Bureau of Standards, an elab- 
orate system of this kind which is in use at the Bureau, 'S 
described. The control rheostats are not handled by the ob- 
.ers directly, but are operated by small motors which are 
controlled from any one of several laboratory rooms by 
means of small, multiple lever switches. 

Copies of this report will be ready for distribution in a few 
days and may be obtained without charge upon application 
to the Bureau of Standards, Washington, D. C. 

♦ ♦ ♦ 

New Even-Lite Bowls and Lighting for Homes arc describ- 



ed in two folders sent out by The Jefferson Glass Company, 

Follansbee, W. Va. 

* ♦ 4» 

Mechanical Counters for application to printing presses, 
punches, pumps, and other machines are described in a 
booklet issued by the C. J. Root Company, Bristol, Conn. 
Revised price-list are included. 

*l* *l* v 

"The Telegraph in Selling" is a collection of actual ex- 
periences which many houses have had in the use of Western 
Union lines in pushing sales campaign. The company claims 
for telegraph messages the fact that they always get a hear- 
ing, and that the psychological effect favors immediate and 
favorable decision. 

♦■ ♦*♦ ♦> 

"Bates Steel Pole Treatise" gives very complete dates of 
the manufacture and use of expanded steel poles. Details 
of the fittings for attaching cross-arms, brackets, strain in- 
sulators, etc., are also shown. Useful tables of the mechanical 
properties of various conductors, definitions, and several in- 
genious graphic methods for shortening pole-line calculations 
make the booklet one of value to transmission line foremen 
and engineers. It is prepared by the Bates Expanded Steel 

Truss Co., of 208 South La Salle Street, Chicago. 

4. 4» 4 

"Better Electric Motors" through the use of SKF Ball 
Bearings is the subject of an attractive 64-page book issued 
by SKF Ball Bearing Company, Hartford, Conn. Exam- 
ples of the large maintenance economies which have been 
effected by the use of ball bearings are given, and also a table 
showing the possible reduction in overall length, a matter of 
importance in cramped quarters. The illustrations, which are 
taken from photographs of actual installations, are splendidly 
reproduced and of much interest to motor and industrial ex- 
perts. 

♦ ♦ * 

Book Reviews 

Alternating Current Electricity and Its Applications to 
Industry, by W. H. Timbie and H. H. Higbie. 729 pages. 
New York: John Wiley & Sons: $1.50. 

As the second volume of a two-volume series on this subject, 
the authors have treated generators, transformers, transmission 
lines, motors, and converters. The avowed purpose of the book 
is "for the man who is responsible for the maintenance of good 
service in the electric plant or system, and for the man who pays 
the bills and seeks the profit, rather than for the designer." This 
purpose is admirably carried out by clear explanations from the 
physical standpoint of what actually happens, step by step, in the 
operation of various pieces of apparatus. Equations are con- 
fined to those of trigonometry, and a knowledge of that much 
of mathematics, while not essential, is desirable. Few proofs or 
detailed theoretical discussions are given. 

For the technical graduate of some year's standing, the book 
will be valuable to "brush up" on many items of knowledge 
which disuse has nearly allowed to be forgotten. Especially 
will the practical data from both be interesting and useful, and 
the use of actual test figures in problems wall make the latter 
much more vivid. The student who works out these problems 
should have a very fair idea of the relative magnitudes to be 
met in practice. At the end of every chapter is a summary- 



54 



ELECTRICAL AGE 



September, 1916 



which should be useful as a guide to information contained in 
the text proper. 

The authors are to be congratulated on the numerous and 
well-designed vector diagrams, and it is to be hoped that any- 
one reading the book will make himself master of this method 
of dealing with alternaing-current phenomena. 

♦ ♦♦♦ ♦> 

Ozone : Its Manufacture, Properties and Uses, by T. Vos- 
maer, Ph.D. 197 pages. New York : D. Van Norstrand 
Company : $2.50. 

The present interest in the many uses of ozone where oxida- 
tion without heat is desirable will make this volume time!y. 
The author has had many year's experience with ozone, and is 
well acquainted with the rather scattered sources of information 
concerning it. Starting with a general and historical account 
of ozone and various methods of manufacture, he comes to tbe 
methods which involve electrical discharges, which he describes 
in detail. A chapter on the uses of ozone for the purification ot 
drinking-water and air, and in therapy, is of decided interest. 

The style of the book is rather more personal than is usuai 
in technical works ; the author is not afraid to stand sponsor for 
his own views, nor to differ from others when the circumstances 
seem to justify it. In a field where there is so much speculation, 
this attitude is unquestionably the best one to take , no author 
has a right to lay down as established, a principle which is still 
only tentatively proposed. 

♦ * ♦ 

Electric Wiring Diagrams and Switchboards, by Newton 
Harrison, E. E., with additions by Thomas Poppe. 303 
pages. New York: The Norman W. Henley Pub. Co.: $1.50. 
This is a second edition of a book published in 1906. It de- 
scribes the methods of calculating the proper size of wires for 
a given service, the lay-out of a wiring system, various fittings, 
and a number of the more usual circuit diagrams. It is to be 
regretted that the arragement of subjects treated is not more 
systematic, and that obsolete methods, such as the use of brass 
armored conduit and paper tubing, were not omitted. No men- 
tion is made of "concentric" wiring, nor is data given concern- 
ing the tungsten vacuum and gas-filled lamps, nor concerning 
motor-sizes for various machines. These defects are unfor- 
tunate as they decrease the usefulness of a book evidently de- 
signed for busy practical men. 

♦ * ♦ 

Homans' Automobile Handeook, by J. E. Homans. 248 pages. 
New York: Sully & Kleinteich : $1.00. 
The name of Homans has for many years been associated 
with books on automobile construction and operation. This vol- 
ume maintains the reputation of the author for conciseness and 
clearness of statement, and completeness of treatment of its 
subject, the gasoline car. Starting with a description of the 
general construction of the chassis, the book takes up various 
types of drive, giving some attention to the magnetic transmis- 
sion. The engine and its adjustment comes next, then the car- 
bureter and ignition devices. Operation of ignition systems is 
well covered, but electrical readers will regret the lack of de- 
scriptions of the various electric starting and lighting systems. 
For the man who wants enough information to care for his own 
car, the book is well suited, as it gives the general considerations 
common to all makes, and is a valuable introduction to the hand- 
books furnished by automobile manufacturers. 

+♦♦ +♦♦ ♦♦♦ 

Principles of Electrical Design, by Alfred Still. 364 pages. 
New York : McGraw-Hill Book Company : $3.00. 
This book is a distinctly valuable addition to the already long 
list of works on design of direct and alternating-current ma- 
chines, not so much for any novel methods introduced, but for 
an admirable clearness of statement which means much to the 
beginner. From his experience with his classes at Purdue Uni- 
versity, Professor Still has realized the value of having a con- 
crete mental conception of the internal workings of electrical 



machinery. An excellent example of this is the explanation of 
the theory of commutation, which follows the Lamme method, 
while omitting some of the refinements of that method which 
lead to undesirable complications. The author also emphasizes 
the limitations of the commercial designer to the use of standard 
frames and punchings and the resulting possibility of short-cuts 
in calculations. 

As a text-book for a course in electrical design, the book is 
admirably adapted to the needs of technical students, and gives 
much information as to what may be expected in actual practice. 



* 



♦:♦ 



Examples in Alternating Currents (Second Edition), by F. 

E. Austin. 223 pages. Hanover, N. H. : Published by the 

author : $2.40. 
The compact form cf this book will make it especially useful 
to those who wish to refer quickly to some part of the great 
amount of data which it contains. There is a great deal more in 
the book than electrical problems ; a brief outline of trigonom- 
etry and calculus is given in accessible form, and a number of 
useful tables give data not often found in reference-books. The 
author uses whatever mathematics are necessary for the readi- 
est solution of each problem, giving a full explanation of the 
process in each case. By this means the student is accustomed 
to use the calculus without hesitation. As a source of problems 
for classroom work the book will apeal to all teachers, while 
those who must study alone will find the book one of the best 

of its kind. 

<|» <g» 4» 

Water Powers of Canada : a compilation. 361 pages. Ottawa : 
Dominion Water Power Branch. 
This is a reprint under one cover of five monographs treating 
of the water-power situation in Canada, originally prepared for 
distribution at the Panama Pacific Exposition and particularly 
for the members of the International Scientific Congress held 
at that time. The authors of the individual papers are men of 
high standing and authoritative knowledge of their respective 
fields. A detailed description and many illustrations of each im- 
portant development is given, together with statistics on avail- 
able and developed power, rainfall, etc. Regulations and terms 
under which power sites may be secured for development in each 
Province are given together with the names of officials to whom 
application should be made. The book is well worth a place in 

any hydro-electrical library. 

4. ♦$► .♦♦ 

Industrial Leadership, by H. L. Gantt. 128 pages. New Haven : 
Yale University Press: $1.00. 
This volume is a collection of the Page lectures, delivered by 
Mr. Gantt in 1915 before the Senior Class of the Sheffield Scienti- 
fic School. The title is drawn from the first lecture, which is veri- 
similar to the one printed in Electrical Age in August under that 
title. In the other lectures the author outlines the principles 
of the task system of industrial management which he designed, 
and concludes with an interesting study of the economic relation 
between production and sales. The book of course does not 
pretend to do more than suggest, but it does that well. Being 
addressed to young engineers, the author makes very clear the 
important function of the engineer in spanning the gap between 
capital and labor, in harmonizing them and keeping them em- 
ployed for their common good. Since even the sum of human 
wisdom can be expressed in a few sentences, all that any author 
can do is to put those facts which he treats into a form which 
will readily "tie in" to the reader's body of knowledge. This 
Mr. Gantt does, giving his conclusions tersely and in a way 
which will appeal to engineers as a whole. 

* ♦ * 

Uoofes 3f&s©<Blve<3L 

Electric Heating, by E. A. Wilcox, E. E. 286 pages. San 
Francisco : Technical Publishing Company : $2.50. 

Retail Selling, by James W. Fisk. 335 pages. New York : 
Harper Brothers: $1.00. 



I 



Ll'Wiiii:!:!';!;!!!! W'iM'M ii;'!i!ll!lii!!ii; ; 'l!!|i 




liiUiliiiiiiiiiiiiilliiinlilliMili 



Pr©dncts 



i'fJi -xlixw to 



A BIontMy IFl©T?a<sw ©2 Sf ®w Appaffsttoas, mtspaapam^sit asmdl Specialities ©f Known Value 

The Names of Manufacturers Not Appearing in This Section Will Be Gladly Supplied on Request 



Many a contractor who has had to install a motor high up 
near the ceiling has wished for a portable crane which he 
could load on his truck and set up on the job. Such a crane 
has recently been developed and placed on the market under 
the name of "Pull-u-Out." As will be seen from the cut, all 
that has to be done to knock it down for transportation is to 

unscrew two unions in the ver- 
tical supports, when the diago- 
nal member will fold between 
the horizontal parts and the sup- 
ports will be beside it. In this 
shape it will easily go into the 
delivery-body of a wagon or 
truck. 

For hoisting into confined 
quarters the small head-gear 
makes the clearance between 
ceiling and highest position of 
hook a minimum, and allows of 
getting into places where a 
larger crane could not 
go. The lifting device 
consists of a ratchet- 
and-gear-operated drum 
which winds up a high- 
grade steel cable. This 
passes through blocks 
roped 4:1 to a chain 
which is attached to the 
load. The entire device 
can be removed from 
the crane and used to 
draw heavy motors on 
skids when loading or 
unloading, or for any 
of the hundred-and-one uses for heavy pulling power. 

Complete, the Pull-u-Out Crane weighs but 250 lbs., has 
a capacity of one-ton, and a lift of 9 ft. 6 in. The price is 
$50.00, f. o. b. factory. 




Single Pols iLlgMniing Arrestees? 2©ff 

For use on alternating current circuits of any f reqt ency, from 
1000 to 2500 volts, and of unlimited capacity, the Westinghouse 
Electric & Mfg. Company, has recently placed on the market 
the type CR lightning arrester illustrated herewith. This type 
of arrester is for pole mounting and is similar in many 
respects to the type C arrester made by the same company, with 
the addition of series resistance. It consists of four knurled, 
non-arcing, metal cylinders mounted on a porcelain base, with 
a series resistor which is held by fuse clips, the whole being 
mounted in a cast iron box. The arrester unit is mounted on the 
inside front cover of the box so that it is automatically discon- 
nected from the circuit when the box is opened. This safety 



first feature eliminates all danger of accidental shock to line- 
men when making inspections and repairs. This method of 
mounting the arrester unit is especially desirable in an arrester 
of this kind which will ordinarily be used in considerable num- 
bers on a line and receive routine inspection. Like the type C, 
the type CR arrester is designed particularly for the protection 
of distributing transformers and is unlimited in application. 





FAN-FIREl 

SPARKPLUG 

PATENT 
APPLIED FDR 



"IFaaa-y flare** UpatBs Ptog 

A spark plug that stays clean is the ideal of motorists, and 
many attempts have been made to produce a plug which 
will not become clogged with soot. A New York concern is 

placing on the market a plug which by 
its construction cleans itself automa- 
tically. By reference to the illustration 
it will be seen that at the end of the 
central rod is a small nickel-steel fan 
which projects beyond the casing. The 
currents of gas circulating in the cylind- 
er keep this fan rotating at high speed, 
thereby throwing off any particles of 
carbon which may strike it, and con- 
stantly presenting new points of con- 
tact for the spark to strike. Accuracy 
in the fan is secured by stamping in a 
die, thus ensuring a constant air-gap 
between it and the iron casing. 

Owners of Ford cars will be inter- 
ested in the account of an installation 
of "Fan-Fire" plugs made on an old 
i j-£3U&$ J & car of this make, equipped t»vith a 

vibrator coil. The owner found that 
he could close the gasoline-admission tc 
the carburettor by one-half turn of the screw, and also loosen 
the vibrator-tension. To use his own words, the motor ran 
much more "sweetly" after the new plugs were working. 




56 



ELECTRICAL AGE 



September, 1916 



In order to take off a branch from an existing conduit line 
fitted with "Pipe Taplets," the branch-off fittings shown make 
the job an easy one. Where the line is run on the surface, the 
fitting in Fig. i is used, and where the old line is concealed 





Fig. 1 Fig. 2 

and the new line is to be exposed, Fig. 2 is employed. Any 
outlet which was connected to the former box is removed 
temporarily while the wires are being spliced, and is then 
replaced on top of the branch-off fitting. No cutting of pipe 
or distortion of the run is necessary. 

Another interesting feature of this line is the switch 
holder (Fig. 3) used for fastening the stock snap switches, 
round base rosettes and receptacles, and other round devices 
to the standard forms of pipe-taplets. The rectangular side 
of the holder fits on the pipe-taplet, while the round base is 






Fig. 3 Fig. 4 

used for the fittings. A movable bar with screw holes spaced 
for different centers of holding screws, adapt the switch 
holder for use with many different sizes and makes of devices. 
The holders are made in three sizes, for the ordinary size 
5 amp., 10 amp. and 20 amp. switches, and other devices 
with the same size of base. All of these sizes of holders fit 
on the ]/2 and ^4 i nc h sizes of pipe-taplets. 

For the introduction of service wires, the service hood 
fitting (Fig. 4) is placed on a Type "A" pipe-taplet to make 
a complete service outlet hood. They can also be used as 
"Split B," or a pot head. This fitting solves the difficulty 
of pulling heavy wires around the curves of a "B," or an "F" 
outlet hood. The fitting is not put on the type "A" pipe- 
taplet until after the wires are pulled. The wires are thread- 
ed through the porcelain cover, which can then be placed 
on the service hood fitting either before or after the fitting 
is placed. 

4. .3. 4, 

Flastiesr Plug 

The necessity of adjusting flasher plugs to correspond with 
the temperature of the surrounding air no longer exists, ac- 
cording to the makers of the "Wynk-a-Lite." It may be im- 
mediately transferred from the hot sun to ten degrees below 
zero without its certainty of operation being affected. This 
is a particularly desirable feature for open-air use, where 







tt' r-t^ -*t/i 









it O. W 



V. 



■&kjL J'^Mif:^' 



I 



ZJL 



4><i 



'.£M : ' 



rapid changes are usual. Another good feature is that it will 
work on any voltage from 50 to 220, and will flash tungsten 
lamps from 20 to 60 watts. Adjustment of the period of 
flashing can be made by turning a screw in the side of the 
case, without removing the "Wynk-a-lite" from its socket. 



EaS&fgs Capacity T^-mk. Type Cifeiait 

The main changes that have been made recently in tank 
type G. E. oil circuit breakers have been introduced to make 
the breakers more accessible for inspection and repair. No 
radical departure in the design of the current carrying or 
operating parts has been necessary. 

Types K-21 and K-26 oil circuit breakers are used 
indoors on voltages from 35,000 to 150,000, and the K-22 and 
KO-26 are used on outdoor work from 22,000 up to 150,000 
volts. The K-22 is like the K-21, except that the K-22 has 
outdoor bushings and the mechanism is protected from the 
weather by an iron housing. The KO-26 is like K-26, except 
weatherproof covers and bushings are used for outdoor in- 
stallations. The cut shows Type K-21, for 35,000 volts and 
300 amp. per phase. 




General Electric Type K-21 Circuit Breaker 

A noteworthy advance in the breakers consists of mounting 
them on framework and in the handling of the tanks by a 
tank-lifting device recently designed. The lifter consists of 
a detachable frame with shaft, handle, worm gear and wind- 
ing and unwinding drums. The advantage of this equipment 
is that it allows a tank to be removed or placed in position 
without difficulty. The device is readily detached and can be 
moved by one man from one switch to another, thus making 
it a very simple operation to lower or raise an oil tank, and 
also making it easy to align, inspect contacts and oil, and 
replace contacts if necessary. 

These top connected circuit breakers are self-contained for 
use on systems of potentials up to and including 200,000 
volts. One tank with two breaks in series is used in each 
phase. The breakers are made for either automatic or non- 
automatic operation. The breakers are closed by hand, sole- 
noid or air, and the automatic breakers are tripped under 
overload by series trip coils (mechanical trip indoor only) 
or current transformers. In using these circuit breakers for 
hand operation, they can be installed behind the switchboard 
panel with the operating handle in front and connected co 
the breakers by connection rods and bell cranks. All the 
breakers can be mounted on a framework except 110,000 volts 
and above. All the breakers can also be operated by a re- 
movable wooden lever connected directly to the mechanism. 



September, 1916 



ELECTRICAL AGE 



57 



Starting ©e^ices 2 oar ©fiaa'ljfie-IPIhas© M©S©srs 

The single phase induction motor designed with a split phase 
winding for starting and not equipped with some other auxiliary 
device seldom develops more than full load torque at starting. 
For many applications, notably pumps, the split phase type of 
motor is desirable, but it must have a starting torque greater than 
full load. In order to accomplish this a clutch, similar to that 
used on an autombile is applied to the single phase motor. The 
function of the clutch is to allow the rotor of the motor to reach 
nearly full load speed before the shaft and its connected load 
are started. The two members of the clutch are then auto- 
matically engaged and the shaft exerts approximately two times 
full load torque upon the connected load. The early clutches 
were of the drum type in which weights were held close to the 
shaft by springs. When a certain speed was reached centrifugal 
force carried the weights out against the drum and the friction 
between them and the inner surface of the drum brought the 
shaft up to speed. In the latest design of motor the drum type 
of clutch has been abandoned for the multiple disc clutch. This 
is very similar to the type of clutch so successfully used upon 
all modern high grade autombiles. 

The multiple disc clutch has been developed by the Westing- 
house Electric and Manufacturing Company for their split-phase 
induction motors, and has a number of advantages over the 
old type of clutch. A high starting torque is developed, the 
motor picks up to full speed under heavy and increasing loads, 
and a smooth acceleration of the driven machine is obtained, as 
well as overload protection for the starting winding. Centri- 
fugal weights are used to operate the clutch as before, but instead 
of the weights themselves pressing against a drum, the friction 
between alternate plates of steel and phosphor bronze is used in 
locking the rotor to the shaft. 



Rotor Core 




Multiple Disc Clutch 

An idea of the method of operation can be obtained from re- 
ference to Fig. 1. The weights are shown at W and fly out 
when a predetermined speed is reached. This compresses the 
plates through the toggle links K, which force down the pressure 
disc D against the alternate disc shown at B and C. The 
weights are normally pulled toward the shaft by springs which 
are omitted in the figure to prevent complication of the drawing, 
The rotor spider Q carries the phosphor bronze plates upon the 
studs F, while the steel plates have square holes in the center 
which fit upon the square portion of the shaft shown at G. 
Thus one set of plates must turn with the rotor, while the other 
set must turn with the shaft. The weights and springs are so 
adjuster on both the clutch and the switch, used to open the start- 
ing winding, that when the motor is operating, the switch must 
open before the clutch starts the shaft. When the motor is re- 
tarded by an overload the clutch will slip before the starting 
winding circuit can be closed. This gives absolute protection 
against burnout to the starting winding. 



Slots are cut in the plates to prevent warping when on'-, por- 
tion becomes heated more than another, and they also assist in 
clearing the clutch of oil and dirt. The discs are arranged so 
that they can be easily replaced should they become scored or 
burned, due to prolonged overload, but in no way can the oper- 
ating mechanism be harmed. The split phase motor equipped 
with this clutch gives the highest starting torque that can be ob- 
tained from a split phase motor and it will bring up to speed any 
load it can start. 




Single phase induction motors using the split phase method 
of starting require a switch to cut out the starting winding. This 
switch is always arranged to operate by centrifugal force just 
before the motor reaches full load speed. The old type of switch 
operated by the centrifugal force of the contact fingers, while re- 
liable for light service, did not meet the increasing heavy de- 
mands put upon single-phase motors. The new switch developed 
by the Westinghouse Electric & Mfg. Company of East Pitts- 
burgh, Pa., for use on its small single phase induction motors 
has been designed for great endurance and reliability combined 
with simplicity. 




The switch consists of two parts, a stationary part mounted on 
the motor bracket, and a rotating part mounted on the shaft. 
The former consists primarily of one stationary and one movable 
punching each of which carries two heavy copper block contacts 
insulated from the punching, the contacts on the upper part being 
short circuited by a phosphor bronze spring. This part is free 
to move up and down, thus opening and closing the circuit w r ith 
the two blocks on the stationary part. This movable part is held 



58 



ELECTRICAL AGE 



September, 1916 



in either of its extreme postions by means of two steel springs 
near the upper part of the switch which also give it a certain 
amount of over-travel so that when it is pushed in one direction 
through about half of its travel it will jump the remainder of the 
way. 

The operating mechanism for the switch is mounted on the 
shaft and consists of three weights arranged in an approximate 
ring. These weights run between two lips on the sliding part of 
the switch. When the motor slows down the springs pull the 
weights together and they strike the lower lip, throwing the 
switch into the closed position. Owing to the over-travel of the 
switch the lips move out of contact with the ring in both the open 
and closed positions so that the only time the rotating part is 
touching the stationary part is at the moment of transition. 

This switch makes a quick clean break, the contacts arc 
large, permitting quick radiation of heat, and by thus keeping 
the contacts cool reduces arcing to a minimum. The contacts 
are designed to have a wiping action which keeps a clean con- 
tact surface. The mounting of the stationary element is metal, 
insuring correct alignment and spacing, while the only insulation 
used is the bakelite micarta used to separate the contacts from 
the punchings. One of these switches selected at random from 
stock was -operated 1,000,000 times at more than full load cur- 
rent and at the end of the test was still in good operating 
condition. 

♦ 4» ♦!♦ 

FleasiM© Metallic TuMng 

Our readers who have to do with gasoline, oil, or steam 
frequently make use of hose for carrying these fluids. All 
of them have a destructive effect on rubber and rubberized 
fabrics, so that hoses of the usual type rapidly deteriorate. 
A further serious cause of depreciation is the wear incident 
to dragging hose on concrete floors. For these reasons the 
flexible metallic tubing illustrated is being more and more 
used under severe conditions. It is made of two spiral tapes 
which form a rolling joint, similar to a universal pipe joint. 




"Power" 

Hence no packing is needed, and there is no rubber or other 
organic material to decay. 

For conveying liquids, the tubing is furnished with stand- 
ard pipe fittings, while for electrical purposes it is shipped 
plain. For the latter use it is especially suitable around 
machine tools, for it is possible for oil to get to the rubber 
and braid insulation of steel-armored cables and ruin them. 
Where flexible tubing is used ; it is impossible for oil to 
penetrate the outer covering. 

* * * 

Bn.pl®n Sewage Pump 

A manufacturer of pumping machinery has recently placed 
on the market a duplex sewage-pumping unit for use in build- 
ings which go below sewer-level. The noteworthy feature 



of the equipment is the accessibility of all parts — a most im- 
portant matter when repairs or cleaning is necessary. 

The equipment consists of a cast-iron sewage receiver in 
the center of a dry pit, built of concrete, or of steel imbedded 
in concrete, into which are connected all low-level sewers 
which will not drain by gravity into the street sewer or other 
outlet. In the annular space between the receiver and the 




ejector pit are two centrifugal pumps with suctions connect- 
ed to the bottom of the receiver, and discharge connections 
brought together with long turn fittings and valves to a 
double-branch connection. The pumps are directly connected 
to vertical motors supported at the floor level by a heavy 
cast-iron plate which also forms the cover of the receiver. 
The motors are controlled by a float running in an 8-in. pipe 
casing inside the receiver, and operating automatic starters 
mounted on panels on top of the receiver, as shown in the 
illustration. The machine is being built in capacities rang- 
ing from 200 gal. to 1,000 gal. per minute from both units. 
The pumps are so arranged that the casings can be opened up 
for cleaning or inspection without disturbing the shafts or 
bearings, and clean-out and manhole openings are provided 
on the suction connections and sewage receiver. A cast-iron 
scVeen 3 ft. in diameter is provided on the inside of the re- 
ceiver, and the design of the receiver is such, the manufac- 
turer states, that there is no possibility of accumulation of 
solids, as in the case of submerged sump pumps. 

Small Industrial Oil SwitsSa 

The switch here illustrated is used for starting and protecting 
three-phase induction motors up to 10 horsepower and 600 volts. 
It conforms strictly to safety first principles. There are but 
few operating parts. These are supported from the switch 
frame which can be mounted on any flat vertical surface, such 
as a wall or post, or by supports on the motor driven machines 
which the switches control. All operating or live parts, with the 
exception of the switch handle, are enclosed. The contacts are 
under oil and the terminals in the interior of the frame which 
is provided with a tight fitting sheet steel cover. The oil tank 
is pressed from a single piece of sheet steel. A line indicates 
the depth to which it should be filled with oil. The switch 
is built in the following styles : Non-automatic ; with two-coil 
series overload time limit trip; with plain low voltage release; 
and with combined lower voltage and overload protective plugs. 
All switches are arranged for either open or conduit wiring. 

The contacts open by gravity assisted by torsion springs, and 



September, 1916 



ELECTRICAL AGE 



59 



have a quick downward double break per phase. The mechan- 
ism is accurately constructed and parts are interchangeable. 
"'On'" and "off" on the frame indicate whether the switch is open 
or closed. The current carrying parts are liberally proportion- 
ed to secure low temperature rise and long life. The switch 
studs and moveable contacts are mounted in a porcelain block 
and separated by porcelain barriers. Contacts, terminals, etc., 
are securely held in place by lock washers, preventing loosening 
from vibration. Stationary contacts consist of drop forged 
fingers with flared ends. The moveable contacts are copper 
strips bent to the form illustrated. This construction insures 
good contact under strong pressure when the switch is closed. 
The non-automatic switch is held closed by a latch. In opening, 
the handle is moved some distance before the latch releases, after 
which the contacts are rapidly snapped open. The automatic 




switch with two-coil series overload time limit trip is opened 
automatically on overload by a trip coil plunger. The switch can- 
not be held closed on overload or short circuit. Overload trip 
setting can be varied between the normal current rating of the 
trip coil and twice normal by a calibrating device in the tube 
surrounding the lower portion of each trip coil plunger. After 
a current setting is made, the device is locked in position by a 
set screw. Each trip is individually calibrated and the tube is 
then marked in legible white numerals on the black background 
of the tube. For time delay in automatically opening the cir- 
cuit, each overload trip coil is equipped with an inverse time 
limit attachment consisting of an oil dash pot connected to the 
tripping plunger. The time setting is accomplished without 
removing the dash pot from the calibrating tube. At proper 
setting, protection is afforded to the motor against overload and 
against running single-phase, but at the same time prevents the 

switch from opening while the 
motor is starting. The switch 
with low voltage release is 
tipped out instantly if the line 
Joint voltage falls to approximately 50 
per cent, of normal. To reduce 
the watt loss of the low voltage 
trip to a minimum, a small auto- 
transformer is used in conjunc- 
tion with the low voltage re- 
lease coil except at no volts 60 
and 40 cycles, where the trans- 
former is not necessary. The 
switch with overload protective 
plugs and low voltage trip is sim- 
ilar to switch just described, but 
equipped also with time limit overload protective plugs connected 
in series with the switch leads. 

In this case overload protection is obtained by two-time- 
iimit, protective plugs as shown in Fig. 2. These protective plugs 




contain a stationary contact post with heating coii "A," and a 
fusible link "B," which binds a spring contact arm "C," to th« 
stationary post. The heating coil is in the motor circuit which 
also passes through the post, link and spring contact arm. 
When the post is heated to a temperature that will melt the low- 
fusing alloy that holds the link together, the spring contact arm 
is released and takes the position as shown by the dotted line 
"D," thereby opening the circuit between the arm and the post. 
After the circuit has been opened by the protective plug a new 
link should be installed. 

By reason of the time lag in the heating coil, the momentary 
inrush of starting current will not cause the plug to open the 
circuit. The plugs guard the motor against any conditions of 
overload that if maintained for a sufficiently long period 
would overheat the motor. Under the conditions that exist 
when multiphase motors are running single-phase, or when an 
attempt is made to start stalled motors, or when a motor is 
called upon to drive too heavy a load, the plugs will open the 
circuit. 

These oil switches are known as type F, Form P-10. They 
are manufactured by the General Electric Company. 

* * * 



For surface wiring a new type of metal molding has recent- 
ly been introduced under the name of "Wiremold." While 
it is made up of two pieces — base and capping — these are 
permanently assembled at the factory and the wiring must 



sfPteil gy§C?ifc 






Fig. 2 



Fig. 3 



Fig. 4 




Fig. 1 



Fig. 5 



Fig. 6 




be finished as into conduit. The makers claim for it the ad- 
vantage of extreme simplicity. No special tools being re- 
quired for its installation. Each length is furnished with a 
couplings shown in Fig. 1. To install, the coupling is push- 
ed forward and a No. 8 flat-head wood screw is put through 
the hole as shown in Fig. 2. The next length is then placed 
over the coupling and shoved up to make a butt joint with 
its neighbor. Where support between the ends is required, 
a clamp (Fig. 5) is screwed to the wall and the molding snap- 
ped into it. 

An extensive line of fittings has been prepared for use with 
the conduit, one of the more interesting being shown in Fig. 
6. This corner box provides in a single fitting for most of the 
combinations required. Knockouts allow of any of three 
sides or all being entered by diverging conduit lines. 

The conduit is supplied in two-wire size and 10 ft. lengths 
only. Accessories are packed in units of five in most cases — 
making it unnecessary to carry a stock much larger than the 
work in hand requires. 

<$> <|» * 

Six Fuses in one Plug 

It is a well-known fact that fuses always "blow" just 
when there's most need of service, and no good fuses to re- 
place them. The necessity for the use of hairpins, nails, or 
bits of copper wire to "get the juice on again" has been 
removed by the introduction of a fuse-plug which contains 
six fuses, each of which may be used in succession. 

As the illustration shows this plug screws into any Edison 



<5o 



ELECTRICAL AGE 



September, 191 6 




base cut-out. Inside the shell 
are six holes, each containing 
a fusible wire. When any one 
of these burns out, the next 
may be put in service by pull- 
ing out the cap and turning to 
the right. A new fuse comes 
into circuit and service is re- 
stored. Not only is this done 
almost instantaneously, bu 
there is the certainty that tht 
new fuse is the proper capa- 
city for the circuit — thus 
avoiding any chance for a 
fuse of much higher capacity 
being substituted by mistake. 



TSaeiino Switch. 

The manufacturers of a line of temperature-controlled 
values have added a switch which is closed by fall of tempera- 
ture. The numerous applications for this device in the field 
of electrical heating make its operating features of special 
interest. 

The operating mechanism employs a brass tube filled with a 
heavy hydro-carbon oil, which on expansion compresses a 
spiral tube inserted in the oil. This spiral tube is 
capable of withstanding pressures up to 2,000 lbs., 
but a special safety device is furnished in the form 
of a heavy steel spring in the regulating head. The 
following is a description of the electrical switch: 
The expansion element pushes a rod out of the 
end of a tube by the expansion of a liquid, derived 
from increase in temperature. The movement is 
multiplied by levers. A motion is obtained suf- 
ficient to operate the snap switch even with very 
slight changes in temperature? 

The cut shows the instrument in the "hot" po- 
sition with the plunger extended. As the instru- 
ment changes to "cold" position, the rod "R" is ' 
slowly withdrawn into the tube followed up by 
the plunger "P," which operation is based upon 
the action of the spring "X." The insulating 
member carrying the switch blade "F" is held in 
its illustrated position by the brass seat against 
which it rests, therefore, the plunger head "H" is 
withdrawn slowly through this insulating member 
expanding the spring "S," which is an endless 
coil spring free to roll from one end to the other 
of the plunger head, carrying with it the insulat- 
ing member which carries the switch contacts. 
As the plunger draws through this switch mem- 
ber, the spring "S" expands and as the point of 
greatest diameter of the plunger head passes 
through the centre of the spring "S," the com- 
pression of the spring "S" causes it to travel down 
the plunger head, carrying with it the insulating 
member carrying the switch arms, which then hop over and 
locate themselves on the terminal posts "T," thus closing 
the circuit. This condition then obtains until the process 
reverses itself by application of a warmer temperature. 

This switch is perfectly safe to operate on a 220 volt circuit 
and it will carry 5 amperes. Its action is very quick and 
positive. The device will work with lamps in series without 
causing a flicker. The instrument shown has a calibrated 
scale from 58 to 78 deg. F. and is intended to operate the 
switch with a change of approximately 2 deg. in temperature. 
It can be constructed for any temperature up to 325 deg. F. 



^ 




The garage outfit here shown is a complete electric pump- 
ing plant, mounted on wheels, ready to be rolled wherever air 
is needed, and may be connected to any convenient electric 
outlet. It is complete with motor, pump, seamless drawn 
steel tank of 7 gallons capacity, manometer, safety valve, elec- 
tric connecting cord and steel covered air hose. 

This plant is supplied with either two or four cylinder air 
pumps geared to motors of 1-6, % or y 2 hp., for alternating 
or direct currents. The motors are enclosed in a cast hous- 




ing with ventilating openings; all wiring is protected from 
damage. The tank is tested up to 250 lbs. and the safety 
valve may be set as desired up to that point. 

The truck is mounted on quiet-running wheels, the two 
front wheels being set in ball-bearing swivel mountings. 

If no electricity is available at the point where air is 
needed, the tank may be filled to a pressure of 200 lbs. in five 
to eleven minutes and wheeled to the desired position. 

The two-cylinder outfit weighs 260 lbs. crated for ship- 
ment, and the four-cylinder pumping plant 275 lbs. Both 
sizes of pumps, it is stated, have piston rings, without leather 
packings, which are likely to leak. 

♦ ♦ 4» 



U&atglUdlad Heating Units 

A step toward the universal application of electric heating 
in industrial processes has been made by the introduction of a 
rugged, compact, indestructible heater by the Westinghouse 
Electric & Mfg. Co., East Pittsburg, Pa., that is suited to a wide 
variety of industrial uses, among which are: the heating of 
ovens and drying rooms, air heating, and the heating of press 
heads and hot plates. This type of heater, known as "Steel- 
clad," is made in two widths and in various lengths to secure the 
proper amount of resistance, the selection of the right size being 
governed by the aplication. Three degrees of heat are obtain- 




able with the wider of the two: the narrower one is for one 
heat only. Where two single-heat heaters or multiples orf two 
are used however, three heats may be obtained by intercon- 
nection of the heaters, using a three-heat Westinghouse snap 
switch for control. 

The "Steelclad" heater consists of a flat ribbon resistor as- 
sembled in a mica sheath, and encased under pressure in a 
heavy steel casing. Suitable terminals and terminal covers are 
provided. This construction reduces to a minimum the pos- 
sibility of injury and also provides rapid transfer of heat from 
the resistance element, thus insuring long life under severe 
conditions of service. 





Technical Journal Company, Inc., New York 

Copyright — All rights reserved 



Vol. 49 



OCTOBER, 1916 



Nc. 4 




^ U^aiijaamtsii (S?y©gg 



This article describes and illustrates, various meth- 
ods of conduit installation utilized in some particular 
cases, as well as the general means employed in the 
handling of electric pipe at different points in the 
system. This includes the schemes for setting con- 
duits in concrete foundations to definite dimensions 
in small isolated plants, the installation of heavy 
feeder conduits systems, the arrangement of pipes at 
panel boxes in shafts and in walls, the placing of con- 
duits in telephone terminal rooms to location tem- 
plates supported from the floor and from the ceiling, 
the setting of pipes on forms to be cast integrally in 
the concrete floor arches, the installation of conduits 
in the floor arches to be covered in the floor fill and 
finished floor, the erecting of conduit exposed on ceil- 
ings, as well as the actual methods of bending and 
setting conduit. 

Appropriate and economical installation of electric 
conduits is a problem that must be solved for each in- 
dividual case. It is necessary to take into account the 
construction of the entire building", the purpose for 
which the building in question may be used, whether 
large changes may be later required by local tenant 
needs, whether additional capacity for future or in- 
creased in load in advisable, etc. A conduit system 



can be likened to the building itself and the wiring in 
it to the equipment to be installed therein. As a mat- 
ter of fact the writer is familiar with a case where a 
large industrial plant was being erected by two parties, 
one paying the cost of the building and the second 
supplying and placing the equipment, in which the 
electrical contractors were required to divide the cost 
of the installation so that the former would pay for 
the conduit system and the latter for the wiring, panel 
boards, fixtures, etc. 

Viewing the installation of the conduit system from 
the economical standpoint, it is essential to the owner 
to see that it be so placed that changes or additions, 
if necessary, can be made with a minimum of building 
construction work. In the case of commercial build- 
ings, for instance, office buildings, tenants occupying 
more space than that set aside for a small office, in- 
variably have definite ideas as to the arrangement de- 
sired for their various rooms. This at once means 
change in lighting. There are several methods b} 
which the conduits or wire rollways can be installed 
to minimize the necessary building changes coincident 
with a layout of lighting different than that already in. 
These will be described below. For industrial and 
factory buildings, increase, expansion and extension of 
the system must be looked into, at the same time mak- 



Fig. i. Conduits in Park- 
way Building of Bell Tele- 
phone Company, Philadel- 
phia. Templates were sup- 
ported from the floor and 
from beams.. Note the 
pipe-bending machine fast- 
ened to column at left of 
picture. 




26 



ELECTRICAL AGE 



October, 191 6 



ing the first installation little more than actually re- 
quired but creating the possibility of extending and in- 
creasing the same with a minimum of change to the 
distribution system and a minimum of interruption to 
production which is sorely needed when increased 
business requires larger electrical facilities. As re- 
gards the contractor it is sometimes expressed that the 
profits of a contract can be entirely lost or made in the 
"roughing in" as the installation of the conduit system 
is known in the trade. A contractor must make a 




Fig. 2. Conduit Layout for Power Plant 

thorough survey of the distribution system in order to 
economically install his piping. We can thus see that 
the provisions made for the wiring of any building is 
a distinct problem in each case and deserves some 
study. This paper gives several cases and methods 
used by contractors of wide experience in both small 
and large work. 

Laying Out Conduits for Power Plant 
Nowadays, many of our commercial and industrial 
structures are provided with privately operated gener- 
ating plants. In such a case order and simplified opera- 
tion is a very essential requirement for continuity of 
service. If continuity is not assured all advantage in 
having one's own plant rather than purchasing power 
from public service corporations, is lost. A little study 
of the entire situation in advance will go a great dis- 
tance in creating such order and simple operation. 



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First, the general arrangement of the generator and 
switchboard must be such as to present an orderly 
and systematic appearance. — Fig. ? ? shows a meth- 
od of laying out the conduiting for an average sized 
isolated plant. Drawings are obtained from the gen- 
erator and engine manufacturers, showing the dimen- 
sioned location of all terminal lugs on the generator 
giving their horizontal position both ways from the 
center-line of the generator and the height of the lug 
above the generator base. With the aid of the foun- 
dation plans, each foundation always being located 
dimensionally from steel centers, and the combined en- 
gine and generator drawings, the vertical and horizon- 



















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Fig. 4. Part of Cable Schedule for Fig. 2 

tal centerlines of each generator and the height of the 
lugs above the floor can be determined. Similarly, 
from dimensioned drawings of the switchboard the 
exact location of each lug can be fixed as weir as its 
height above the floor. Now we have definitely located 
by dimensions from steel centers, the terminating 
points of all pipes, and by allowing sufficiently slack 
between the end of pipes and the respective lugs we 
can fix the height above the floor at which all pipes 
should terminate. Incidently it might be mentioned 
that the polarity of each terminal lug on the generator 
is indicated on the above mentioned generator draw- 
ing, which means we can now lay out clearly each 
pipe line on a scale drawing in such a manner that each 
cable will pass directly into its lug without any cros- 




Fig. 3. Detail of Switchboard in Fig. 2. 



Fig. 5. Panel Box. Note Offsets at Top ond Bottom. 

sings. Thus the connections at both generator and 
switchboard ends are simplified to the limit. The same 
can be done in the operation of the switchboard and 
the wiring thereof. 

The riser conduit system is next in line in impor- 
tance. These contain the backbone of the distribution 
system, as it were. The routes of these from the 
switchboard are usually more or less determined by the 
plumbing and heating pipes and the ventilating ducts 



October, 1916 



ELECTRICAL AGE 



'7 



in the spaces over which the feeders run. Often these 
conduits are installed in the fill of the floor over that 
on which the switchboard is located. Most often, 
however, they are installed on racks hung through the 
floor above or from the steel framing overhead ; and 
thus run exposed on the ceiling of the switchboard 
level. This is perfectly the means of installation, 
since such pipes are usually large, sometimes contain- 
ing heavy feeders that heat quite a little, and would 
therefore need plenty of ventilation, and above all, the 
backbone of the system is readily accessible in the 
event of any trouble. The pulling of the cables in 
these pipes is also quite an important matter. Pull 
boxes can be very easily installed and are accessible in 
exposed work but hardly so in work set under a floor. 
These pull boxes can be arranged with little or no ex- 
tra cost to take additional conduits laid upon the pipe 
supports already in place. This is done, by making the 
racks slightly heavier than actually required for the 
present and having the boxes arranged with spare 
knockouts to take such additional conduits. These 
share knockouts can be had with absolutely no extra 
cost from manufacturers of boxes with average equip- 
ped shops. 

Supporting Vertical Runs 

In the installation of conduits vertically, each should 
be properly supported and preferably from the steel 
floor framing. This can be done in various ways, by 
the use of a pair of proper size band-irons bent about 
the pipe and bolted together near both ends of the 
bands. One end is allowed to rest on a piece of the 
floor steel, or if the pipe is between two pieces of 
framing each end of the straps can rest on the steel. 
Another means, when all the conduits are of the same 
size is to place a channel or angle on each side of such 
pipes, bolt the angles or channels firmly together and 
support such braces on or from the floor steel. Still 
another method to be used where conduits are not the 
same size is to set them flush on one side, place a 
channel or angle iron across that fact and bolt 
each pipe to same with U-bolts ; or in groups of the 
same size, by pieces of flat iron parallel to the chan- 
nel or angle, securing such flat iron by bolts passing 
between the pipes to the main support which is simil- 
arly held to the floor steel. Standard 3 or 4 in. channel 
or 2 to 2)4 in. by % in angle iron with }■& in bolts 
will be found large enough for practically all 
cases, except of course very heavy ones. The angle or 
channel supports should be fastened in position to pre- 
vent sliding laterally. In such cases where cable sup- 
porting is necessary quite considerable economy can 
be effected by building cable support boxes of such 
height as to eliminate cutting and threading of nipples. 
Such boxes can be made to such height that full 
lengths of pipes can be used almost throughout the 
run. Slight variations could be made up with coup- 



lings and chase nipples at boxes. Fig. 5 shows a case 
where the panel box was used as a cable support box 
and a jog built in the back, not quite the height of the 
box proper so as to avoid the necessity of cutting or 
nippling the feeder conduits. 

Branch Circuit Work 
Fig. 5 shows a panel box installed in the electric 
shop of a large department store. All branch conduits 
were 1 in. and there were a great number of them 
which meant quite a cost for bending up those that 
came to the panel from within the floor and down those 
from the floor or ceiling above, if the box had not been 
set as shown, i. e., with its bottom below the floor 
level. There are objections to this method as far as 




Fig. 6. Neatness of Special Bends 

pulling wire is concerned, as they are pulled against 
oneself. However if the boxes are made deep enough 
this objection is not serious, and the gain of the method 
overshadows the disadvantages. 

In concealed work, in reinforced concrete buildings, 
where the conduits and outlet boxes are set on the 
forms and cast into the concrete it is essential to white 
or red lead each coupling joint, thus making them as 
water tight as possible. The writer has seen cases 
where an entire building had to be rewired due to the 
careless omission of this item. Within one year of the 
original installation circuit after circuit was burning 
out, water and acids finding their way into the pipes 
at joints and rotting the insulation until it broke down. 
The same case is met with conduits set on the arch 
within floor fill which is always wet when poured. 
Care should be taken that the substance thus used is a 
perfect conductor, or almost so, in order not to break 
the electrical circuit of the conduit system. Another 
thing to be avoided is the use of running threads, 
where building conditions are such that straight 
lengths of conduit cannot be installed except by run- 
ning them together at the coupling. Unions similar 
to the Erickson, or right and left couplings, should be 
used, as there is considerable danger of joints not be- 
ing properly made up at running threads. 

It is frequent that a man must leave his work un- 
finished for various reasons and plug up with wood 
plugs the ends of pipe runs left uncompleted. He re- 

(Continued on page 50) 




Fig.?. Conduits bent and fitted ready to he put in place. 



October, 1916 



ELECTRICAL AGE 



28 



Frequently, the design of the building is such that a marquise 
extending over the sidewalk or a cornice at one of the' lower 
floors furnish ideal locations for projectors. The light is 
thrown upward along the surface of the building as indicated 
in Fig. 3 which shows a building illuminated from a morquise. 
The projectors are installed behind the line of sight from the 
street level, as indicated, and their axes inclined towards the 
face of the building. The amount of this inclination of course 
depends on the height of the building. In order that the il- 
lumination may not be "streaked," the projectors must be care- 
fully adjusted. In order to eliminate the shadow which the pro- 
jecting window ledge would cast on the face of the building 
above the seventh floor, four additional units are installed at 
this elevation. They point directly upward intensifying the 
illumination on the top-most cornice. 

Sign Lighting 

Many a sign works only during the day. The owner appreci- 
ates that this sign would be a still better business producer if it 
were illuminated at night. Not 
only would the working hours 
be increased from 50 to 100 per 
cent., but the sign itself would 
attract greater attention. The 
reason the sign is not lighted 
is because it is hard to reach. 
The maintenance of lighting 
equipment for illuminating it 
is d : fncult and expensive. By 
means of projectors, a sign 
may be lighted from a distance. 
The projectors may be locat- 
ed at a convenient point, and 
a strong beam of light directed 
to the sign. 

A chimmey sign may be il- 
luminated by means of pro- 
jectors located on the roof of 
the adjoining power house. 
These signs are invaluable, 
when illuminated, because they 
loom up against the dark sky 
background, and are visible 
for long distances. The pro- 
jector provides the only econ- 
omical and convenient means 
of securing the desired results. 
At the great distances usually 
intervening, it is impossible 
to confine all the light from 
the projector to the sign, but 
despite some loss, the results 
secured are highly satisfactory. 

Sign lighting by means of 
projectors has a number of ad- 
vantages over the old style local lighting now in common usage : 

(1) Signs have a better day appearance, since no reflectors, 
arms, conduit and wiring extend out in front of the board. 

(2) The lighting is uniform, eliminating the spotted and 
glaring effect noticeable with local lighting. 

(3) The equipment is less expensive to purchase and install. 

(4) Cost of electrical energy is lower, since a few large 
lamps may be used, and a board illuminated with a lower total 
power consumption. 

(5) Cost of maintenance and lamp renewals^is lower. Since 
the reflectors and lamps are enclosed in a weatherproof housing, 
cleaning is not necessary except about one in 1,000 hours when 
the lamps are renewed. 

(6) The projectors may very easily be dismounted and mov- 
ed to another location. This is important to the man in the sign 




Fig. 4. Flood-Lighting of an Altar at Norwich, Conn. 



advertising business, since he must sometimes lease a location 
to his customer unlighted, which already may have a complete 
lighting equipment! installed, which means he will have an in- 
vestment lying idle for the term of the lease. 

Campaign Banners 

All of the foregoing reasons for flood-lighting of signs apply 
equally to the lighting of campaign banners. It is especially de- 
sirable to keep this form of publicity working by night as well 
as by day, for its season is limited to a few weeks just before 
election-time. A banner swung across a street lends itself par- 
ticularly well to flood-lighting because it has the black sky for a 
background, it can be seen from a great distance if well lighted, 
and it is usually easy to mount projectors. The best way is to 
place one projector at each side of the street for each side of the 
banner, or four in all, using window ledges, roof cornices or 
pole tops. In every case the unit should throw the light up- 
ward so as to ay,oid glare in the eyes of people in the street. 
The projector is of course the only practicable means of banner- 
lighting as the proper suspen- 
sino of lights opposite the ban- 
ner is an extremely difficult 
undertaking. 

Night Work 
Project units, because of 
the facility with which they 
may be transported from place 
to place, and quickly installed, 
are being used in night con- 
struction work. This enables 
contractors to work in two 
and sometimes three shifts. 
In many sections of the coun- 
try where the natural ice har- 
vest is an uncertain quantity, 
it is essential that the ice be 
cut quickly when the time is 
opportune. Efficient lighting 
for night harvesting is solved 
by the use of projectors, which 
may be set at a few con- 
venient points, dispensing with 
the need of the old overhead 
method, with its poles to be 
set, wires to string and globes 
and sockets to attach. Other 
uses that suggest themselves 
are for the assembly of large 
machinery, freight unloading, 
the lighting of coal piles, grain 
elevators, quarries, mines and 
•)il wells. 

Outdoor Sports and Festivi- 
ties 
For the foregoing reasons 
also, projectors are very satisfactory for illuminating athletic 
grounds, parade grounds, rifle ranges, toboggan slides, play- 
grounds, bathing beaches, outdoor-theatricals, pageants, trap 
shooting, and winter sports. 

Protection Lighting 

Perhaps the most effective means of protecting arsenals, muni- 
tion plants, and industrial plants from malicious intruders at 
night, is to virtually fence them in with a "wall of light." For 
this purpose projectors are particularly valuable, since they may 
be located where they cannot very easily be put out of com- 
mission by the persons bent on mischief. Similarly prison walls 
may be illuminated. Lighting of this character makes the watch 
more effective, and even permits a reduction of the number of 
watchmen required to patrol the works. 

Recently projectors have been applied to the illumination ot 



ELECTRICAL AGE 



October, i g \ 6 




By J®Sam JX,. HEoe^eJlsr 

Assistant Chief Engineer National X-Ray Reflector Company. 



Flood-lighting which sprang into sudden prominence about a 
year ago, because of its application on a large scale at the Pan- 
ama-Pacific Exposition, and on the world's greatest skyscraper, 
the Woolworth building, New York, is such a great departure 
from, and wonderful improvement over, former methods of 
lighting building exteriors, that at first thought one is inclined 
to wonder why it was not used before. The reason is that we 
really did not have convenient means. Incandescent lamps 
were unsuitable, not only because of their low light giving cap- 
acity, but chiefly because their luminous element deviated so 
greatly from the point source so essential for projection pur- 
poses. Arc lamps required expensive reflecting accessories, and 




Fig. i. Flood-Lighting Pro- 
jector as Designed for the 
Woolworth Building. 



expensive maintenance. This combination of reasons perhaps 
accounts for the persistence with which we have stuck to out- 
line lighting with incandescent lamps. 

While incandescent lamps may be used with good effect in 
outlining a building structure, they do not illuminate the build- 
ing. In fact they very effectively obscure the finer architectural 
detail. Hence this system, although used for advertising pur- 
poses, in illuminating theatre fronts, amusement parks, dance 
halls, and in some cases mercantile establishments, has not been 




very extensively applied for lighting public buildings, churches 
and monuments. With flood-lighting, on the other hand, a 
building may be illuminated in a manner which closely simu- 
lates daylight, under which the architect judges the design. 
Thus a historical or architectural gem may be revealed to the 
public gaze at night, without loss of dignity. 

To flood the entire surface of a building so that it is illuminat- 
ed, and the means of lighting is not made evident, the lighting 
usually must be done from a distance. This requires the use of 
a projector, employing a mirror reflector of the parabolic type 
or a lense projector. With either of these types of projectors 
an approximate point source of illumination is needed. The 
recently perfected concentrated filament gas-filled tungsten lamp 
places at our disposal such a light source, and one of great light 
giving capacity. The second requirement is a suitable projector 
reflector enclosed in a ventilated and weatherproof housing, 
since these units are for exterior use where they are subject to 
rain, sleet, and snow. A commercial projector unit is shown in 
Fig. I. It consists of an enameled metal housing, containing a 
silver mirror projection reflector, weatherproof socket, and a de- 




Fig. 2 f-irst National Bank, Cleveland, Ohio. 



Fig. 3. Z. L. White & Co. Store, Columbus, Ohio. 
vice for focusing the lamp. It is thoroughly ventilated in a man- 
ner which will prevent the entrance of moisture to the lamp or 
reflector. The glass cover is made of heat resisting glass which 
withstands extreme and sudden temperature changes, as would 
occur were the lamp lighted with a coating of snow on the glass. 
Flood-Lighting Buildings 

The flood-lighting of a building requires careful planning 
by the man on the job, who will be called upon to decide how 
many projectors will be needed, whether to locate them at a 
distance or on the building itself, and at what angles the beams 
from the various projectors must be directed. 

Take a building like the bank illustrated in Fig. 2. The design 
of this building front, which is 80 ft. high by 70 ft. wide, makes 
necessary installing the required twenty- four projectors on the 
roof of the building across the street. In order that the lighting 
would be uniform like daylight, it was necessarj' to space the 
projectors uniformly. Furthermore, the beam of light from 
each projector was carefully adjusted to get the ideal results in- 
dicated by the picture, and so that pedestrians on the street 
would receive no glare in the eyes. 



30 



ELECTRICAL AG 



? 



October, 1916 



church interiors. Fig. 8 shows how an altar can be made to 
stand out by using four 250-watt projectors located behind the 
last pillars on either side of the chancel, which is about 100 ft. 
high and 45 ft. wide. The lamps are about 50 ft. from the floor 
and are turned so as to illuminate the side of the altar farthest 
from them in order to get better "modelling" of the intricate 
carvings on the altar. As the "throw" is only 30 ft. this method 
allows each lamp to cover a somewhat wider surface. The adtar 
looks as thaugh it were bathed in bright sunshine, and against the 
obscurity of the remainder of the church it presents a wonder- 
fully beautiful appearance. 

An installation lately made by Mr. Glenn Marston on a large 
estate on Long Island, shows how well projectors are adapted to 
the night illumination of gardens. At one end of each pergola 
a 250-watt projector was installed about 1 ft. below the top lat- 
tice. These were screened in pale-blue. The central part of the 
garden was lighted from the roof of the house. Lamps playing on 




statuary were colored amber, pink, blue or purple, and special 
projectors were provided as needed. 

Illumination Data 

In order that the illuminating engineer may be. in a position 
to solve his flood-lighting problems and forcast accurately the 
results he will secure, he requires specific photometric data on 
the lamps and reflectors offered him for this purpose by the 
manufacturer. . 

Figure 5 gives the light distribution of the projector of Fig. 
1 with the 250 watt lamp at the focus, and shows the greater 
concentration of light obtainable with this reflector. Table 1 
gives the data from which this curve is plotted. The small dia- 
gram of the reflector in the lower right hand corner shows the 
lamp position. Curve "A" is for the zone o°-io°, and the verti- 
cal scale gives the candle-power values, whereas curve B is for 
the zone io°-6o°, and the horizontal scale gives the candle power 
values. 

Figure 5 g'ves the light distribution of the projector of Fig. 
inch in front of the focus, and shows the greatest spread of 
light obtainable with this reflector. Table II gives the data 
from which this curve is plotted. 

The beam of light from a projector is conical, and hence when 
it strikes a surface perpendicularly it illuminates a circular area. 
On the other hand, if the beam is directed to the surface at an 
angle, it illuminates an area which is elliptical in shape. The 
greater the angle at which the beam strikes, the larger the area 
of the ellipse lighted and as a consequence the lower the inten- 
sity of illumination. When the beam is perpendicularly directed 
to the surface to be lighted, the field is illuminated with practical 
ly uniform intensity, but when the beam strikes the surface at 
an angle, the portions of the field nearest the projector are 



brightest, and the remote portions less bright. The greater the 
angle of projection, the greater this difference. 

Table III gives the length and width of area illuminated, and 
the average foot-candles intensity of illumination, for various- 
angles of projection, at various perpendicular distances from 
the surface,. when the angle of divergence of the beam is 12 , as 
for the condition of Fig. 7 and Table I. The square feet area 
of the illuminated field may be obtained from the formula, area. 
.7854 L. W. 

Table IV gives the same data for an angle of divergence of 
20 as represented by the conditions of Fig. 6 and Table II. 

The value of illumination intensity represents the average 
over the entire field, and of course is a lower quantity than the 
intensity at the center or nearer portions of the illuminated^ 
field. 

All data above is for the lamp and reflector only, and does not 
take into account the absorption of light in the glass cover of the. 
housing. The clear glass cover of the projector absorbs about. 
15 per cent, of the light flux, allowance for which must be made 
in making calculations. When color screens are used over the 
projector, account must be taken of the absorption of these, 
screens, when calculating the resulting intensity. 



Table I 

Lamp — 250-watt ; concentrated filament 
voltage 115; lumens, clear-lamp 3510; w. 
duction factor 0.896; bulb — G30 clear. 



; gas-filled tungsten ;•. 
p. c. (hor.) 0.80; re— 



ngle 


Candle Power 


Angle 


Candle Power 





S6750 


8 


3630 


1 


63100 


9 


2060 


2 


67750 


10 


1300 


3 


61200 


15 


523 


4 


43750 


25 


363 


5 


26800 


35 


399 


6 


17200 


45 


403 


7 


7190 


55 


423 



Table II 

Lamp- — 250-watt ; concentrated filament ; 
voltage 115; lumens, clear-lamp; w. p. c. 
factor 0.806; Bulb — G30 clear. 



Angle 


1 
2 
3 
4 
5 
6 

7 



Candle Power Angle 

20800 8 

22250 9 

27130 10 

28400 15 

27000 25 

24700 35 

22500 45 

17850 55 



gas-filled tungsten ; . 
(hor.) 0.80; reduction. 

Candle Power - 

12980 
7860 
4070 
675 
347 
363 
388 

39i 



, 1 ll 1 1 

Lenqth orjd Width of Area' Illuminated, and Averaqe Intensity 
TABLE HI for 12" Angle of Divergence 


Angle 

of 
Projection 


Dist. 25 ft. 


Dist. 50 ft. 


Dist. 75 ft. 


Dist. 100 ft. 


Dist. 200 ft. 


Dist 300ft. 


L. 


W. 


FQ 


L. 


W. 


F.C 


L. 


W. 


F.C 


L. 


W. 


EC. 


L. 


W. 


F.C 


L. 


W. 


EC 


0° 


5.3 


5.3 


70.2 


105 


10.5 


17.6 


15.8 


15.8 


78 


21.0 


21.0 


44 


42.0 


42.0 


I.I 


63.1 


63 


.49 


15* 


5.6 


5.4 


633 


11.3 


10.9 


15.8 


16.9 


163 


70 


225 


21.7 


33 


45.2 


43.6 


38 


677 


653 


44 


30* 


7.0 


6.1 


45.6 


14.1 


12.1 


11.4 


21.1 


18.2 


51 


2a 1 


24.3 


2.9 


56.3 


485 


.71 


844 


72% 


.32 


45* 


10.6 


74 


245 


21.3 


14.9 


6.1 


31.9 


22.3 


2.7 


425 


29.7 


1.5 


85.0 


555 


38 


128.0 


693 


.17 


60° 


2L7 


10.5 


10.3 


435 


21.0 


2.6 


652 


31.5 


1.1 


870 


42.0 


.65 


174.0 


84.1 


.16 








75° 


32£ 


20.3 


LO 


1850 


406 


.3 


























Length ond Width of Area Illuminated, and Average Intensity 
TABLE E7J for 20° Angle of Divergence 


0° 


8S 


8.8 


245 


176 


17.6 


6i 


26.4| 


26.4 


2.8 


353 


35.3 


156 


70.5 


70.5 


.39 


106. 


106. 


.17 


15' 


35 


9.1 


225 


18.9 


18.2 


56 


285 


27.3 


25 


379 


36.5 


1.40 


75.8 


7ao 


.35 


114. 


no. 


.16 


30' 


11.9 


10.1 


12.6 


23.7 


20.3 


3.2 


35.7 


30.3 


1.4 


475 


40.7 


.73 


95.0 


81.3 


.20 








45° 


175 


12.4 


8.9 


35.1 


24.9 


2.2 


52.5 


37.2 


.99 


702 


49.9 


.56 














60° 


38.9 


177 


2& 


778 


35.3 


.71 


1170 


53.1 


.31 


I56J 


70.5 


.16 














75° 


23tt 


34.0 


,8 

































Gloss cower of housing obsorbs approximately I5*# 



October, 191 6 



ELECTRICAL AGE 



Vh 



i 



f@5?ik (Sith 



Assistant Engineer Empire City Subway Company* 



Construction of the new rapid-transit subways in New 
York City has made necessary wholesale rearrangements 
in the electrical conduit lines.. The solution of the diffi- 
cult problems of relocation will interest underground 
construction men, who often have such work to do, 
though fortunately on a less extensive scale.. This article 
is an abstract of three papers appearing in "The Tele- 
phone Review" of May, August and September. 
The rapid transit subway lines, both old and new, follow, in 
the main, the principal north and south thoroughfares. Fur- 
ther, they are built so close to the surface as to practically 
divide the city into a number of longitudinal zones. It is but 
natural, owing to the topography of the island of Manhattan, 
that the trunk lines of the public utilities companies should 
also follow much the same routes. There are, at the same 
time, trunks running east and west, which but further com- 
plicate the situation, as they must cross the rapid transit 
subway structure at certain points, and these crossings in- 
volve exceedingly difficult construction features. They 
are so difficult, in fact, that subsequent connections 
between these zones will be impossible. An indication 
of the great magnitude of the rapid transit work may be had 
from the fact that the total cost of the subway lines, old and 
new, will be approximately $366,000,000. 

Profiting by the lessons learned and the experience gained 
in the building of the existing subway lines, a Bureau of Sub- 
surface Structures was formed at the commencement of the 
present work to carry on the planning and execution of the 
work of restoration of subsurface structures. This Bureau, 
consisting of some seventy men, is a part of the Engineering 
Department of the Public Service Commission. Its function 
is primarily that of recording the existing subsurface condi- 



in turn may block, or may be blocked, by a third. And so on. 
Be it said to their credit, however, that the engineers on this 
work have never yet been checkmated. 

Let us follow out the mode of procedure in a typical case. 
A section of street is opened. As soon as practicable, the 
field engineers of the Public Service Commission locate all 



S. E. Corner 
Broadway and 
Houston Streets. 
Telephone Cables 
Exposed During 
Reconstruction of 
Manhole. 





S. E. Corner Broadway and Pearl Streets, Empire City Pipe 

Ducts on Top. 

tions when the streets are opened, preparing the necessary 
plans for the restoration of the structures disturbed, and 
supervising such resoration. 

The Plan of Attack 

The preparation of these plans may be likened to the merry 
game of chess. Before us, as on a board, we have a certain 
section of street, filled with the various pipes, conduits, etc., 
of the public service companies. Each structure has its own 
moves. One may be moved in a certain direction, when it is 
found to be blocked by another. This one is then moved, and 



the subsurface structures in the cut, and these locations are 
then platted up, and from the plan thus made is prepared a 
restoration drawing. Advance prints of this drawing are sent 
to the interested companies for their suggestion and criticism. 
They are given ten days in which to submit any changes they 
may wish made. If none are suggested, approved prints are 
issued, and the work proceeds. If changes are desired, with- 
in the legal responsibility of the Commission, the advanced 
prints are altered to conform to these changes, and approved 
prints are issued, as before. In the restoration of all struc- 
tures distributed by the rapid transit operations, the law re- 
quires that the same service be provided for as originally 
existed. Then, too, the contract drawn by the Public Service 
Commission provides that the owners of the utilities may take 
advantage of the opportunities offered, to prepare for future 
needs by making enlargements of, and additions to, their 
present plant. 

Protecting Exposed Cables 
One of the most important phases of this work is the main- 
tenance and protection of the exposed cables. When a street 
is being excavated, the car tracks, decking, and subsurface 
structures are all carried by timbering erected on the sides 
and bottom of the cut. This timbering is built to a prear- 
ranged plan, and this plan must be adhered to, in order to 
bring about the correct spacing in regard to the steelwork 
erected later. Consequently, the fact that in many instances 
a timber or bent will come right in the center of a man- 
hole offers no alternative but that the manhole shall suffer. 
The ducts are generally protected by a wooden covering, 

The Empire City Subway Company constructs and maintains 
in the streets of Manhattan and the Bronx boroughs of New- 
York City, subways and conduits for the reception of low-ten- 
sion conductors of the New York Telephone Company and other 
companies having legal authority to operate their wires in the 
streets. 



32 



ELECTRICAL AGE 



October, 1916 



where possible. The design of the tunnel, and the elevation 
of the tunnel roof, are such that generally the greatest mass 
of timbering comes right among the cables, making the task 
of maintenance a very difficult one. 

The Extent of the Work 

During the construction of the old rapid transit system 
there were 7.8 miles of subway and 53.7 miles of cable ex- 
posed; and on the present work, to date there have been 20 
miles of subway and approximately 205 miles of cable exposed 
and under inspection. One mile of this construction had 
been closed in prior to 1915, but during this entire year there 
were 21 miles of subway and approximately 196 miles of 
cable exposed, and consequently, under inspection, as well as 
313 manholes. These figures are large, and bring before us 
most graphically the extent of this work. In the course of 
the year there were reported 1,229 cable damages on rapid 
transit, classified as follows: 777 in manholes, 16 at building 
entrances, 360 in boxed-in section, or where supported along 
the line of the work, and 76 in wrought iron pipe. Com- 
paratively few of these damages were what might be called 
serious. There were during the year, three disasters along 
the line of rapid transit construction; namely, the fire at 
Seventh avenue and 43d street, and the cave-ins at Seventh 
avenue and 24th street, and Broadway and 38th street. The 
first was the most disastrous from the point of view of the 
telephone interests involved. At the same time, these acci- 
dents, while occuring on rapid transit work, and causing 
cable damages, should be differentiated from those arising 
directly from the subway construction operations, such as the 
puncturing of a wrought iron pipe and the inclosed cable, and 
minor damages to cables exposed in manholes and along the 
line of subway work. 

The performance of this work of maintenance and restora- 
tion is in the hands of the rapid transit contractor. It is a 
part of his contract to take care of the existing structures in 
the street, and to restore them, upon the completion of the 
tunnel, to a condition which will permit of their giving the 
same service as originally. On the whole, there is a pretty 
thorough appreciation of the necessity of carefully guarding 
these interests, and a disposition on the part of the contrac- 
tors to co-operate with us in maintaining service. 

Co-operation with Other Companies 

It being a part of the rapid transit contracts to make 
restoration of sub-surface structures, this is, 01 course, done 
at the expense of the contractor — provided, however, that the 
restoration is to include no additions to the existing plant. 
When it is deemed expedient to make such additions, to pro- 



vide for future expansion, it must be at the owner's expense. 
It is frequently desired, for instance, to enlarge a manhole. 
This usually involves the relocation of one or more contigu- 
ous subsurface structures. At the same time, it might hap- 
pen that the owners of these structures also wished to make 
a change at this particular location, in which event the situa- 
tion would tend to become extremely involved, to say the 
least. 

As mentioned before, the rapid transit routes are all along 
trunk lines of subways. The existing lines are heavy, and 
in planning for enlargements, the electrical companies gener- 
ally provide, as far as possible, for their future needs. This 
is not only a far-sighted policy, but, under the circumstances, 
an absolute necessity. It is even difficult to get in, in many 
cases, while the rapid transit work in going on; but it would 
be practically impossible to come back later and try to en- 
large some of the lines. Certain locations where this is 
manifest even to the layman will be described later on. 

If the original layout of the subsurface structures had pos- 
sessed any semblance of order, the problems presented now 
would not be so complicated. However, in common with 
those of other American cities, the streets of New York are 
filled with pipes laid in a most haphazard manner, and any 
scheme for restoration involves also the necessity of trying 
to bring order out of chaos. 

Construction Materials 

As in standard electrical subway construction, most of 
this work is built with vitrified clay conduit. However, a 
large amount of wrought iron pipe is also employed, its use 
being made necessary by reason of the following: In many 
instances the roof of the rapid transit tunnel is but five feet, 
or less, below the surface of the street. This forces the sub- 
way close to the surface, which location necessitates the use 
of iron pipe. Then again, the many tight situations en- 
countered often cause the line to become a series of compli- 
cated bends, which cannot be made with clay conduit. 

Time was when all bending of wrought iron pipe was per- 
formed by hand. Even before the advent of rapid transit 
work it was, of course, occasionally necessary to install iron 
pipe in curves, which were laboriously made by manual labor, 
a very lengthy and expensive process. For the last three 
years, however, the majority of pipe-bending jobs have been 
performed with the aid of a hydraulic pipe-bending machine. 
With this machine it has been possible to make some com- 
plicated bends. For instance, there are examples of both 
a horizontal and a vertical bend in one twelve-foot length of 
pipe, and a reverse curve is not at all uncommon. 

{To be continued in November) 




S. E. Corner Broadway and Canal Streets. 24-duct subway 
above : 16-duct below. 



Corner Lexington Avenue and 76th Street, 
ing a Bend in a 36-duct run. 



Show- 



October. 1016 



ELECTRICAL AGE 



53 



ZJ 



-I 

ST 



mm 



In the second article of his series on Patents, Mr. 
Chrisy tells who may apply for a patent, the relation of 
the patentee with his attorney, and the cost of obtaining 
a patent. 

Under the law, the inventor, and the inventor only, may 
obtain a patent. 

The invention may be the product of two minds working 
together; that is to say, a joint invention. It does not follow, 
however, that, because two or more men work together in 
development of a machine or process in which invention re- 
sides, they are joint inventors: joint workmen are not neces- 
sarily joint inventors. One man may make an invention and 
may employ another to take his idea and put it in physical 
form, and if the man employed merely follows instructions 
and uses the common knowledge of the particular industry, 
he is not a joint inventor. Two men may work together on a 
machine and, while both lend their hands, one only may lend 
his brains in a creative way, and in that case one is the sole 
inventor. 

Doubtless many patents are wrongly applied for; it not 
infrequently happens that, through ignorance or carelessness, 
one man applies for a patent on an invention really made by 
another; one applicant seeks the invention really made by 
two; or two seek a patent for the invention of one. This 
happens, and in some cases the mistake is never recognized, 
and never becomes a matter of practical consequence. But, 
on the other hand, patents are often defeated because sought 
for and obtained by others, not the real inventors. If one 
man alone is inventor, and a patent is granted on a joint ap- 
plication made by him and another, the patent is liable to de- 
feat. There is need then for care at the very outset: the 
inventor, and the inventor only, should apply. And, in case 
of doubt and uncertainty regarding inventorship, an attorney 
should be consulted. 

What the Law Provides 
The law provides that, "Before an inventor or discoverer 
shall receive a patent for his invention or discovery, he shall 
make application therefor, in writing, to the Commissioner of 
Patents, and shall file in the Patent Office a, written descrip- 
tion of the same, and of the manner and process of making, 
constructing, compounding, and using it, in such full, clear, 
concise, and exact terms as to enable any person skilled in 
the art or science to which it appertains, or with which it is 
most nearly connected, to make, construct, compound, and 
use the same; and in case of a machine, he shall explain the 
principle thereof, and the best mode in which he has con- 
templated applying that principle, so as to distinguish it from 
other inventions; and he shall particularly point out and 
distinctly claim the part, improvement, or combination which 
he claims as his invention or discovery. The specification 
and claims shall be signed by the inventor and attested by 
two witnesses." 

The Patent Office publishes and furnishes Rules of Prac- 
tice, governing the preparing, filing, and prosecuting applica- 
tions for patents. 

There is nothing in the law to forbid one who wishes to 
do so to prepare, file, and prosecute his own application. But, 
unless the inventor has given study to patent law and under- 
stands both its principles and the modes of procedure, he will 
do well to put his invention in the hands of a patent attorney 
on whom he can rely, and leave it to the attorney (whose 
business it is), under proper advice and with full discussion 
and explanation, to prepare and prosecute his application for 
him, 



The essential thing is that he give his attorney full infor- 
mation. The attorney should understand the invention in 
every detail. This understanding may be given in personal 
interview; it may be given by having the attorney go to the 
mill or shop where the invention is being practiced and 
seeing it operate; information may be given by drawing, by 
model, by showing the thing itself. But, however accom- 
plished, this explanation to the attorney must be full and 
exact. Nothing may be held back, nothing left unexplained. 
Choosing an Attorney 

And here a word may be said about attorneys. Everyone 
knows that there are in all the professions sharp practitioners, 
persons whose first aim is not to do a good piece of work 
but to get money for poor work, and in every relation of 
professional confidence there is opportunity for the crafty or 
dishonest man to take advantage. Generally speaking, at- 
torneys who resort to tricks of advertising are to be shunned 
— the "no patent no pay" men, those who advertise lists of de- 
sirable subjects for invention, and such like. And generally 
speaking, those who lay stress on the fact that they "do ; t 
cheap" are to be avoided. Another point: It is well to avoid 
the attorney who requires his client to sign a contract with 
him in advance. If a man doesn't already know an attorney 
in whom he can place confidence, he will do well to go to 
some man in whom he has confidence and who is acquainted 
in such matters and ask him where to go. 

When the attorney has been selected and the invention has 
been explained, the attorney has several questions to con- 
sider. The first is, whether the supposed invention is in its 
nature a patentable invention. In an earlier paper it was ex- 
plained that not every invention is patentable. Newton dis- 
covered the laws of gravitation, but he could not get a pat- 
ent for them; Hertz discovered those electrical phenomena 
which bear his name, but they were not patentable to him. 
He could only patent the means by which, the method in 
which, he made them available in "the useful arts." So the 
patent lawyer's first question, when a supposed invention is 
laid before him, is, Is it in its nature patentable? 
Is the Invention New? 

The second question is, Is it new? Attorneys of experience 
gain a great deal of knowledge of particular lines of indus- 
try, and it not infrequently happens that on being consulted 
an attorney is able to speak out of his own knowledge and 
experience, and say that the thing explained to him is not 
new. 

Again, it is not infrequently the case that a man who is 
following inquiry in a particular field of the useful arts de- 
sires to know what others have done in the same field. He 
may then go to his attorney, tell him what he is at work 
on and say that he wishes advice as to what others have done 
in the same field. 

In the United States Patent Office all the patents which 
have been granted — more than a million of them — arc classi- 
fied according to subject-matter, and arranged where they are, 
available for examination and study. These are United States 
patents, only. There are, besides, in the Patent Office, ways 
available for investigating in particular cases foreign patents 
and technical liturature on the subject in hand. A man then 
may instruct his attorney to search for him and select and 
submit to him copies of such patents previously granted to 
others as may bear most closely on his work. He may desire 
these for a two-fold reason: to test the novelty of his own 
ideas, and also (with the assistance of his attorney) to learn 
whether he in following his contemplated course will be in- 
fringing existing patents already granted to othevs. 
( ( o/i/im/ri/ on f>?ge 5/) 



34 



E L E CTRICAL AGE 



October, 1916 






Mr. Gerard Swope 



There is not an electrical 
man in the country who does 
not know something of the 
aims of "America's Electrical 
Week." In all the cities 
there are local committees 
who are hard at work on 
plans to make the week even 
more successful than was its 
predecessor. The smaller 
places, too, have their share 
in the bigger business which 
[publicity will bring, provided 
the local men do their part 
I in bringing home to their fel- 
I low-townsmen the advant- 
ages of electricity. A special 
message to contractors and 
dealers outside the large cen- 
ters has been sent by Mr. 
Gerard Swope, Vice-President of the Western Electric Com- 
pany and Chairman of the America's Electrical Week Ex- 
ecutive Committee. To an "Electrical Age" representative 
Mr. Swope said: 

." 'America's Electrical Week' is a period when all the agen- 
cies furthering the use of electrical devices unite together to 
show to the public what has been accomplished and what 
convenient devices can be operated by electricity, with which 
many people are not yet acquainted. 

"The manufacturers who make the apparatus, the jobbers 
and distributors who sell the apparatus, the contractors who 
install the apparatus, and the central stations who furnish the 
current operate the apparatus are all united in this effort. 
All of them, whether large or small, have an interest in the 
success of this work. 

"New electrical devices are being brought out every day, 
and it is difficult, except through such a co-operative move- 
ment, to keep the public adequately informed. The dealers 
and contractors in the smaller cities, as well as the central 
station, and as well also as the dealers, contractors and cen- 
tral stations in the larger cities, will feel the stimulating ef- 
fect. 

"The society for uniting the efforts of these four agencies 
referred to above is the Society for Electrical Development, 
which conducted a similar week last year, and which will con- 
duct again during the week of December 2nd to gth, 'Ameri- 
ca's Electrical Week." 

"The broad publicity campaign will reach the remotest 
village; newspapers will have special articles; Collier's, Sci- 
entific American, Scribner's and Leslie's Weekly will issue 
special numbers. All these will start people thinking and 
talking about the part that electricity is playing in everyday 
life and may be made to play in theirs. This is going to be of 
real service to the dealer and contractor who makes himself 
part of this movement, contributes his thought and his effort 
to it, and then gets some of the resulting advantages which 
are bound to accrue. 

"The Society for Electrical Development has prepared quite 
an elaborate series of helps, much of which is free to non- 
members as well as members. These give plans which have 
been tested and found to be good and which will work, pro- 
vided there is someone back of them to make them go. 

"In a time like this when everyone is busy, especially the 
contractors in small places, it is difficult sometimes for them 
to see why they should make an effort to stimulate the 



further use of electrical devices when they have all they can 
do to-day, but in a business such as this, one cannot be satis- 
fied only with the efforts of to-day, but must build for the 
future. This is a broader view, too, which has done a great 
deal for central stations, and which will do as much for the 
contractors, and that is, service to the community; and there 
can be no truer service than to make the members of the 
community aware of the benefits that electrical devices can 
play in their lives, in making their work less arduous, more 
convenient and more efficient; and it must follow that the 
community will reward those who serve it." 

♦ ♦> <i* 

The keynote of the campaign is best set out in a booklet just 
issued by the Society of Electrical Development, entitled, "How 
to Plan your Work and then Work Your Plan." The booklet 
says : 

Broadly speaking it is your duty as a committeeman to provide 
ways and means for demonstrating in your community: 

— that electricity, the all-pervading force of the universe, is 
the greatest, most willing and most reliable servant in the world. 

— that through electricity, homes where drudgery now exists 
may be made cleaner, brighter, healthier. 

— that electricity is a necessity, not a luxury ; is economical, 
not expensive; is simple not complex; is safe, not dangerous; 
and is useful every day in the year. 

—whatever electricity does, it does safely, silently, cleanly, 
speedily, thoroughly. 

* * * 

Some of the America's Electrical-Week activities reported to 
The Society fcr Electrical Development for the current week 
follow : 

Lexington, Ky. 

The Electric Transmission Company of Virginia co-operating 
with the local committee plans to flood light all public buildings 
in Lexington, to provide illustrated lectures to the school chil- 
dren, fix discounts on housewiring done during the week, and up- 
on appliances bought during the week, to conduct electrical pages 
and to arrange a city wide celebration in co-operation with the 
Commercial Club. 

Syracuse, N. Y. 

The feature of the America's Electrical Week celebration this 
year will be an illuminated parade of electric pleasure and busi- 
ness vehicles including several new tractors used in rural com- 
munities about the city. It is probable that last year's electrical 
show will be repeated with electric devices used on the farm as 
a feature. 

M. O. Dell Plain announces that the civic organizations which 
promoted the Noc-No-Mor and Sac-Bust'r celebrations will co- 
operate with the local committee in special street illuminations and 
decorations of Syracuse's new lighted shopping center. 

Louisville, Ky. 

Electric exposition in the armory, which is the second largest 
in the United States. Appropriation of $2,000 for high-class en- 
tertainment during the week's show. Show managers plan to 
run feature days and feature nights, thus bringing into the cele- 
bration all of Louisville's mercantile and industrial interests. 

The Federal Sign Co. and the Thomas Cusack Co. with ten of 
the livest electrical dealers and contractors of Louisville have un- 
dertaken a campaign to induce Louisville merchants to use dec- 
orative lighting, the idea being to make these displays promin- 
ent. Contests and campaigns are designed to stimulate a house- 
wiring campaign which has been in progress more than two 
years. 

{Continued on page 52) 



1 






In rj 







Elsewhere in this issue we publish brief news items 
from committees in charge of local celebrations of 
America's Electrical Week. So thoroughly are the 
leaders of the industry convinced of the benefits they 
will reap from this widespread publicity that they are 
now hard at work on the preliminaries which will make 
the week's events run off smoothly. But these com- 
mittees are in the larger communities ; what of the 
smaller towns up to, say, 10,000 population? 

As Mr. Swope points out, the campaign in the na- 
tional publications will reach people outside the cities 
as well as in. But useful as national advertising is, it 
lacks the vividness of an appeal made by someone 
whom one knows, whose store one passes every day. 
It impresses the reader with the national scope of the 
A. E. W. movement, but that impression, not backed 
up by local publicity, is likely to convey also the idea 
that the electrical way may be less suited for the 
small townsman than for his city brother. It is strict- 
ly up to the home contractor and dealer to. show their 
customers how electricity will help in the daily home 
tasks. 

There is no class of electrical men who do less gen- 
eral sales promotion work than the two we have men- 
tioned. The reasons for this are two — lack of imagina- 
tion, and lack of time. Practical men are accustomed 
to handling practical problems of which the elements 
are physical quantities, or the articles themselves. 
W hen it comes to planning a demonstration which will 
appeal to the public, those in charge must know how to 
attract and hold interest, how to "get their message 
across" — feats at which even the cleverest men some- 
times fail. Yet the problem of reaching the people of 
a small town is by no means difficult of solution. As 
there are few distractions, an audience is not difficult 
to get, especially if the sponsorship of some well- 
known church or charitable organizations backs up an 
electrical show given for its benefit. One of the publi- 
cations of the Society for Electrical Development in- 
stances a show given in an empty store-room at a cash 
outlay of $50 which resulted in more than $300 worth 
of sales. Careful study of this and other booklets 
which will be furnished free on application will supply 
ideas which can be elaborated in conference with news- 
paper men, leading merchants, and central-station 
representatives. The idea to keep in the foreground is 
that all is being done to help the community by means 
of improved (electrical) methods; then the project has 
;i dignity above that of a mere sales campaign for elec- 
trical goods. 



Lack of time on the part of electrical men is a handi- 
cap which must be overcome also. Sometimes this is 
a mere excuse, but too often it is quite real, and is a 
symptom of one of the most common ills of the trade. 
Nine times out of ten when an electrical man pleads 
"too busy" it means that he is rushed to death doing 
actual wiring and installation. We need not dwell on 
the evil of this situation, in which the head of a busi- 
ness is occupying himself so much with purely me- 
chanical labor that he has no opportunity to plan 
ahead. In the case of America's Electrical Week we 
strongly urge all such men to delegate as much re- 
sponsibility as possible to their men and let go every- 
thing possible in order to contribute somewhat of their 
time and energy to the campaign. As Mr. Swope 
points out, this will lay up a store of good will and 

prestige which will be valuable for all-time. 

* ♦ ♦ 

It is one of the curious anomalies of industrial life 
that as soon as a man enters an organization his formal 
training for advancement ceases. Every worker has 
had the advantage of school training in some degree, 
but whether this has ended at the age of sixteen or of 
twenty-six, he is usually done with instruction when 
the school doors close behind him. There are, to be 
sure, night and continuation schools in some cases 
run by the employer. All of these, however, teach men 
that formal book-knowledge which though desirable is 
far from sufficient. It is in the broader field of human 
relationships that success is won or lost. 

"The proper study of mankind is Man," and no- 
where is this more true than in modern industry, where 
the interrelations between man and man are intricate. 
The necessity for co-operation has developed a human 
machine more delicate and complex than any product 
of the inventor's brain. Even a small organization will 
require much tact, judgment, and firmness to keep 
things moving smoothly. Yet only in rare cases is 
formal training given to its members in the methods 
of management. It is left to each employee to pick up 
as best he can the rules of the game and show in his 
daily work the ability to handle larger units. 

The evils of this most unsystematic "system" are 
often evident. While men of exceptional ability come 
to the front, the powers of less capable men, being un- 
discovered, remain undeveloped and unused. For every 
$10,000 man, there are a score of others who with prop- 
er training could fill ably those jobs a little above the 
rank and file which arc the constant worry of the ex- 
ecutive. To be sure he can get someone to sit at 
the desk and draw the salary, but he never knows when 



36 



ELECTRICAL AGE 



October, 1916 



some bit of "big-head" insolence, some "morning after ' 
grouch may set the whole section on edge. Nervous, 
harassed employees are capable of any mistake whose 
consequences may be most serious. 

A second bad but to be expected result hampers the 
growth of the organization. Vacancies occur continu- 
ally and often unexpectedly. If no one has been train- 
ed in readiness, the position must be filled by an un- 
tried man under just the circumstances of unfamiliar- 
ity, half-suspicion by subordinates and, more than like- 
ly, a heavy overload, which would try a seasoned veter- 
an to the breaking-point. The man higher up has before 
him the alternative of taking this risk or adding the 

responsibility to his own burden. Hence opportunities 
for excursions into new business fields, of accepting 
chance-brought contracts, of enlarging facilities at a:i 
opportune moment, are passed by because there is no 
one available with knowledge of the organization and 
its methods to take the responsibility of seeing the 
project through. 

As far as the organization is concerned, failure to 
train for leadership is one of the most serious but 
least suspected causes of the present industrial unrest. 
A generation ago, men were willing to endure hard- 
ships, to work at monotonous tasks, for the hope of 
independence ahead. Nowadays workers realizing 
that they must remain employees all their lives, are de- 
termined to make their lot as happy as possible oy 
wresting every concession from their employers. With 
their underlying sentiments we are in hearty accord. 
Employers must realize that modern industrial meth- 
ods have deprived workers of much of the individuality 
which is so precious to all mankind. As compensation 
the industry should (as its increased efficiency can well 
afford), pay the employees enough and give them 
hours short enough to allow them to live their real 
lives outside the factory walls. 

But higher pay and shorter hours are not all. Which 
of us can forget the thrill with which we issued our 
first order to our first "gang?" or that more sober joy 
with which we watched the wheels of our little or- 
ganization turning smoothly? There is a pleasure and 
a satisfaction in leadership which is the greatest re- 
ward to the true leader, and to which few fail to re- 
spond. Napoleon explained the prowess of his army 
by saying that each man carried in his knapsack a 
marshal's baton. Of course they knew that most of 
them could never reach that eminence, but they also 
knew that each man could certainly reach whatever 
post he was fitted for and that his superiors were al- 
ways "trying him out" for advancement. 'In the same 
way the executive who realizes this fundamental of 
human nature will make it clear to even the humblest 
workman that the road to promotion is always open, 
that certain personal and intellectual qualities are 
necessary, and that it is well to be prepared for the try- 
out in a higher position which will surely come. 

As to the actual machinery which applies such a 
scheme, we cannot go into detail here. By one system 



each man considers himself to act in three capacities : 
To fill his own job, to train the man below to fill it ; 
and to learn the duties of the man above. By another, 
men are shifted into other jobs temporarily during 
vacation- or sickness-leave of the regular incumbent. 
We hope to present some information in a future issue 
on this subject, which will give details of some actual 
plans. It has been well said that the executive must 
be first of all, a teacher of men. He must teach them 
to do their own work better, to do new kinds of work, 
to fulfil the duties of a more advanced position. 
Breadth of vision, cool judgment, leisure to think and 
plan are essential. No less desirable are these quali- 
ties to his subordinate, who must train the man under 
them. The wise executive will develop the first, train 
the second, and plan for the third, nor will he allow 
mistaken consideration for the self-conceit of an as- 
sociate to check the tactful words of personal coun- 
sel which often may prevent serious error. 



On Page 45 of this issue is a new 
section, "Short Cuts and Minor Meth- 
ods," which is intended as a bulletin of 
ways our readers have found for solv- 
ing construction problems. We hope 
that anyone who has hit upon a method 
which has saved him time or made him 
money will share it with his fellow 
readers. There is money in a new 
idea; read the first contributions over 
and see what you can tell "the boys" 
in November. 



T&e Tar©mM® Man 

Where danger lurks on the high flung wire 

Man's harried care to bilk. 
Where the copper spills its spiteful fire 

With a sound like tearing silk, 
When night is wild with its whipping rain 

And loud with thunder roll, 
While his weight bears down on his spur points slim 

A-top the trembling pole. 

Since man asks light with his bed and board 

And twists a key thereat, 
Since power must answer its constant lord 

At the arm of a rheostat, 
On a motor-cycle across each night, 

Spring 'soft or winter keen, 
By the still ranked windows that careless sleep 
He must ride the press of his need to keep 

His lines and record clean. 

He serves as the blithe old knights and true 

Served boldly in their pride; 
When the call comes in for hands to do 

It is his to mount and ride; 
It is his to mount to the cross-arms high 

Through moonlight pale, or murk ; 
And he does not boast that his task comes first 
But he flaunts in the ruck of best and worst 

The gage of Daily Work ! 

— Charles Campbell Jones. 



RSIIIIIIllIl 









WlM 



ration 
anon 



J^ Uiss'DS'fL ©2 l3sg©s§i2\flS PsiKgticg® saadl J&sftm&H El2gp<s2'i®Eaces @f Practical Men. 






i^gj'h'twi' 



"THe electrically equipped automobile has come to be the regular 
*■ product and it is only the exceptional machine that does not 
have auxiliary devices for starting, lighting and charging the 
battery, which is the heart of all systems. Though the use oi 
electric lighting is practically universal, it is not unusual to 
find that the lamps are being wrongly used or that they are 
not giving as good effects as might be attained by devoting a 
small amount of attention to adjusting them correctly. 

Lamps for Electrically-Propelled Vehicles 
Automobile lamps are made for four distinct battery systems. 
One of these systems is included in general by the electrically 
propelled vehicles and is entirely apart from the other three, 
which are used on cars driven by internal combustion motors. 
Lamps for use on electric automobiles range from about 25 to 
go volts and have the general construction which characterizes 
large lamps for multiple circuits. The length of filament is 
great, hence it is coiled and mounted in a series of loops placed 
as closely together as practicable. Lamps of the type mentioned 
can be used in parabolic reflections with very good results, but 
the area of the light source is larger than in lamps of lower 
voltage, thus causing the beam of light to spread more than is 
desirable. If the beam from a parabolic reflector spreads so 
that the rays reach the eyes of those in front of the machine, 
it produces the effect known as glare and does not meet the re- 
quirements of the anti-glare laws which have been passed in 
many States. The redeeming features of the situation are that 
these electric vehicle lamps cannot be made at the high intrinsic 
brilliancies which characterize the low volt head lamps and 
that electric vehicles ordinarly use decorative lanterns in place 
•of parabolic reflectors when being operated in congested 
districts. 

Lighting Conditions of Gasoline Cars 
Automobiles driven by internal combustion engines and using 
a battery to supply electrical energy only for starting, lighting 
and perhaps ignition, require lamps rated at six to eight volts, 
12 to 16 volts, or 18 to 24 volts. The lamps which are made for 
the six to eight volt group are more rugged than the others and 
have the filament more closely concentrated. The greater num- 
ber of starting and lighting systems use either a three-cell bat- 
tery or a six-cell battery. In both cases the battery floats on the 
line and is charged by a dynamo while the car is running. The 
-ix-cell system in general has the battery divided into two groups 
■of three cells, each group connected in parallel to the lighting 
circuit and charging dynamo. The cells are connected in series 
only when operating the starting motor and hence the lamps and 
lighting are the same as for a three-cell system. 

Some starting systems require nine or twelve storage cells 
for their operation. The twelve-cell systems are connected so 
that the lighting circuit is supplied from the two halves of the 
battery in parallel, thus calling for lamps rated at 12 to 16 volts, 
■while the nine-cell system requires lamps designed for 18 to 



24 volts. Lamps for use on a circuit supplied from six storage 
cells in series may be made up without a supporting anchor for 
the filament. Longer filaments must be mounted with one or 
more anchors. These higher voltage lamps cannot be focused as 
accurately as those of the six to eight volt group, because of the 
greater length of the coil. The filaments which give the best re- 
sults in a parabolic reflector are arranged in a narrow V or, for 
lamps of less than six volts, in a short spiral along the axis ot 
the lamp. By keeping the filament within a space of one-eighth 
inch each way a strong well defined beam of light can be pro- 
duced. With a light source of comparatively large area the 
beam spreads because only one point of the source it at the focal 
point of the parabolic. All elements of the filament not at the 
focal' point cause either converging or diverging rays from the 
reflector. The converging rays cross a short distance in front 
of the headlight and then become divergent. In both cases, 
therefore, the area of the light source determines the spread 
of the beam of a carefully focused lamp. If ordinary care is 
not used in focusing it is possible to get better results with a 
lamp having a large space occupied by filament, as some point 
of the source will then probably come at the focal point. 

Good Driving Light Without Glare 

Much has been said during the past year about the dangei 
and annoyance caused by glaring headlights on automobiles. 
Laws have been enacter in a number of States covering this sub- 
ject, much to the mystification both of police and car owners. 
To add to the confusion the market has been flooded with 
various devices, each guaranteed to give perfect driving light and 
eliminate the glare. The agitation seems to have reached every- 
body concerned except the majority of automobile manufactur- 
ers, who apparently feel that the problem does not in any way 
belong to them. 

The essential conditions for obtaining a good driving light and 
reducing to a minimum the glare which blinds the other fellow 
are as follows, (a) Tilt the headlights slightly downward so 
that when the car is standing on the level the center of the beam 
strikes the roadway 75 to 100 feet ahead. Car manufactures 
can be of great help in the campaign for reducing glare by 
making this adjustment when the car is being assembled, 
(b) Frost or lacquer the lamp bulbs from the tip back to with- 
in about y& inch of the base, (c) Carefully adjust the lamp 
to make the beam of light as narrow as possible. If these con- 
ditions are complied with, the result will be a strong beam of 
high intensity directed onto the roadway at the point where the 
driver needs most light. As the beam is directed slightly down- 
ward the intense rays will be below the eye level of pedestrians 
and drivers of approaching cars who will not be annoyed or 
blinded. Since the front part of the lamp bulb is frosted or 
coated the direct rays of light from the filament cannot reach 
the eyes of those ahead of the car and, in addition, a well diffus- 



38 



R L K C T R I C A L A C K 



October, 1916 



ed light near the front of the car is obtained, which illuminates 
the sides and the roadway, so that objects once discerned by 
the aid of the powerful beam are not lost sight of as the car 
approaches. It must be kept in mind, however, that the correct 
focusing of the lamp is an essential element in getting good 
results. 

Devices for Preventing Glare 

Some devices for eliminating glare either diffuse or entirely 
cut off the light from one-half of the parabolic reflector. Usual- 
ly a metal clip or a specially frosted bulb is used to keep the 
direct rays from the filament away from the lower part of the 
reflector. In this case only the upper half of the reflector pro- 
duces the driving beam and this may or may not cause 
glare, depending upon how the lamp is focused. If the filament 
is placed slightly ahead of the focal point the rays reflected 
from the upper part of the parabola will be directed downward 
and the beam will strike the ground at some distance ahead of 
the car. However, if the filament is placed slightly back of the 
focal point the beam reflected from the upper part of the para- 
bola will be directed upward and the result is as bad, or worse, 
than if no attempt had been made to reduce the glare. If the 
filament is behind the focal point then the lower half of the re- 
flector must be used to direct the beam downward. 

Prismatic glasses are used to reduce the glare and they are 
fairly effective. The principal defect seems to be too great a re- 
duction in the intensity of the beam. No device which has yet 
been developed can prevent the beam of light rising into the air 
when the car is just coming over the brow of a hill. Also, in 
turning corners the beam sweeps around, giving light on the 
surrounding scenery instead of ahead of the wheels, where it is 
needed. Each driver should realize that under some conditions 
of roadway and traffic the intense light from his headlamps may 
annoy and disconcert another driver or a pedestrian and hence 
he should be as glad to offer as to receive the courtesy of dim- 
med lights. 

By M. M. Samuels 

It is often necessary to install manholes in conduit runs of 
power house, either to facilitate pulling or to allow for splicing 
or interchanging of cables. These manholes are altogether dif- 
ferent in their character from street manholes and it will hard- 
ly be possible to use a standard street manhole cover or frame. 
A power house manhole will as a rule not be very deep, especial-" 
ly in hydroelectric stations where it is necessary to reduce the 
depth of conduit below the floor as much as possible, since every 
inch of depth taken up by conduits will cause the lowering of 
hydraulic apparatus and an added amount of expensive concrete 
construction. 

The type of manhole cover generally used in recent years is 
shown in Fig. 4. An angle frame is set in the concrete and held 




o'.V '■■'.■?'■•'■' ■'■■'\ " v 






ijl 



Reinforcing 



Malleable 
Iron Pipe 
Coupling 
Rg. ?r Sockef for Lifting 
Cover 

by means of a chor bolts. A strap-iron having the same thick- 
ness as the cover plate is rivetted to the curb angle to prevent 
chipping out the concrete edges when placing or removing the 
cover which generally consists of a ^ inch or y 2 inch standard 
checkered steel plate. 

„ This construction is satis- 

10 factory when there' are only 

one or two manholes in the 
floor, or when the covers 
are not exposed to view. 
However, when it becomes 
necessary to install a great 
number of manholes, steel 
covers will give the whole 
power house a very bad ap- 
pearance, and in recent 
years engineers are devot- 
ing more and more atten- 
tion to appearance in pow- 
er house construction. In 



< 



VS> 



1. 



<■ 



J" Pipe 



tN4 



Ficj.3.- Handle for Lifting 
Cover 

such cases concrete manhole covers will be used, such 
as shown in Fig. 1. A curb angle is set in the concrete 
with the opening facing upwards, and no anchor bolts are 
needed. The depth required by this angle is not more and in 
most cases will be less than the depth required by the curb angle 
for a steel cover. The cover itself is made up of a square angle 
iron frame which can be rivetted together in the shop and ship- 
ped completed. A sheet of wire mesh reinforcing is bolted or 
rivetted to the angle by means of a strap-iron, and a suitable 
mixture of concrete is then poured into the frame and finished 
according to requirements of the floor finish. Two pipe coup- 
lings are inserted in the cover as shown in Fig. 2 by means o£ 

Floor Line xStrap riveHed to Curb Angle 



Floor 
Line J 



?\k 



<- Clearance .■ 



14 x I -% x ^ L (Cover rrame) ■■'■.-. .••'■•> V-^p^p-V 



■vi L.11 ic y. -y- - - -. - - J 




.j.y.A .■■■•) Wire Ffesb \ 
i/-V-^ „ a° -X'Pe/n force- \ 



'."'.'•'. '• Anchor. ■'"■".'•:'.-*% 
':}:.5olr:^l 



Sieel Cover Plale 

Curb Angle 
Clear Opening 



<- 



ig.4. 



Angle '•;> 



t 



,u-. 



vy-> 
.0 '.'•.<- 



.0 



V 2 5olf3"ChC 



'" l"x%'3ar 



Clear Opening 



Fig. I. -Detail of Cover and Curb Angle 



which the cover can be lifted with handles made up of standard! 
pipe, such as shown in Fig. 3 

For large areas the cover should be made in sections, the limit- 
ing features being the weight. No cover should weigh more than 
150-200 lbs. 

Covers such as shown here were used by the J. G. White En- 
gineering Corporation in the Ocoee Power House described ira 
the August issue of this magazine. 



October, ioio 



ELECTRICAL AGE 



'; 



W©£lii ? s liETijsst LSlsg-^a© HBalk© 

So far as is known, the first brand of bread to be put on 
the market which will be extensively advertised as being 
baked electrically, has made its appearance in Salt Lake City. 
The Xew Vienna Baking Company of that city announced 
this new product during the recent convention of the Nation- 
al Association of Master Bakers in session in the Utah city. 
The company does an exclusive wholesale business, its entire 
product being sold through retail dealers. 

Full-page advertisements in the Salt Lake City papers, 
while the baker's convention was in session attracted much 
attention, and practically every baker in attendance at one 
time or another, visited this new installation. The owners 
have a thoroughly modern bakery throughout, including in- 
dividually motor driven mixers, dividers, rounders and elec- 
trically heated wrapping and sealing machines. When the 
new "Butter-Krust" bread was announced during convention 
week, it sprang into instant popularity. The day following 
the publication of a full page advertisement which appeared in 
the Salt Lake papers, the demand for Butter-Krust bread in- 
creased from 10,000 to 18,000 loaves in one day. 




The Oven in Action. 

Dimensions of the Oven 

The electric oven used is one of the largest ever installed, 
and is the Hughes standard type No. 415. The main body 
of the oven measures 4 ft. high, 10 ft. wide and 12 ft. deep 
It rests on an angle-iron frame 27 in. high. It is divided 
into four chambers each 56 in. by 34 in., by 16 in. high, which 
provides a baking surface of 208 sq. ft. The oven has a 
capacity of 836 12-oz. loaves or 456 25-oz. loaves of bread. 
The oven is divided in the center by a partition with two 
baking compartments on each side, one above the other. All 
compartments have Ij4~in. tile floors. The customary steam 
connection is provided for each. Each half of the oven has 
three heating units: One in the top of the upper compart- 
ment, one in the top of the lower compartment, and one 
directly under the floor of the bottom compartment. With 
this arrangement, heat is provided for the top and bottom 
of each baking chamber. Each compartment has a mercury 
thermometer and inside lights. 

Electrical Characteristics 
The heating units are made up of resistance wire wound 
on insulated rods. These rods are mounted in an angle-iron 
frame, which may be slipped in and out of the oven for in- 
spection and repairs. Each unit is divided into three sec- 
tions, and each section has three heats controlled by "three- 
heat" switches which arc located near the center of the oven 
in front and within easy reach of the operator. 



The oven is wired for 220-volt, two-phase, service. It t; 
a maximum of 75 k.w., and averages 48 per rent, of tin 
mand baking sixteen hours per day and 55 per cent, on eight 
hours' baking per day. When making >^-lb. loaves, it re- 
quires forty-five minutes to load the oven, bake the bread 
and take out the finished product. On this schedule 25,000 
54-lb. loaves could be baked in twenty-four hours' continuous 
baking. 

Advantages of Electrical Heat 

A talk with the manager and with the head baker brought 
out the fact that both are very enthusiastic over electric 
baking. While they state that the bare cost for electricity 
is some higher than the cost of coal, they point out that when 
one considers the many advantages of the electric oven, not 
the least of which is the entire absence of the dirt, dust and 
smoke which inevitably go with the old brick oven, and the 
saving in space, the higher cost for fuel is much more than 
offsetr 

Some of the following points in favor of electric baking 
are familiar to electrical-cooking "fans," but they are none 
the less worth emphasizing: 

Simplicity of operation: By turning the switch the de- 
sired heat is quickly obtained. No fuel to buy, store nor 
bother with. No ashes to be continually taken out. No 
keeping the fire "going" all night for early morning baking. 

Ease of control: The entire oven is under absolute con- 
trol at all times through the medium of its three-heat switch- 
es. A baking temperature is reached within a very short 
time. Any desired temperature is quickly obtained by the 
proper operation of the switch. This feature helps greatly 
in securing satisfactory results. 

Perfect heat distribution: The heat comes from coils of 
resistance wire wound on asbestos tubes which are mounted 
between the decks. The front part of the oven is just a little 
hotter, than the back part, to allow for loss of heat when 
doors are opened. Also, the elements are graduated as to 
heat production, the lower element being the hottest. This 
allows for the gradual rise of heat to the top of the oven. 
Thus the distribution is virtually perfect. 

Better results in baking: Because electric heat is always 
constant and uniform and its application in the electric oven 
is just where it is needed, more healthful and more evenly 
browned bread, cakes and pastries, etc., are invariably the 
result. Moreover, the food is not contaminated by the dirt 
and poisonous fumes, and bread especially, retains more mois- 
ture than when baked in a brick oven — therefore keeping its 
freshness longer. 

Utilization of all heat generated: The electricity never 
need be on — and burning up money — except when the oven 
is being used. Very little heat escapes from an electric oven 
because the walls are heavily insulated. Virtually every unit 
of heat generated and paid for is used. 

Cleanliness and sanitation: Electric heat gives off no 
poisonous gases to contaminate the food. There is no dust 
and dirt which is always found in brick ovens. There are no 
coal nor coke boxes near; no fires to attend — all of which 
makes for the most sanitary conditions. 

Great saving in floor space; and new building costs: The 
electric oven occupies approximately one-fourth to one-half 
as much space as the ordinary brick ovens. Furthermore, no 
large space in front of the oven is necessary for the manipu- 
lation of the peel. The floor space of coal and coke storage 
bins is also eliminated. Owing to the light weight of the 
electric oven, no special construction is necessary when 
building a new bakery. 

+ * * 

For the purpose of enlarging the municipal plant at Cleve- 
land, Ohio, to furnish power to the Cleveland Railway Com- 
pany, a bond issue of $1,750,000 will be submitted to the vot- 
ers at the Fall elections. 






4Q 



L L 



)@Mwairf ©fl ijhtm 



y?/ 



E C T R I 



C A L AGE 



October. iqi6 



Throughout the East Pittsburgh Works of the Westinghouse 
Electric & Mfg. Co., interdepartment mail is now delivered and 
collected by means of electric trucks. As will be seen from the 
illustration, the superstructure of the truck is divided into pock- 
ets similar to those used on railway postal cars, the chassis being 
of a standard type. While much of the mail was handled by 
pneumatic tubes, the more bulky pieces were carried by mes- 
sengers to a central point from whense they were distributed. 
By means of these trucks it is possible to deliver much of the 
mail picked. up without carrying it to the mail room, making a 




Rear View of Truck 

saving in time of 50 per cent. The arrangement of the works 
is particularly adapted to this service, as there are in general 
but two levels and practically the whole area is under one roof. 

At the present time the mail trucks are averaging six trips 
per day and the time for covering each route varies from 60 to 
95 minutes, depending upon the condition of the aisles and the 
amount of mail handled. 

Each truck carries a total of 80 compartments the size of which 
are 31^ inches wide, 10 inches high and 12 inches deep, and also 
a shelf on the front about 18 inches deep and 24 inches wide 
which is used as a sorting table. Mail is sorted while in transit 
and delivered direct to each department instead of returning to 
one central sorting point as heretofore. 

Adjustable wooden labels are added to the compartments 
which are alphabetically arranged and changes in the same may 
easily be made. Compartments are open at both ends and a 
screen door having large wire mesh and spring hinges is attach- 
ed to the outside of the compartment to prevent mail from being 
lost. 

Each .truck has a driver and clerk both of whom assist in the 
handling of mail so as to reduce the time for covering the route 
to a minimum. 



cL@€@Hl@fiW^g f®E" 22@®SS© 1I : 'l!llE€l 
The Hoosac tunnel of the Boston & Maine Railroad is the 
largest electrified tunnel in America. The work of digging the 
tunnel was started in 1851 and completed in time for the first 
steam train to pass through on February 9, 1875. It is 25,081 
feet long and is double tracked throughout. Until its electrifi- 
cation in 191 1 it was always an obstructing feature to the traffic 
of this railroad, tinder steam operation the entire tunnel was 
a block, only one train at a time being allowed to pass through. 
Under electric operation several trains are permitted in the tun- 
nel.. The electrification, which is of the Westinghouse single 

phase system, has been entire- 
ly successful in operation, prov- 
en by the ease with which the 
heavy freight traffic of the road 
has been handled. Freight 
trains are no longer packed 
three or four deep at each portal 
waiting for a chance to get 
through. 

As many as 77 trains a day 
pass through the tunnel and 
regularly 71 trains pass through 
every 24 hours. Of these about 
17 are passenger trains, the re- 
mainder freight. Up to the 
present time the entire traffic 
through this tunnel has been 
handled by five Baldwin-West- 
inghouse, 130-ton, 11,000 volts, single phase electric lo- 
comotives. Traffic, however, has been increased to such an 
extent that it has become necessary to supplement the present 
equipment. Due to the great success achieved by the electric 
locomotives already in service the Boston & Maine have placed 
an order with the Westinghouse Electric & Mfg. Company of 
East Pittsburg, Pa., for two additional 130-ton Baldwin-Westing- 
house electric locomotives similar to the five now operating, 
of which the one illustrated is typical. * 

The locomotives have but one cab, with two articulated trucks, 
each truck consisting of two pairs of 63-inch drivers and a pair 
of pony wheels 442 inches in diameter. Each locomotive has 
four, 375 horsepower, Westinghouse, single phase motors of the 
series cbmmutating type, with short circuiting auxiliary field 
windings. The gears on the locomotives are of the flexible type, 
which minimize vibration and prevent any strains or shocks on the 
teeth of the gears, also aiding the motors to start under ver/ 
heavy loads. 

In electrifying this system the crossing of the 600-volt ii.ies of 
the city railway by the 11,000-volt single catenary construction 
of the Boston & Maine was accomplished. This was one of the 
many interesting engineering features encountered in the instal- 
lation of the overhead construction, all of which was furnished 
by the Westinghouse Company. 




The Tunnel Portal 



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The how and why 
of generation, trans- 
mission, installation 

construction. 



tLm.iL ^mw, i w<Bi£m asKfl ]Pra<ettil<esiIL Bitecmissiong ®S Trade Affairs 



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52 



Vy HI, IL ©©ssesms, Jr* 



When an individual generating station was operated as a 
single unit, the switchboard operator knew approximately the 
load carried on each feeder. Where this condition prevailed, the 
ammeters served the purpose of but indicating the presence of the 
load on the circuit. Little or no attention was paid to the mag- 
nitude of the deflection and as a consequence not much attention 
was paid to maintaining accuracy. 

With the advent of the load dispatching system in connection 
with the parallel operation of generating stations, the need of ac- 
curate ammeters with which to determine load conditions is 
readily apparent. This condition has brought about the periodic 
testing of ammeters and in large companies much stress is laid 
on the importance of this class of work. 

The accuracy which can be expected of the indicating instru- 
ment is not- as great as that which is demanded of an integrat- 
ing meter. Experience has revealed that the average operator 
rarely reads between the scale divisions particularly on the feed- 



DATE: 
STATION 
ALTERNATING CURRENT AMMETER 

Serial No. Type. Form. 

Manufacturer Scale Range 

Current Transformer Ratio Panel No. 

ON CIRCUIT: 



Standard Switchboard 

As Cor- True Meter 

Read rected Amps. Reading 



Error 



% 
Accu- 
racy. 



usually placed in the hands of a testing department supported by 
the company. The work naturally falls into two classes, periodic 
or routine inspection of the instruments and special work done 
when complaints are received that the instrument is out of order. 
The first class or routine work is done by two men who are 
travelling from station to station. This work must of necessity 
be done quite rapidly so that the work has been highly systema- 
tized and is done at a low cost per instrument The men are 



/n meter on 
Switchboard 



b=r 



Test 

Leads- 

<=/t.:- 



"7u 



Short Circuit 
Switch 



Standard 
Ammeter ■■ 



CZZJ 



J — Lull 



Slide Wire 
Resistance 



I/O Volt 
Source 



Load 
Box 



l_i i Current 

4 L Transformer 



Line 



Fig. 2. Test Connections for a. c. Instruments 



Cover Removed. 
Meter Cleaned. 
Meter Adjusted. 
Remarks as to Condition. 



Fig. i. Form of Test Sheet. 

er ammeters. On the other hand the ammeters located on the 
important transmission lines and on the generators should re- 
ceive some attention and should possess a high commercial ac- 
curacy. 

fn the large operating compaines, the work of maintaining 
the accuracy of indicating instruments on the switchboards is 



equipped with tools adapted for instrument repairs and carry 
spare parts for all types of instruments. These supplies together 
with the standard instruments against which the switchboard in- 
struments are calibrated, are packed in special felt lined trunks 
so as to be easily transported by express or automobile. In case 
an instrument is in need of extensive repairs, the routine testers 
merely replace it with another from stock and the defective in- 
strument is returned to the shop for repairs. 

The men who answer the complaint calls can, usually by means 
of office records, determine the type of instrument and need only 
carry such tools as will be necessary for repairs to such types. 
This greatly reduces the amount of equipment to be carried. 

The question often arises as to the feasibility of permitting 
station electricians and operators to do the testing and repair- 
ing of instruments. The advantages of such practice are that the 



4^ 



i: L [•; C T R I C A L AGE 



October, iqt6 



work would be promptly attended to and at a low cost since there 
would be no transportation charges. On the other hand the 
work when done by a laboratory or testing department is done 
by trained specialists who are men who have served in instr- 
ment factories. It is an advantage to have the standard instru- 
ments located in one department where they may be frequently 
checked. The facility for ordering and keeping spare parts in 
stock is another advantage gained by the establishment of a 
central testing bureau. 

The work if undertaken by the station operators will never re- 
sult in the assurance that it will be done correctly as is shown by 
the following illustration. 

Cases frequently arise in which a rotary flashes over or a surge 
occurs on the feeder causing the ammeter pointer to jump over 
the stop at the end of the scale. When the operator notices this 
he often removes the instrument cover and pushes the pointer 
back to zero mark. As the instrument is of more or less delicate 
nature, this operator may have changed the balance of the in- 
strument by roughly handling the pointer. Often through fear 
of breaking the pointer the operator fails to straighten it thereby 
affecting the accuracy of the meter. 

Where astatic-type ammeters are used on direct current cir- 
cuits the pointers are placed on zero when no load is on the 
circuit and when the magnet in the ammeter is energized by the 
load the pointer advances in error resulting in a wrong indica- 
tion. The "fixing" of instruments by those unaccustomed to this 
work will often introduce friction into the instrument and result 
in mechanical and electrical troubles. 

While numerous schemes are in use for making tests on am- 
meters the following are quoted as being representative. Where 
the ammeter is to be checked at a few points on the scale a 
re .tine test the following method may be used. 

Ammeter on 
Switchboard 



yj 



Shunt- 



B 



Zf 



X* 1 

Shunt Leads 
D'scoinectea" 



r 



Slide Wire 
Resistance 



\ r Dry Battery 



Standard 
MilliYoltmeter 



Fid- 3- Test Connections for d. c. Instruments. 

The current transformer is first short-circuited either by the 
use of test clips or by ammeter short circuiting switches now 
usually placed in the ammeter circuit. These switches greatly 
facilitate the work of testing instruments since the switch auto- 
matically short-circuits the series transformer and removes the am- 
meter from the circuit. Without these switches it is necessary 
to trace all the wiring and short-circuit the transformer at the 
terminal block. The wires then had to be removed from the in- 
strument terminals to permit the test clips to be attached. 

It is often difficult to remove the wires from over the terminal 
lugs since switchboard wiring is strung quite tightly. Often the 
wiring becomes disarranged and the general neat appearance of 
the rear of the board is destroyed. With the special switch, the 
test leads may be attached directly to the upper jaws eliminating 
the disadvantage mentioned above. 

The instrument on the switchboard is then placed in series 
with a cluster of lamps and a standard ammeter. If the am- 
meter is not reading at zero the pointer should be adjusted. One 
lamp at a time is placed in the circuit and the reading on each 
instrument is noted. These readinggs should be corrected for 



the standard and then multiplied by the current transformer ratio 
to get the amperes, when the percenage of accuracy is found by 
dividing the reading on the switchboard ammeter by the equival- 
ent reading given by the standard. By this method it is possible 
to connect a whole string of ammeters in series and give them 
a rough check very rapidly. The presence of friction in any one 
instrument will be revealed by removing each lamp from the cir- 
cuit in order and noting if any discrepancy appears in the re- 
sults ; the same readings should be obtained when going both up 
the scale and then back to zero. 

The method of recording the results in conjunction with test- 
ing ammeters in strings has much to do with the rapidity with 
which the testing may be accomplished. Sheets printed up as 
shown in Fig. i are filed in a book. One tester reads off the data 
as required for the top of the sheet. As each lamp is thrown in, 
the other tester takes the book and sets down the readings as 
called out by the man reading the ammeters. The accuracies are 
computed and instruments which need adjustment are marked and 
retested after such adjustments are made. The scheme results 
in few errors and possesses ease and rapidity of recording the 
result and gives an individual sheet for each instrument which 
may be filed for future reference. 

When a more accurate calibration is required, a meter test- 
ing load box and slide wire resistance may be used to advant- 
age. The wiring scheme for this test is shown in Figgure 2. 
The slide wire resistance may be used for both the A. C. and 
D. C. ammeter tests. There are certain classes of feeders which 
have ammeters which require a calibration around some par- 
ticular operating point as for instance street lighting or "tub" 
transformer stations. This test is of value for such conditions. 

On the direct current circuits the ammeters are millivoltmeters 
connected to shunts. The method of testing is somewhat similar 
to the A. C. ammeters. The leads are first removed from the 
shunt and the current is supplied by a dry battery short circuited 
across the slide wire resistance as shown in Figure 3. 

It is necessary to equip the testers with cards giving the drop 
across the shunt in millivolts when the old type shunts are en- 
countered. With the later types the drop is standardized so that 
it may be readily computed by glancing at the ammeter scale. 

* <■ * 

Proper Fitting ©ff €2artb®2i Bisstf®^ 
By H. H. Wikle 

Everyone acquainted with the operation and ' maintenance of 
direct current machinery is also aquainted with carbon brush 
trouble. At the beginning of the electrical industry very little 
thought was given the carbon brush ; everything that would 
carry the current from the dynamo to the outside circuit was 
deemed good enough. As the demand for high efficiency elec- 
trical machinery increased, more and more attention was given 
the carbon brush, until to-day the simple carbon block which 
looks so unromantic to the layman, represents the products of the 
minds of the best engineers of the country. Regardless of the 
amount of research and engineering intelligence used in produc- 
ing this highly efficient carbon brush, it is of no avail unless a 
reasonable amount of intelligence is used in its proper operation. 

From time to time various articles have appeared in the tech- 
nical papers emphasizing the importance of a good contact between 
the commutator and brush. Since there is nothing to be said 
to the contrary, it remains to find out the best means of getting 
this good contact, if after all, it is of the first importance. 

It seems to be the universal practice among operators, when 
fitting brushes to a commutator, to slide a piece of sandpaper be- 
tween the brush and commutator in the direction of rotation. 
Fig. 1 is the somewhate exaggerated sketch of a radi al brush 
that has received this treatment. It is touching the commutat- 
or at all points and fulfills all requirements of good surface 
contact. But let us take a look at the position of the brush in the 
holder; it is touching only at the points a and b. Any upward 
thrust caused by an eccentric commutator would be opposed by 
the portion b, c, d, of the brush, and when the brush wears awav 



October, 1916 



ELECTRICAL AGE 



43 



— as brushes will — it cannot move freely in the holder because 
of the portion a, c, f. Consequently, a poor contact is made be- 
tween the brush and commutator with its resultant sparking. 
This binding in the holder at first thought may not seem serious, 
but take an actual case. Suppose the brush holder to be 2 in. 
hisrh and the brush extending 0.5 in. above the holder and 0.125 




Fig. 1. 
in. below. As a rule the brush is made about 0.005 m - smaller 
than the holder to allow a sliding fit. The distance KM = 0.005 
in., Ka = 2.0 in. and KM/Ka = 0.0025. But the angles KaM, 
fae, cbd are equal, therefore ef/ea = 0.0025, or ef = 0.0025 ea 
or, substituting for ea, ef = 0.0025 X 0.5 = 0.00125 in. Similar- 
ly cd = 0.125 x 0.0025 = 0.0003125. That is to say, if a slight 
irregularity on the commutator should force the brush up, in- 
stead of its sliding smoothly in the holder there would be a tend- 
ency for the edge b of the holder to dig into the brush, forming 
a ledge as much as 0.3 mils deep, and similarly when a depres- 
sion allowed to spring to force the brush down, the edge a 
would dig in, forming a ledge which might grow to be 1.25 mils 
deep. It is no wonder that brushes frequently stick in their 
holders, under the rapid blows given by commutator irregular- 
ities, even tho they may feel free enough when moved by hand. 
Xow let us look at a brush under which the sandpaper has 
been pulled against rotation, Fig. 2. We have exactly the same 
condition as in Fig. I, but when the machine is rotated the brush 
will pull away from the holder at the point a, and as it wears 





Fig. 2. Fig. 3. 

away it will assume the position shown in Fig. 3. This is the 
position that saves wear and tear on the commutator and the 
religion of the operator. 

Xow take the case of the "trailing" brush holder, nine opera- 
tors out of ten will say, and they will speak from experience, 
that the brush will tip up and bear only on a point at the heel of 
the brush when the commutator is rotated. This is true if only 
rough sandpaper is used, but if fine sandpaper is used and the 
brush face carefully wiped off to remove all grains of sand, this 
difficulty will be reduced to a minimum. In order to tip up, the 
brush friction must overcome the spring pressure, a theoretical 
impossibility, but a practical fact to a slight extent even with the 
best care in fitting. However, no one has been able to so fit a 
brush that it will start wearing over the entire face at once. The 
"facing" brush holder is easy; pull the sandpaper in the easiest 
possible direction, namely, the direction of bevel. With careful 
sanding it will soon assume a position resting against one side or 
other of the holder, depending upon which is larger, the coeffici- 
ent of friction of the brush of the cosine of the angle. The 
ideal condition would be when the two are equal, a practical im- 
possibility because of the variation of the friction with tempera- 
ture, speed, pressure, humidity, current density, and many other 
fetors. 



A great deal could he said regarding the effect of spring pres- 
sure, current density, commutation and lubricants, upon the suc- 
cessful operation of carbon brushes but such is nut within the 
scope of this article. Suffice to say, too much care cannot be 
given to the brushes, lor a direct current machine is no Strong) 
than its commutating device. 

♦> »> ♦ 

IPrasSatgall ID®sigin amel O'DW^'iTimtlnm. ©2 Di- 
rest Caarjesui EHe©ti©axia , rj2!<siL3 
By Norman G. Meade 
(Continued from September) 
In Part 1 the general details of magnet design and con- 
struction were discussed and in this article the actual cal- 
culations for specific problems are taken up. 

Problem 1. 
Design a short range electromagnet of the type shown in 
Fig. 1, Part 1, which will lift a weight of 100 pounds through 
a distance of one-half inch. This will require a lift of 50 
pounds for each magnet of the pair. The magnet is to be 
operated from a no-volt circuit. 

Solution 
Let the cores, yoke and the armature be made of wrought 
iron and the density of the magnetic circuit be 40,000 lines of 





r~ 


'7 






A 

— ~ j r 


..A?..??.'..,.. 


"~"\ 


k~ - 


E 

13" 














MCB 






<--- 


c 

1" 












•r 








/■ : 


















j 













force a square inch. As shown in Part I the area of the 
core must be 

72,134,000 P 

A = 



B 2 
72,134,000 



X 50 



Then A = 



2.2 sq. in. approximately, 



40,000" 
which corresponds to a diameter of about 1.5 inches. In 
order to allow for magnetic leakage and to be able to use 
standard stock, the diameter of the cores will be made 2 
inches. As a preliminary calculation the coils will be made 
three times the diameter of the core or 6 inches, and the 
length of the coil twice that of the diameter of the coil. The 
yoke and the armature will be made two inches square. The 
dimensions of the various members of the magnetic circuit 
are given in Fig. 1. If the armature is drawn up against the 
poles, the average length of the magnetic circuit will be 2 
(l2-)-l-(-l-)-i3) = 56 inches. 

From Fig. 7 it will be found that for wrought iron with a 
density of 40,000 lines of force per square inch, 10 ampere 
turns per inch of _ magnetic circuit will be required. Then 
the total number of ampere-turns for the iron will be 56 X 
10 = 560. The total length of the air gap is 2 X 0.5 = r 
inch. Then for the air gaps the ampere turns required will be 
B 1 40,000 X 1 

H = = — 12,500 approximately. 

3.192 3.192 

The total number of ampere-turns required will be 12,500 
+ 560 = 13060. For each magnet the ampere-turns will 
therefore be 13060 -5- 2 = 6530. The required size of wire in 
circular mils will be 
12 L H 
A = 



44 



ELECTRICAL AGE 



October, 1916 



Mean length of one turn in feet is found as follows: Cir- 
cumference of core 6.28 inches. Circumference of coil 19.24 
inches. Then the mean length of one turn will be (19.24 4 
6.28) -5- 2 = 12.76 inches or approximately one foot. 
12 X 1 X 6530 

Then A = = 712 circular mils. 

no 

Referring to a copper wire table it will be found that 712 
circular mils corresponds nearest to a No. 21 B. & S. gage 
wire, but as the two magnets are connected in series the re- 
sistance must be halved which will require a No. 18 wire. 
There are 12 inches between magnet heads and by Fig. 4 
it will be seen that there are 19.5 turns to the inch for single 
cotton-covered wire. Then 12 X 19.5 = 234 turns for the 
length of the magnet. The number of layers required will 
be 6530/234 = 28 nearly. From the same table it is found 
that there is allowed 23 layers to the inch. In practice it is 
rarely possible to wind the wire sufficiently perfectly to con- 
form to the mathematical allowance of wire spaces so that 
the preliminary estimate of 6 inches in diameter for the 
coils will not be far from correct. 

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90000 

GSOOO 
30000 

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33000 
soooo 

MOOO 

<+oooo 

■JSOOO 
30000 

esooo 
soooo 

ISOOO 



/QOOO 

sooo 



o 30 too /so &o& 

POUNDS PULL P£f? SO IN. OF COPE 

Fig. 5- 
There are a total of 13,060 turns connected in series on the 
two magnets. The average length per turn is one foot. 
There will be required a total length of 13,060 feet of wire. 
From the wire table it is found that the resistance of No. 18 
copper wire at 50 deg. C is approximately 8 ohms per thou- 
sand feet. Then the total resistance will be 13.060 X 8 = 
.104.48 ohms which will be made 105 to avoid fractions. 

E no 

From Ohm's law I = — = = 1 ohm approximately. 

R 105 
The loss in watts in the coils will be I 2 R — I 2 X 105 = 105. 
The cylindrical area of the coils is determined as follows: 
Outside circumference = 19.24 inches, length 12 inches. 
Then 19.25 X 12 X 2 = 461. 76 = cylindricalmarea of coils. 
Temperature rise = k P -^ A. For open magnets k = 95, 
therefore T = 95 X 105 ,-*- 461 = 21 degrees approximately 
which is well within the safe limits. 

Problem 2 
Design a single open circuit plunger magnet that will lift 
a weight of 50 pounds through a distance of 3 inches. 

Solution 
Figure 5 shows the relation between pounds pull, ampere- 



turns, and air gap, or the maximum distance of the pull. For 
a magnet of the capacity given it will be found from the 
table that 57,500 ampere-turns will be required. The re- 
maining calculations are performed in the same manner as for 
short range magnets. 



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The A. Hanna Coal Company, operating mines in Northern 
Michigan, has equipped its shafts with a signaling system as 
effective as it is novel. 

Confronted with a signaling problem in connection with 
their cage operations the mine officials co-operated with the 
Western Electric Company in the design of a special system 
which operates essentially as follows: At each of the various 
mine levels loud ringing extension bells are installed in pairs, 
each pair consisting of one six inch and one eight inch 
weatherproof type loud ringing gong. In connection with 
these bells, special switches are installed at each level. They 
consist of a telephone switch hook housed in a weatherproof 
cast iron casing. Attached to the switch hook and hanging 
from the casing is a Jong leather strap similar to the well 
known street car strap. Pulling this strap makes contact and 
rings the six inch bells on every level and one in the en- 
gineer's room. When a man has loaded a car and wants it 
hoisted he pulls the leather strap a number of times — the 
number corresponding to a prearranged signal that corre- 
sponds to the operation desired. The bells ringing on each 
level in connection with the engineer's bell serves as a warn- 
ing to the men on the various levels. The six inch bells are 
on one circuit and the eight inch bells on another — the latter 
being rung by the engineer when he is ready to hoist, or as a 
summons. 

The wires of the signaling circuit are used for a telephone 
system with a telephone set in the engineer's cabin and a set 
on every level. The system is simply a magneto party line 
circuit and is used as a means of communication in connection 
with the signaling system, between the various levels and the 
levels and the engineer. 

The company has placed great reliance in its new signal 
system and has taken great precaution to keep it in operation. 
A supplementary circuit has been wired so that if the ring- 
ing current in connection with the system should fail warn- 
ing bells will ring, summoning a repair man. The Hanna 
Coal Company is at a loss to understand how they ever got 
along without the signal system that permits of better and 
quicker work with less hazards. 

• ♦> »:♦ ♦ 

©eiaefaf oi* W@ial®l K@t Fl^k Up 
By E. C. Parham 

Some operators may recall instances where the old two pole 
generators on which copper brushes were used, would be un- 
able to "pick up" their fields : this was partly due to the oxida- 
tion of the brush surfaces ; partly due to the highly glazed con- 
dition of the commutator ; and, no doubt, in isolated cases, to a 
combination of these conditions coupled with the practice of 
starting the engine with the line switch closed. Even under 
otherwise normal conditions a shunt wound generator will build 
its field magnetism much more promptly when the line switch is 
open, because when it is closed, the external circuit, to a cer- 
tain degree, short-circuits the field. On the more modern cor- 
bon brush machines the difficulty sometimes occurs, but it is not 
so likely to obtain because there are many more brushholders 
and the chances of all of the brushes simultaneously making 
poor contact, are more remote. That such a condition is pos- 
sible on a modern 8-pole generator, is illustrated by the follow- 
ing : 

An operator complained that a generator that he had been 
running for years, but which had been equipped with a new com- 
mutator within the last year, was developing a tendency to give 
trouble in "picking up" its field even with no load in the ex- 



October, 191 6 



ELECTRICAL AGE 



45 



ternal circuit. He stated also that if the commutator were 
well sandpapered, the difficulty would disappear but would re- 
appear in about a week. Furthermore, he had discovered ac- 
cidently that the machine could be made to "pick up" as prompt- 
ly as it originally had, by sticking a pinchbar into the center 
of the pulley end of the armature shaft and shoving the arma- 
ture over as far as it would go. 

The trouble proved to be due to slightly high mica, which 
held the brushes off the commutator when the armature was in 
motion. The sandpapering of the commutator would lower the 
surface of the mica sufficiently to give a few days of relief and 
shoving the armature over to one side, would bring the brushes 
onto an unwiped zone of the commutator, where the mica was 
not high. With a straight edge as a guide and with a piece of 
hacksaw blade as a cutting tool, the mica was undercut and 
all trouble thereby eliminated. It might be of interest to note 
that in the case of similar trouble with a motor, the poor con- 
tacts due to the high mica, would so affect the voltage applied 
to the armature as to materiallv decrease the armature speed. 

* * * 



Sxi or£ OnSs aaafl Mam©! Metlhot&s 

Perhaps you've worked out a new way of doing 
this or that, which saves time, money or temper. 
Don't be selfish with it; give the rest of "the boys" a 
chance to profit by your ingenuity. We will pay for 
all contributions accepted for "Short Cuts," and you 
will have the satisfaction of having done somebody 
a good turn. Rough sketches should accompany the 
items when necessary. 

♦> *> «3» 
Reflection as a Guide in Metering 
Cutting mitres in wooden moulding can easily be done with- 
out the aid of a mitre square or a mitre box if the saw blade is 
kept bright. Place the saw across the moulding at approximately 

, .x 

bo* n 




45 degrees, then adjust, by moving the saw blade either to the 
right or left until the reflection of the moulding in the saw blade 
is at right angles to the moulding itself. The saw blade must 
be held vertical. 

Fishing With Two Snakes 
Conduits are sometimes so long that it is almost impossible 
to fish them with one snake, and a long snake has to be pushed 
in as far as possible having a closed loop at its end, which is 



Extra Loop '.si 
of Cord 

Long Snake 
w'th Closed Loop 

then met by a shorter one pushed in from the other end of the 
pipe having an open loop. The two snakes are then pushed in 
and out until such times as they hook together, when the shorter 
snake is kept tight taking up all the slack as the longer one is 
pushed all the way through. 

If the loop on the end of the long snake is wound with strong 
thin cord so as to form a great many closed loons the chances 
of catching the two snakes together is greatly increased. 
Contract Drop at Switch Blades 

It quite often occurs that large knife switches will get hot at 
the contacts or hinges due to the blades not making proper con- 
tact over their entire surface. It is difficult to know when they 
are making good contact by inspection, but if the switch is closed 




locknyt 

" 

ftlH , 

k'Troh . 

* n'/t 



Washers 



Bushing 



».4s Knockout 



■b'toir 



and a volt meter connected across the contacts or hinges the 
reading of the meter will very readily tell when the conditions 
are correct. This reading should read as low as possible, say about 
1-2 volt at the most and if this is not the case a little powdered 
emery and oil applied on the blades and the switch opened and 
closed about a dozen times or so will soon bed the two together. 

K. R. O. 

Conduit Box Bushings 

Often times it is necessary to run a 3-4 inch box in an installa- 
tion into which 1-2 and 3-4 inch pipes have 
to be fastened. The 1-2 inch pipe can be 
made perfectly secure, if two large washers 
are used, one on each side of the box, then 
use the regular locknut and bushing to 
==• fasten. R. T. 

Ground on Two-Wire Branch 

When a ground comes on the "high side" of a branch tapped 
from a three-wire Edison system, it makes a short-circuit due to 
the current flowing from the outer wire through the fault to 
ground, and back into the grounded neutral. I have often clear- 
ed such troubles temporarily by interchanging the branch wires 
at the connection block so that the grounded wire is connected 
to the neutral. The fault can then be repaired at any convenient 
time. W. J. E. 

Replacing Top of Floor PocKet 

When cutting boards for a floor pocket I cut through on an 
angle making the lower side of the piece shorter than the upper. 
Then when this piece is put back it will rest firmly without brac- 
ing the floor. Before replacing the piece, however, nail a thin 
piece of wood or cardboad over the cut to make up for the thick- 
ness of the wood destroyed by the saw-blade in cutting out. 
The board can now be replaced and will lay flush with the other 
part of the floor. R. T. 

Fishing Above Furred Ceiling 

Fishing around corners in finished house work many times 
saves a great deal of labor and material. Fig 1 shows the floor 
plan of the second story of a residence recently wired by me 
where I used this method. The building was brick, lath and 



( n ~) Outlet 



Outlet- 
J^ Floor Ceiling 

Pocket 



Snake D 




JVLIIC 
Second Floor :cc 

ing 



, Snake C 




Fife- 1- 



plaster partitions, ceilings furred, (Fig. 2) floor completely cov- 
ered with carpet which I was not allowed to take up. 

A pocket was cut at A and B and a snake from one to the 
other, the outlet to be wired was the hall light on the first floor, 
no pocket was taken up here on account of the carpet so the 
fishing was done from the ceiling of the first floor. A snake was 
passed this point with an open hook to catch the one fished from 
A to B. When snake D caught snake C it was pulled toward 
the outlet, the end B of snake C after a third snake E attached 
to it was let loose and eventually reached the outlet. A fairly 
large loop was now placed on the end of snake E through which 
snake C was passed when the ends of snake C were held and 
snake E pulled back as far as it would come. The BX was now 
attached to end A of snake C and pulled toward BX from being 



4 6 



ELECTRICAL AGE 



October, 1916 



caught in the corner of the beam and the furring strip opposite 
the outlet, Fig. 2. Fig. 3 shows the position of the snakes when 




Lath ••, Corner where 
dX mau catch 

all is ready for pulling the BX through, 
from the hall bracket on the second floor. 



The outlet was fed 
F. J. C. 



Questions imcfil J^sasweffg 

We invite our readers to send us questions on 
technical or commercial problems which have arisen 
in actual practice. All will receive replies, either by 
letter or through the "Questions and Answers" Col- 
umn. 

Replies to questions asked are particularly de- 
sired from our readers. For all replies printed we 
will extend the contributor's subscription for one 
year, or send the paper to any address he may desig- 
nate. Where the circumstances justify it, we will pay 
for answers at regular space rates. 



A Trolley Line Network 

Q. A 9-mile trolley line with generator station at one 
end has two feeders. One of No. 0000 soft copper wire extends 
from generator 6 miles along trolley and is tied to trolley every 
2 miles. The other of hard drawn copper, 8 X io 6 C. M. in 
cross section extends from generator along the trolley for 3 
miles and is tied to trolley at the end only. There are 3 cars on 
line, distributed as follows, car I, 3 miles from generator sta~ 
tion, takes 100 amps., car II, 5 miles from station, takes 50 amps., 
car III, 7 miles from station, takes 40 amps. Trolley wire is 
No. o hard drawn copper. Track resistance is .03 ohm per mile, 
generator voltage is 580 volts, (a) What is voltage across each 
car. (b) What is efficiency of transmission, (c) If trolley wire 
breaks between generator and place where No. 0000 feeder is 
tied to it, what would be the voltage across each car. 

Assume resistances per mil-ft. to be hard drawn copper, 10.65 
ohms; soft copper 10.4 ohms. F. W. 

A. This is a complex network problem which requires no 
particular ingenuity but a considerable amount of work to solve. 
The only laws involved are Ohm's law, and Kirchhoff's two laws 
of networks, viz. : 

1. Around any "mesh" in a network through which a steady 
current is flowing, the sum of the resistance drops taken in or- 
der is equal to the sum of the generated voltages, due regard be- 
ing paid to algebraic signs. 

2. The sum of the currents entering a junction-point is equal 
to the sum of the currents leaving it. 

By computing the resistance of each piece of the network, 
and putting E, E 2 , E 3 for the counter-e.m.fs. of the motors we 
could set up a series of equations, one for every mesh and one 
for every junction-point. If enough data has been given, we 
should have at least as many equations as there are unknown 
quantities, and they could be solved in the usual way. If any 
of our readers care to undertake this, we shall be glad to pub- 
lish the result. 

Reactive Voltage of Comutation 

Q. The armature of a 10 kw 100 volt bipolar d. c. generator 
rotates at 1200 r. p. m. The commutator contains 50 segments and 
the inductance of a coil connected across adjacent segments is 
.00003 henry, assumed constant. What is the rotational e.m.f. 
that must be induced in the coil to reverse the current in this 
coil at a uniform rate during the commutation period, (a) at full 
load, (b) at half load. 

A. Our correspondent has not given the number of bars span- 



ned by one brush, but we will assume that the number is 1.5. 
The lenggth of time during which the current is to be reversed is 
that during which the coil is short-circuited by the brush, which 
is the time during which the brush spans the insulation between 
adjacent bars. This time will be 1.5 -=- 50 = .03 of the time of 
one revolution, or .03 X .05 = .0015 sec. During this time the 
current will change from + 100 amp. to — 100 amp., or 200 amp. 
or at the rate of 200 -=- .0015 = 133,000 amp. per sec. This will 
generate an e.m.f. in the coil of .00003 X 133,000 = 4 volts, hence 
the voltage impressed on the coil will have to be 4 volts in the 
direction opposed to the original direction of the current. (A 
current varying at the rate or 1 amp. per sec. through an induct- 
ance of 1 henry will set up an e.m.f. of 1 volt in a direction which 
will oppose the change. 

"Window-Light" Problem 

Q. Will you please print a solution of the "window-light prob- 
lem," as shown in the accompanying sketch? F. W. 

A. The "window-light problem" is to find the resistance 
from A to B, diagonally opposite corners of a rectangular net- 



> 


6w _b"" ,Y *fiw e 6111 n 


a 


s 

y 
y' d 


y" 

9 


- x 


c 


,y' 

f 


s v 


y' 



Each wire has Resistance of 6 Ohms 

work of equal resistances. Consider a current entering at A. 
It will divide into two paths of equal resistance, hence the twe 
currents and potential will be equal, and therefore a and b will 
be at the same potential. At each of these points the current 
will divide again, flowing in equal amounts over equal resistances 
to c, d, and e, hence these points will be at the same potential. 
Starting now at B and working backward, by the same reasoning 
we find that k and m are at the same potential, and so are /, g, 
and h. Between the dotted lines cde and fgh we have 5 paths 
in parallel, each of 6 ohms, hence the resistance of this section is 
6*-h 5 = 1.2 ohm. Between ab and cde, and between km and 
fgh there are 4 paths in parallel, hence the resistance is 6 -s- 4 = 
1.5 ohm each and from A to ab and from B to km the resistance 
is 3 ohms each. Hence the total resistance from A to B is 
3 -j- 1.5 -(- 1.2 -J-.1.5 _|_ 3 = 10.2 ohm. 

Inquiry for Goods Out of Stock 

Q. When anybody come into my store and asks for some- 
thing we do not have in stock what should I do — tell them we 
are out of it and let them go to one of my competitors? 

A. No, you should always endeavor to make the sale yourself. 
If the article is carried by a competitor, send out for it while the 
patron waits ; or promise to deliver it later in the day. When it 
is something you have on order, or can get in a day or two from 
your jobber, a little tactful questioning will often show that de- 
livery a few days later will serve the customer practically as 
well. Above all, show him that you want to make the sale ; in- 
difference is so usual that the reverse will make a good impres- 
sion. 

Q. What do you think of printing a dealer's name on his 
wrapping paper? W. F. J. — Washington, D. C. 

A. When the package is wrapped with the dealer's name out- 
side, we- feel that it is an unwarranted effort at advertising at the 
expense of the consumer. If however a few lines about the care 
of electric apparatus are printed over the dealer's name on the 
inside of the wrapper, they are sure to be read. Here would be 
a good place for emphasizing the dealer's interest in the perfor- 
mance of every piece of apparatus he sells. 

>*♦ ■»> <$» 

During a recent convention in Baltimore, the Consolidated 
Gas, Electric Light & Power Company illuminated the Wash- 
ington monument. Now the company offers to continue the 
illumination free of charge for one year. 



ImMinsig aPjraeSfle® usafi S&s1i]&®dlg ©3 <S®3a$ffaJl Iftsittfi®;&&, C©a&1bra<etf©!?s arnfi MaamtastoaTSTS 



x J J ;h^ M©i&£M;f jBA3 






IS, 3E) (Sarataa 



One of the specially interesting features of the collections 
system which is use by the Louisville, Ky., Gas & Electric Com- 
pany, is the manner in which increasing numbers of the monthly 
bills of the company are treated as sight drafts on the cus- 
tomers' banks would be. The plan, in Louisville, is not a new 
one by any means, since it was in use fifteen years ago by the 
■old Louisviiie Lighting Company, although it was not until 
recently that the company resulting from the merger began to 
suggest to its customers that they adopt it. It is steadily increas- 
ing in popularity and an interesting sidelight on its practicability 
is that the Louisville Water Company and the Louisville Home 
Telephone Company have put a similar plan in effect. Another 
company that has adopted it in Louisville is the Federal Sign 
System (electric). 

Until recently the method of handling such collections was 
offered principally as a convenience to customers and the posi- 
tive step was taken by the customers who found it more con- 
venient to meet their bills in that manner. It does not appeal 
especially to the depositor who is customarily drawn right up to 
his balance and who frequently finds himself compelled to hustle 
to the bank with a deposit to cover oustanding checks. But to 
the man or the customer who always has a safe balance against 
the dimensions of the "gas company's" bill it represents a real 
convenience. Large corporations which use quantities of current 
or gas, which want the charge on their books as of the date the 
bill was paid and to which the full discount period means actual 
money are not prospects for the system. But there is a large 
class of customers which, as the town is circularized, is coming 
into the plan with approval. The end of June saw nearly 1,000 
of the company's customers paying bills which they did not see 
until they received their cancelled checks from their janks. 
Form of Application 

The manner in which the plan works is extremely simple. Only 
one form is used and that is the form which the customer fills 
in when he determines to adopt the plan of cancelling the bills 
issued against him by the company. This is addressed to the cus- 
tomer's bank and is a request which reads as follows: 
Gentlemen : 

Please pay to the Louisville Gas & Electric Company the net 
amount of their bills for gas and electric service rendered to me 
at (house number and street) upon their presentation, and re- 
turn the receipted portion of the bill to me with the paid checks 
drawn on my account. 

Yours very truly, 

These requests of the customers, usually delivered to the gas 
and electric company's offices, although sometimes sent directly 
to the banks, which, however, immediately deliver them to the 
Company for checking up, are compared with the records of the 
Company. This is to make sure that the customer's only ac- 
the companj is covered by the one house number and 



street, and to enable the cashier's office to record the name of 
the customer's bank in his files. A card index of these "sight 
draft" customers is maintained in the cashier's office, containing 
name of bank and data on the accounts if there is more than one. 
Delivered to the several banks, the orders on them to pay the 
bills on presentation are filed for reference, sometimes with the 
signature cards, sometimes in files by themselves. 
Notation on Ledgers 

The ledger in the bill room of the gas and electric company 
shows which bills are to be paid by the banks by the notation 
"Pay Through Clearing," written beside the account of the cus- 
tomer. The notation is written out in full, instead of being 
indicated by initials, so as to make sure that it will not be over- 
looked. In time, when a larger proportion of the customers pay 
through their banks it is likely that some more simple distinctive 
means will be developed to indicate these accounts, but for the 
present the note quoted suffices admirably. 

In the regular course of making out the bills, the blank forms 
are put through an addressing machine which stamps the cus- 
tomer's name on each, the bills then going to the bill room to 
be made out. As the accountant, in filling in the charges, comes 
to the account of a customer marked "Pay Through Clearing," 
he rejects the customary blue form, reaches for the same kind 
of a form printed on red paper, on which he writes the name 
of the customer, destroying the unused blue form. As the num- 
ber of "sight draft" customers increases this destruction of the 
blue forms would become a good sized waste, but ths can be 
obviated by rearrangement of the names on the addressing ma- 
chine and stamping the "sight draft" customers on a sheet by 
themselves, or on some forms of addressing machines the selec- 
tion processes can be made to single out the special class so as 
to obviate waste of the printed bill forms. 

Transacting With the Banks 

As the bill making progresses the several red-body bills are 
laid in piles by themselves and each day — the Louisville company 
bills one group of its customers every working day in the year 
— the red bills go to the cashier's office, where a clerk writes 
conspicuously in each bill head the name of the customer's par- 
ticular bank. They can be safely marked "paid" on the books, 
for it is indeed rare that anjr of these bills come back marked 
"no funds." When they do they are carried along for a few 
until the bank does pay them. The whole batch of red bills 
goes over to the bank of the gas and electric company along 
with the other deposit, the bills addressed to the particular bank 
sorted from the lot, and the rest delivered to the clearing house 
where they are cleared exactly in the manner of checks. Each 
bank then handles the bill as it would a check or draft and the 
customer receives it with his paid checks at the end of the 
month, at which time he may consult it and check it against other 
months if he desires. 



4» 



ELECTRICAL AGE 



October, iqi6 



Advantages of the Plan 

"This company has followed this plan since its organization, 
nearly three years ago," said Donald McDonald, vice-president 
and general manager of the company in a letter to the Electrical 
Age, "and one of its constituent companies followed it more than 
fifteen years ago. Of course the plan is available only to those 
people who have bank accounts, and a great many of these avail 
themselves of it. I have never heard of a single case of dissatis- 
faction on account of the plan, or any customer countermanding 
the order to his bank and returning to the old system. Of 
course it does not improve collections. The sort of people who 
give such orders would pay their bills anyhow; but it does in- 
sure that the customer never misses his discount, and in this way 
obviates the occasional dissatisfaction which the customer feels 
when he forgets to pay his bill during discount days." 

There are several advantages from the viewpoint of the gas 
and electric company which are well worth considering. In the 
first place it insures the company having the use of the money 
involved on the first day the bill is payable, instead of on later 
days up to the end of the discount period. This is seldom a 
consideration of importance to the individual customer, although 
in the aggregate it is an advantage to the company. The' value to 
the customer of the "use of the money''" for a week can be offset 
for a series of years by one failure to take advantage of the 
discount period and loe his 10 per cent, of the gross amount of 
the bill. 

Satisfaction to Customers 

This system obviates any necessity of having to send a col- 
lector for those who forget to mail their checks within the dis- 
count period. This is both an annoyance to the customer who 
is "good pay" and an expense to the company. The plan does 
away with the cost of the stamp where the statements are mailed 
out, an item of importance. It saves cost of collections in the 
outlying suburbs which are served by the company, and cost 
of collections from residents of the surrounding country, and 
residents of such places are showing particular interest in the 
plan. Another good thing is that it tends to keep the custome- 
complacent about the service. A bill that is a month old md 
apparently excessive will not ordinarily cause the effect that a 
fresh bill of the kind does. As a matter of fact the customer 
is losing no chance to correct a charge. He is given as careful 
and as courteous attention on a complaint of this nature as he 
gets under any other circumstances. 

As is true with every company a considerable proportion of 
the Louisville company's customers are given to frequent com- 
ings and goings. Their homes or their offices are likely to be 
occupied only at certain times in the average months, or servants 
maintain the houses and continue using the dual service of the 
company. The method of paying the monthly bills through the 
banks appeals particularly to this class, since their balances are 
uniformly sufficient to take care of any possible demand from this 
source, and they are thus insured of their 10 per cent, discount 
no matter where they may be sojourning. Until the last few 
months there has been only a limited effort on the part of the 
company to list its bank-depositor customers in this class. Now, 
the mutual advantages having been thoroughly appreciated all 
of the customers are being solicited by circular. 

Method of Increasing Use 

The appeal is put on the basis of insuring the customer of ob- 
taining his discount. The customer is addressed on a dodger, 
on the reverse side of which is the blank form on which the 
customer may write the order on his bank. It is a printed state- 
ment of the plan pointing out the advantages of the system, and 
is delivered to the customers along with the bills they receive. 
This statement of the proposition reads as follows : 

You Can Always Get Your Discount and Save Yourself 
Trouble by Paying Your Bills Through Your Bank 

Many hundreds of the customers of this company never see 
their bills for gas and electricity until their bank returns them 
along with their checks at the end of each month. Customers 



who do this always get their discount, and are saved the 
trouble of remembering to pay their bills. The}' do not lose any 
of their right to have a bill corrected. 

If you desire to avail yourself of this convenience, fill out and 
sign the form printed on the back of this slip, and this company 
will make arrangements with your bank, and will in future pres- 
ent the bills to the bank, and you will receive the receipted bill 
along with your checks. 

How the Banks Regard the Plan 

And there has never been the slightest information from any 
of the sixteen banks in the city, or from the outlying banks, that 
the system is objectionable to them. In fact the appear to wel- 
come it, since they can legitimately point to additional service 
they are giving their depositors. Louisville banks are accustomed 
to the red bills and they go through with no more comment than 
any other order to pay. There are sixteen banks in Louisville 
with an average of 3,000 depositors each, while the gas and 
electric company is maintaining 75,000 meters. This is merely 
to indicate the possibilities in the case. 

As it is, one-third of all the bills of the company are paid by 
checks mailed into the office, Another third is collected through 
pay stations of which there are now 106 in all parts of the city 
and more likely to be established. The remainder of the bills are 
paid by means of the "sight-draft" system or over the counter 
in currency or by check. 

Collections Through Pay-Stations 

There is a point of interest in the collection system of the 
Louisville company in connection with the pay-station plan, 
which costs the company nothing to maintain and which, at 
the same time is of much service to the customers. Leon S. May- 
er, auditor of the company, has found, he said, that neighborhood 
drug stores are more desirable than other such depots, for the 
reason that they ordinarily remain open until 10 o'clock each 
night. However there are some banks on the list, some grocery 
stores, some bakery shops, some shops where other commodities 
are handled. For the reason that this system brings many peo- 
ple into their stores or other places of business these repre- 
sentatives of the company are keen to represent it, and all of 
them cheerfully give bond to insure the company at against 
losses. 

They collect in each bill two cents over and above the. net 
amount, the cost of a postage stamp if a check were to be 
mailed in, and no customer has ever been heard to complain of 
this charge. Collections in each case run only during the dis- 
count period, payment after that time being made direct to 
the office of the company. An assistant cashier of the company 
makes the rounds of the pay stations in his automobile, carrying 
with him an adding machine which he uses to run up the totals 
of the bills collected by the pay station keepers. He often re- 
turns from such rounds with sums between $5,000 and $10,000. 



The recent completion of the work of installing an electric- 
lighting system in St. Thomas appears to have opened up a new 
market for American electrical supplies. There should be an 
especially attractive field here for good but moderately-priced 
electric fans, which are almost unknown on the island. 

St. Thomas lies in the Tropics, and because of this location 
of its principal town (Charlotte Amalie) on the southern slope 
of a high ridge of mountains, where refreshing breezes are 
lacking most of the time, the employment of electric fans would 
be appreciated everywhere for all the year round. At the 
cinema shows, which are given two or three times each week, 
a number of large hand-made fans are suspended from the 
ceiling and are operated by cords pulled back and forth by 
small boys stationed back of the screens. In the hotels, busi- 
ness offices, and private houses, though, there are no such 
appliances, and it is believed that immediately after the first 
electric fan has been introduced it will become generally 
popular. 



October, 1916 



ELECTRICAL 



AGE 



49 



Seating Rates 

The rapidly increasing demand for electric ranges with their 
convenience, relibility and cleanliness has led to an investigation 
of rates for electric current by The Society for Electrical 
Development. This load for central stations is extremely de- 
sirable because the bulk of it comes on the off-peak and thus 
assists in straightening the load curve. The accompanying map 
shows the number of communities having special cooking rates 
and the location of these communities by states. 




In analyzing the compilation of rates for electric cooking in 
the United States the interesting fact develops that of some 3,000 
communities listed where rates are 5c or lower, 1,884 are located 
in the Eastern half of the country, and 1,250 in the Western half, 
or, taking the Mississippi as the dividing line, 1,638 are East of 
the Mississippi as against 1,506 West of the Mississippi River. 

Contrary to the general impression that low rate for cooking 
are largely confined to the western states, it will be seen thai 
■central stations in the east have realized the advantages of this 
load and are offering special rates as an aid in building it. 

4» 4* 4> 

Oar Monthly Window Display 

Radiators from the most timely domestic electric articles 
to advertise during the cool days of fall before the real cold 
weather arrives. The accompanying illustration shows an 
■excellent window display for pushing these radiators because 
it brings out one of their most important uses; namely, in 
the nursery. 




Simple as this display is, it has, nevertheless, been carefully 
planned. It will attract attention and make an especial appeal 
to mothers. Nothing is called for in it that any other central 
station or dealer cannot obtain without trouble. The screen 
forms a background that is particularly desirable in case the 
rear of the window is open. The frieze at the top of the 
screen is a piece of wall paper border for children's rooms 
and similar designs can be obtained from any wall paper 



store. The radiator in front of the baby and the two at 
the extreme ends should be lighted. Toys of any kind can 
be used, but they must be scattered about in confusion in or- 
der to be true to life. 

* * * 

News of the Associations 

Seattle Conventions 

At Seattle, Washington, the annual Pacific Coast Convention 
of the A. I. E. E. and the annual convention of the Northwest 
Electric Light and Power Association were held jointly from 
September 5 to 9. About 225 delegates and guests were present. 
Officers of the Northwest Association for the following year are: 
President, M. C. Osborn, Washington Water Power Company, 
T. D. Thornton, Willapa Harbor Light & Power Company; for 
Oregon, C. T. Edwards, Coast Power Company, Tillamook; for 
Idaho, H. B. Waters, Idaho Power Company; for Montana, J. F. 
Roche, Montana Power Company, Billings. New members of 
the executive committee are O. B. Coldwell, Portland Railway 
Light & Power Company, and Norwood Brockett, Puget Sound 
Traction Light & Power Company. 

Edison Convention 

The thirty-seventh annual convention of the Association of 
Edison Illuminating Companies was held at Hot Springs, Va., 
on September 5 to 7. Reports were received from committees 
and there were a number of addresses. The officers for next year 
will be Peter Junkersfeld, Commonwealth Edison Company, Chi- 
cago, President ; .U L. Elden, Edison Electric Illuminating Com- 
pany, Boston, Vice-President ; George Holberton, Pacific Gas & 
Electric Company, San Francisco, Secretary ; W. W. Freeman, 
Union Gas & Electric Company, Cincinnati, Treasurer. 
Pennsylvania Electric Association 

September 5 to 8 were the dates of the annual convention of 
the Pennsylvania Electric Association at Eagles Mere, Pa. It 
was shown that the membership of the Association now serves 
95 per cent, of the total population now reached by electric lines 
The subjects di cussed were operating problems, including the 
testing of instrument transformers, the operation of boilers, and 
methods for building up the personnel of an organization. Of- 
ficers for next year are : President, George B. Tripp, Harrisburg 
Light & Power Company ; first vice-president, Ernest H. Davis, 
Lycoming Edison Company, Williamsport ; treasurer, W. R. Ken- 
ney, West Penn Electric Company, Connelsville ; the permanent 
secretary is H. i&. Stine, whose office is at Harrisburg. 

New England Electrical Contractors 

The annual convention was held at Hartford, Conn., on Sep- 
tember 26, 27 and 28, with L. L. Gaillard of Waterbury in the 
chair. Papers of general interest were presented and an exhibi- 
tion of electrical appliances and fittings was held with more than 
500 manufacturers participating. 

Indiana Electric Light Association 
At the convention of the Indiana Electric Light Association the 
principal papers were on the commercial aspects, including rural 
loads, range sales methods of financing, power surveys, and 
the effect of the National Electric Safety Code. Officers for 
the new year will be : President, Sam. W. Greenland, Fort 
Wayne ; Vice-President, T. P. Ohmer, Elkhart : Secretary-Treas- 
urer, Thomas Donohue, La Fayette. 

<$» 4§» 4> 

IL41ji ATiirynal Jsvaain Convention 

The fourteenth annual convention of the Jovian Order will be 
held at Indianapolis, October 18-20. Registration will begin 
at the Hotel Sherman on October 17. Sessions of the convention 
will be held in the ball-room of the Hotel Severin. The program 
is as follows : 

Tuesday. Oct. 17 
Afternoon — Registration of Indianapolis Tovians. 
Evening — Registration, Reception and Dance, Buffet Supper. 

Wednesday, Oct. 18 
Morning — Registration, Formal Opening, Business Session, 



50 



ELECTRICAL AGE 



October, 1916' 



Afternoon — Business Session, 
Evening — Concert, Photo-Play Parties. 

Thursday, Oct. 19 
Morning- — Business Session. 

Afternoon — Auto Race at Speedway, followed by an Hour 
or two at the Indianapolis Athletic and Canoe Club. 
Evening — Annual Rejuvenation. 

Friday, Oct. .20 
Morning — Business Session, Election of Fifteenth Adminis- 
tration Officers. 
Noon— Luncheon Tendered by the Indianapolis Chamber of 

Commerce. 
Afternoon — Degree Team Competition. 

Evening — Installation of Fifteenth Administration Officers, 
Auto Drawing, Closing Entertainment — "A Night in 
Bohemia," Buffet Supper. 
With the withdrawal of all other candidates for the office of 
Jupitor, the election of Henry L. Doherty to that post is assur- 
ed. Constitutional changes to advance the interests of local 
leagues will be brought up. In addition to the routine reports 
to be presented, there will be addresses as follows : 

Mr. D. C. Cooper, Engineering Dept., National Lamp Works, 
"Voltage Standardization;" Hon. Henry Lane Wilson, formerly 
Ambassador to Mexico, "Trade Relations with Mexico and Cen- 
tral America;" Mr. W. A. Layman, President, Wagner Electric 
Mfg. Co., "Building A Career;" Mr. Robley S. Stearnes, Presi- 
dent, N. E. C. A., "Jovianism from the Contractor's View-point;" 
Mr. J. M. Wakeman, General Manager, Society for Electrical 
Development, "Co-operation with the S. E. D. ;" Mr. H. W. Alex- 
ander, Director of Publicity, Society for Electrical Development, 
"America's Electrical Week;" Dr. Katherine M. H. Blackford, 
"Character Analysis by the Observation Method." 

At the degree-team competition on Friday afternoon the own- 
ership of the loving-cup may be settled. It is to go to the team 
winning it for three consecutive years, and the St. Louis team 
now has two legs on it. A prize of $250 cash goes to the team 
which wins, and also a jewel worth $100 to the individual who 
best protrays his role. An elaborate program of entertainment 
has been arranged, and special efforts are planned to occupy 
the time of the ladies while their escorts are in attendance at the 
business sessions. 

"Mercury" Ell C. Bennett, Syndicate Trust Building, St. Louis, 
has charge of the general arrangements. 

Coming C®iiweMti®ffis 

American Electr"c Railway Association. Annual convention, 
Atlantic City, N. J., October 9-13. Secretary, E. B. Burritt, 8 
West Fortieth Street, New York City. 

Electrical Supply Jobbers' Association. Quarterly meeting, 
Hotel Statler, Cleveland, O., October 10-12. Secretary Franklin 
Overbaugh, 411 South Clinton Street, Chicago, 111. 

New Mexico Electrical Association. Executive meeting, El 
Pas del Norte Hotel, El Paso, Tex., October 15-17. Secretary 
pro tern, E. A. Thiele, 112 West Third Street, Roswell, N. M. 

New England Section, N. E. L. A. Annual convention, Pittsfield, 
Mass., October 17-20. Secretary, O. A. Bursiel, 149 Trenton 
Street, Boston, Mass. 

Jovian Order. Annual convention, Indianapolis, Ind., October 
18-20. Secretary, Ell C. Bennett, Syndicate Trust Building, St. 
Louis, Mo. 

Telephone Pioneers of America. Annual meeting, Atlanta, 
Ga., October 27-28. Secretary, R. H. Starrett, 195 Broadway, 
New York City. 

4» 4» * 

"How to sell an idea," a booklet issued by the Society for 
Electrical Development for electric range salesmen, makes the sig- 
nificant point plain that while "It's almost impossible to sell an 
electric sove, it's easy to sell the idea of electric cooking." In 
its 32 pages (4x7) it gives many points of value in selling, 
and in putting on electric campaigns. 



JBaaasLssag) audi Ssmsttalliitiaia ©i C&sidiiaitg 

(Continued from page 27) 

turns some time after and continues, coupling up the 
next length and carelessly forgets to remove the plug,, 
forcing it into the pipe at the coupling. This is not 
discovered until the pipe is snaked for wire pulling 
which is always after the finished floor is laid. Some- 
times they can' be removed by blowing out with high 
air pressure, but many times the floor must be taken 
up or the pipe abandoned. We have removed many 
such plugs by discharging a revolver into the pipe, the 
force of the bullet carrying the plug with it to the other 
end. 

A good method of installing circuit work where 
there are false or furred-down ceilings is to run the cir- 
cuit from the panel in rigid conduit to a junction box 
in each bay, in the floor above. From this junction box 
flexible conduit is run to the local switches and the 
ceiling fixture outlets in the hung ceiling leaving a 
little slack in the flexible conduit. Then in the event 
of a change being desired, the ceiling is punctured at 
the new point, the old outlet fished for and drawn 
over to its new location, and the original opening is 
plastered up. 

Exposed Work 

Exposed work throughout is now coming into use 
for industrial buildings to a far greater extent than 
ever before. It is easily installed and readily leads it- 
self to change and extension. There are few modern 




Fig. 8. Templets Suspended from Ceiling. 

factory plants, that are progressing, that do not re- 
quire greater and greater electrical capacity each year 
as their production increases. For this purpose alone 
the exposed system has every advantage over the con- 
cealed, and then again the electrical contractor has 
very little to do on the job until the building or a 
good part thereof is completed. With practically no 
exception, such buildings are of reinforced concrete 
(where not of wood construction). Inserts are put 
on the rough wood from which the stringers, shafting 
and machinery are hung. By installing a few more at 
locations where the lighting outlets and motor connec- 
tions occur, and in the route of the pipe work, the elec- 
trical conduit system can be supported therefrom and 
installed very economically without the necessity of 
drilling for expansion bolts. There are many good 



October, 1916 



ELECTRICAL AGE 



5* 



devices on the market that can be used for inserts. A 
most interesting- case of exposed circuit work is illus- 
trated in Fig. 7 and described below. For grounding 
it is recommended that the conduit system be bonded 
to the sprinkler piping at various points; this in no 
way harms the latter. 

Special Construction 

A very interesting conduit problem is the work in 
telephone terminal rooms. A tremendous quantity of 
pipe is laid in floors of such rooms as can be readily 
seen from Figs. 1 and 8. 

The accuracy with which this work must be instal- 
led is what makes it quite difficult, as each conduit 
terminal must exactly fit the finished furniture and 
operating desks when set. The pipes are all set in the 
floor and later covered over with the fill, and cement 
or wood flooring, whichever is used. A very impor- 
tant requirements is to get these conduits in a mini- 
mum of depth so as not to cast down the head room 
any more than absolutely necessary. Careful bending 
of the pipe is the essential item. The use of standard 
elbows is almost completely abandoned, the pipes be- 
ing bent up as desired. A form of bender we use is 
shown mounted on a column in Fig. 1. It consists 
of a malleable iron wheel mounted rigidly, and a sec- 
ond wheel between a pair of heavy flat straps. These 
wheels are both grooved on the circumference, so as 
to take a pipe between them. By inserting the con- 
duit, and pulling the level around with the aid of a 
pole or piece of 2 in. rigid pipe, the conduit is easily 
bent. A little practice and common sense quickly en- 
ables the men to do very accurate and good work with 
this bender. It can be used for pipes 1 in. to 2^2 in. 
Hickeys are of course used for ^> in. and ^4 m sizes. 
In Fig. 1 the wood templates bared for each pipe 
are supported on iron braces from the floor beams. 
After the floor is partly in and set over the pipes, these 
braces are cut off close to the top of the rough floor, 
the templates removed and the finished floor laid, 
covering up the exposed ends of the braces. In Fig. 
8 the templates had to be braced from above, as the 
quantity of pipes in a given space was quite large and 
grouped very closely, so that some chance would have 
been taken in, laying the rough and finished floors 
with braces up from the beams, as in the other case. 

Another type of bender we used recently had wheels 
of similar type to that on the above mentioned bend- 
er but both were laid flat on the floor, one supported 
on the long side of a timber laid in one direction and 
the other on the end of a second timber laid at right 
angles to the first so as to have the two wheels face 
one another. Both timbers were arranged to be rapid- 
ly fastened down. The pipe, 2}4 in., 3 in. or 2> X A i n - 
were slipped in between the wheels, one end held rigid 
and the other pulled around with a chain block, fast- 
ened to the opposite wall and lying on the floor. We 
bent 3 in. and 33^ in. conduits to 90 degrees, in little 
more time than it takes the average wireman to prop- 
erly bend a 54 i n - pip e a similar amount with a hickey. 
These benders are comparatively inexpensive and easy 
to handle, as they can be shipped in parts, timbers be- 
ing picked up locally. Both benders described can 
also be very readily used for making offsets of any 
angle. 

Fig. 7 shows an ingenious arrangement for the in- 
stallation of typical exposed circuit work. All parts 
were made up at a bench, the outlets fastened on, and 
all made ready to hoist to the ceiling and put in place. 
A truck was made upon wheels, a team of men on the 
truck and a gang distributed each branch to their prop- 



er positions. As the truck came along, each branch 
was pushed up to its location with the aid of long 
sticks and the team fastened the branch in place. It 
is very apparent how economical and with what speed 
such an installation can be made. 

In laying out a conduit system it is important to 
have in mind the pulling in of wire and cable through- 
out. The quality of this branch of the equipment often 
determines the quality of the entire distribution, and 
a poorly laid out and installed conduit system means 
deficient and expensive operation and maintenance 
even in a greater degree than a poorly constructed 
building. With the well developed methods of to-day 
there is no excuse for a defective conduit installation. 

(Continued from page 33) 

What has just been said concerns inventors who are work- 
ing in the front ranks of their particular industries. In these 
matters they require the careful work of skilled lawyers, and 
the sufficient advice to them is to consult with their lawyers. 
The Casual Invention 

Otherwise, and in the case of the casual invention, the in- 
ventor, when putting his invention in his attorney's hands., 
may raise with him the question of a preliminary examina- 
tion. The attorney will in many cases advise such an ex- 
amination. He may have in his employ young fellows who* 
do this work; if he has not, he knows how to avail himself." 
of the services of those who do. Preliminary examination is- 
a running through of United States patents in the class to 
which the invention in hand belongs, with a view to deter- 
mining whether it is anticipated in any patent already granted 
— for the law is that a man may have a patent for an inven- 
tion which is "not known or used by others in this country, 
before his invention or discovery thereof, and not patented' 
or described in any printed publication in this or any foreign' 
country, before his invention or discovery thereof, or more 
than two years prior to his application.") Such a search, to 
be exhaustive and sure, would be more costly than to file 
an application (in which case the Patent Office examiner- 
makes search), and in the common run of cases so great an- 
expense is not desired. The preliminary examination costs, 
only a few dollars, and, though its results are not sure, still 
in the majority of cases they are correct; and because the 
examination is inexpensive, it is in many cases to be recom- 
mended as "insurance," for if the invention be anticipated 
(that is, found not to be new) the inventor is saved the much 
greater cost of an application. 

So much for novelty, in preliminaries. Utility is a matter 
within the peculiar knowledge of the inventor. He knows 
best the practicability of his invention. And, unless the con- 
trary is obvious, the Patent Office will accept the applicant's 
oath that his invention is useful. That is to say, the Patent 
Office, having found the invention new, or, rather, having 
failed to find it old, will allow the application, and the Com- 
missioner will grant the patent, on the strength of the ap- 
plicant's oath that the invention is "new and useful." As has 
been said before, utility, under the law, is not utility to a 
greater degree than anything that has gone before; utility 
here means practicability. The powers of the Patent Office 
are exhausted, and further question as to patentability lie 
with the courts. They can declare, on proper evidence, that 
the invention for which a patent has been granted is not 
new or not useful, and that the patent is void. Such action 
by court is familiar to everyone. 

What a Patent Costs 

A patent, when granted, has cost the inventor approxi- 
mately a hundred dollars — in exceptional cases the cost may 
be much greater. The Patent Office fees are these: on the 
filing of the application, $15; on allowance and before the- 



5 2 



ELECTRICAL AGE 



October, 1916 



issue of the patent, $20. Fees, then, amount to $35, of which 
$20, is not payable until the case is allowed. Most applica- 
tions require drawings; and these ordinarily cost $5 a sheet. 
Then there is the attorney's fees for prosecuting an applica- 
tion. This varies, necessarily. Some unscrupulous attorneys, 
unable to command higher fees, use their lower fees as an 
advertising asset. The attorney's fee ordinarily will ap- 
proximate $50. Some attorneys have a fixed charge for heavy 
and light cases alike; some have no fixed charge, but fix their 
fees in each case individually, according to time spent upon 
it. There are almost always incidental expenses, such as ex- 
press, telegraph, railroad fare. Ordinarily, then, a patent 
costs the inventor from $85 to $100. 

But it not infrequently happens that an application fails 
to go smoothly through the Office. A difference of opinion 
may arise; the examiner may hold the applicant's claims to 
be unpatentable, though the applicant and his attorney may 
have good reason to entertain the contrary. Appeal then 
becomes advisable. Again, an application may be involved in 
interference with another application of another inventor in 
which the same invention is claimed. In such like cases the 
inventor has need of the advice of his attorney, and herein 
further appears the importance of having a trustworthy man. 
Of course, in such case additional expense is involved. 

It is often the case that the inventor is in the employ of 
some manufacturing concern, and that the invention has to 
do with the employer's business. Under such circumstances 
it is usually the desire of both parties that the employer pay 
for the patent and in return acquire the patent or rights un- 
der it. This brings us to the question of the Enjoyment of 
Patent Rights, which will be the subject of the next paper. 

* ♦ ♦ 

^.in^zi^ 9 ^ Electrical Week 

(Continued from page 34) 
Cleveland, Ohio. 

The Chairman, G. E. Miller, has appointed three sub-commit- 
-tees to lay out a c ; ty wide celebration. The first includes men 
interested in lighting, the second, those interested in heating 
devices and the third, those interested in power devices. 

This committee will report at the general meeting of the 
Cleveland America's Electrical Week committee next week. 
Plans were discussed for a dinner to all clerks in all the Cleve- 
land stores which participate in America's Electrical Week. 

The lighting sub-committee is convassing all Cleveland mer- 
chants in an endeavor to tie up all window displays not only 
with the general advertising of the week but by means of some 
unique lighting feature. An essay contest similar to the one 
which was so successful last year will be undertaken again. 

Pennants furnished by the Society will be placed by the local 
automobile club upon all cars owned by the city and by those 
driven by members of the club. 

The entire America's Electrical Week committee has arranged 
to meet regularly with the advertising managers of all Cleveland 
mercantile and industrial interests, the aim being to link up 
Cleveland's activities as a unit. 
Cincinnati, Ohio. 

The Ohio Valley Electrical Exposition, the outgrowth of 
last year's highly successful Cincinnati Electrical Show, will be 
held at Music Hall, Cincinnati, November 18th to 25th, inclusive. 
It is held under the auspices of the Cincinnati Electrical Com- 
pany, of which W. W. Freeman is President. Charles M. Cro- 
foot of the Crouse Hinds Company is Chairman of the commit- 
tee in actual charge of the exposition. 

From the viewpoint of the visitor this show will greatly ex- 
cell the show of 1915. There will be a greater variety of attrac- 
tions, more demonstrations and a greater variety of them. Ap- 
plications for space in the exposition include both manufacturers 
and retailers. Cincinnati's retailers are exhibiting an extraordin- 
ary interest and almost all of them will be represented. More 
out of town manufacturers are interested than last year and this 



will increase the show's popularity. It is notable that the Cin- 
cinnati Electrical Show was unable to accomodate the attend- 
ance. On many occasions it was necessary to close the doors, 
although the exhibition was given in a hall having a floor space 
of 25,000 square feet, w : th an auditorium adjoining, seating 
4,000 persons. The Cincinnati Electrical Show Company, antici- 
pating a much larger number of exhibitors and at least as large 
a throng of vis tors as last year, has taken under option the 
third hall of Music Hall, with 27,000 square feet of floor space. 
The management believes it will be able to fill the entire space 
with attractive axhibits. 

The Ohio Valley Electrical Exposition will have a great draw- 
ing card in the introduction to Cincinnati of professional ice 
skaters. The stage of Music Hall, measuring 70 by 112 feet, 
will be covered with fresh ice daily frozen and controlled by 
electrical machinery. The ice will be illuminated and a corps of 
American and foreign skaters will entertain visitors to the Ex- 
position afternoon and evening. The usual use of bill boards 
and poster advertising will be supplemented by a great electrical 
illumination on Fountain Square in the heart of Cincinnati's 
downtown district. Illumination in front of Music Hall and on 
it's interior will be the most modern obtainable and will consume 
a great deal of current. Popular enthusiasm will be further 
stirred by the special prizes offered by the company for build- 
ing, store and window electrical displays. These prizes will be 
made sufficiently attractive to draw a large general display. 
Denver, Colo. 

The Denver America's Electrical Week committee, which this 
year controls the activities of the entire State of Colorado, has 
appointed sub-committees in every leading town and city in the 
State. These are to report at a general meeting of the Denver 
committee within a few days. 
Birmingham, Atlanta and Charlotte. 

George W. Hill, traveling representative of the Society in a 
report to J. M. Wakeman, General Manager, announces that 
Birmingham, Atlanta, Charlotte, Nashville and Memphis commit- 
tees have held meetings, appointed sub-committees to cover of- 
ficial city participation in America's Electrical Week. In each 
of these cities the general scheme of participation by Chambers 
of Commerce and by non-electrical merchants has been adopted. 
To this program will be added, according to the plans discussed 
at the preliminary meetings, electric vehicle parades and in the 

case of Birmingham and Charlotte an electrical pageant. 

♦♦« «j« »> 

Mr. A. B. Megraw has assumed charge of the Philadelphia 
office of The Jefferson Glass Company of Follansbee, West Vir- 
ginia. The new office is located at No. 704 Perry Bldg., 16th 
and Chestnut Streets. 

The Edison Storage Battery Supply Company announces 
the opening of its Los Angeles office on the fourth floor of 
the San Fernando Building, corner Fourth and Main Sts. 

Mr. James F. Rogan, who has been acting as local dis- 
tributor of Edison Storage Batteries in Los Angeles will be- 
come resident manager. 

The Edison Storage Battery Supply Company also main- 
tains two other officers on the Pacific Coast, one at 206 First 
Street, San Francisco, in charge of District Manager, Mr. E. 
M. Cutting, and another at 65 Columbia Street, Seattle, under 
Mr. F. C. Gibson as resident manager. 

The Pyrolectric Instrument Company has been incorporated 
under the laws of New Jersey with E. F. Northrup, President; 
Dudley Willcox, Treasurer ; H. F. Porter, Secretary. Offices will 
be at 148 East State Street, Trenton, N. J. 

The purpose of the company is to manufacture and sell high- 
grade electrical temperature-measuring apparatus, and a limited 
line of electrical measuring instruments ; chiefly such as are used 
in connection with measurements made in the laboratory with 
alternating currents. Special instruments will also be designed 
and built to order. 



> r . ■■. UK : : - ,: . '.. r i ! -;j '. 



IllllilllllllllllliiU 




^judii lyMg^A^OTi 




lEi^Q^is 



WtwviL'&'w <&1 Sla© ILmt@3f WmMfm^Mmiw, 



Flexible Shaft for many purposes, together with its acces- 
sories, such as drills, screw-drivers, grinders and truck-mounted 
motors, is shown in Bulletin No. 102, of the Stow Manufactur- 
ing Co. of Binghamton, N. Y. 

v **• vp 

Effects of vibration in structures, the preliminary report of 
an investigation being made by the Aberthaw Construction Com- 
any of Boston, gives some interesting experiences of the effects 
of vibration on workers and machinery. 

♦> .J» ♦> 

Printing and Binding Machinery driven by direct-current 
motors are described in Bulletin 48707 just issued by Sprague 
Electric Works of the General Electric Co. Various forms of 
manual, remote and automatic controllers are shown installed 
for typical machines. 

«|» <$. »»♦ 

Industrial heating appliances as manufactured by the 
Westinghouse Electric & Mfg. Company are described and 
illustrated in leaflet No. 3918 just issued by this company. 
A brief description and some of the uses are given of each of 
these different devices. 

♦ ♦ ♦ 

Portable Electric Tools made by the Stow Manufacturing 
Co. of Binghamton, N. Y., include drills of many sizes, buffers, 
grinders, screw-drivers, tool-post, bench and floor grinders and 
sensitive drills. Bulletin No. 101 describes and illustrates the 
line. 

•f> 4» «f> 

Northrup Pyrovolter is the title of a pamphlet describing 
a new voltmeter for use with thermo-couples, which, it is claim- 
ed, unites the sensibility of the ploentiometer method with the 
easy-reading features of the deflection instruments. The ap- 
paratus is put out by the Pyrolectric Instrument Co., Trenton, 
N.J. 

♦ 4» ♦ 

"Oarage" Multiblade Fans, on the cylindrical principle, 

mounted as blowers for many purposes, together with such ac- 
cessories as pipe coil heaters, are shown in Catalog No. 5 of the 
Clarage Fan Company. An "appreciation" of the fan's home 
town — Kalamazoo — by George Fitch, gives a touch of humor 
which is not out of place in a catalog of air-moving devices. 

♦ ♦ .<■ 

"Railway Line Material for Direct Suspension." (Bulletin 
44004A) gives illustrations and demensions of the General Elec- 
tric Company's products. The 92 pages contain, in addition to 
the apparatus, a list of material for one mile of cross-span and 
bracket constructions, and some interesting data under "Con- 
struction Notes." 

Adjustable-Speed Motors on the well-known "Stow" prin- 
ciple are described in Bulletin No. 100, recently issued by the 
Stow Manufacturing Co., Binghamton, N. Y. Exactness of ad- 
justment to any speed within the wide range of the motor is 
had by turning a hand-wheel which inserts or withdraws a 
plunger inside pole cores. Up to 3 h.p. a bi-polar design is used 
and up to 20 h.p. four-pole form. The company's shunt wound 
constant speed and induction motors are also described. 

♦ ♦ «f» 

Toronto Hydro-electric System's Fifth Annual Report 
(1915) contains a general description of the distribution system 
which purchases electricity from Ontario Hydro-Electric Power 



Commission for retailing to the city of Toronto. The rates 
charged bring an average return, in cents per kw.jhr. as follows : 
Residence lighting, 2.86; commercial lighting, 2.26; commercial 
power, 0.97. A total of over 109.5 million kw.-hr. were sold. 
The peak load was 29,975 kw. giving a load factor of .4417. An 
interesting feature is the honor-roll of employees now serving 
with the colors. 

4» «£ 4» 

Retail Selling : A Guide to the Best Modern Practice, by 
James W. Fisk. 335 pages. New York: Harper & Brothers: 
$1.50. 
The author has made good use of his experience in selling and 
his knowledge of teaching to prepare a book which goes most 
systematically into modern merchandising. Many dealers have 
awakened to a consciousness that study of their market and 
proper adaptation of their stock and methods means often the 
change from failure to success. It is often impracticable for them 
to adopt the methods of others without making changes to fit 
their conditions, and the necessary changes are difficult to de- 
termine without a knowledge of the general scheme of mer- 
chandizing. Here this book will fill a real need, for it discusses 
in a practical way the problems to be solved in the analyses of 
the selling field and the competition in it; the determination of 
sales policies, organizing and instructing the selling force, ar- 
ranging the stock, and getting people into the store. Many il- 
lustrations from actual happenings sustain the human interest 
from start to finish. The "atmosphere" of the book is that of 
the department store, but electrical dealers will find many hints 
of value for their work. 

♦ ♦ ♦> 

Electric Heating, by E. A. Wilcox, E. E. 285 pages. San Fran- 
cisco : Technical Publishing Company : $2.50. 
This book fills a gap in the literature of electrical practice 
of which we have just become conscious. On the theoretical 
side there is little to be said concerning electric heating, but in 
its practical application there is perhaps no other use of elec- 
tricity which requires such a multiplicity of devices. A 500 watt 
motor will drive any machine requiring not more than that 
amount of power, provided the speeds are properly chosen, but 
a 500 watt heater takes on a different form for each substance 
it may be wanted to heat. From the author's experience as elec- 
tric heating specialist for the Great Western Power Company, 
he has written a book which will meet the needs of the great 
body of men who are interested in "load building" and in elec- 
tric heating in general. The book covers the fundamental theory, 
then passes to applications in lamp-socket devices, electric cook- 
ing, heating of water and air, furnaces and ovens, welding, 
steam production, miscellaneous forms. A brief discussion of 
rates for heating service is also given. As the book went to 
press in July, it is closely up to date, and the illustrations are of 
the latest devices in each line. 

♦ ♦ ♦ 

Principles of Alternating Current Machinery, by Ralph R. 

Lawrence. 614 pages. New York : McGraw-Hill Book 

Co. : $4.50. 

This is a text-book prepared primarily for use in the author's 

classes at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, but equally 

suited to the needs of senior classes who have had Calculus. The 



54 



ELECTRICAL 



AGE 



October, igib 



usual ground is covered in an admirably clear manner, and while 
the author has not hesitated to use mathematical reasoning, in- 
cluding complex quantities in practically every case. Illustrations 
are from pen-and-ink drawings which are very well done. 



Applied Electricity for Practical Men, by A. J. Rowland, New 
York: McGraw-Hill Book Co. $2.00. 

Handbook of Machine Shop Electricity, by C. E. Clewell. 
New York: McGraw-Hill Book Co. $3.00. 

Mechanical Engineers' Handbook, L.' S. Marks, Editor-in- 
Chief. 1840 pages. New York : McGraw-Hill Book Co. 
$5.00. 

Radiodynamics, by B. F. Miessner. 206 pages. New York: 
D. Van Nostrand Co. $2.00. 

♦ * ♦> 

Kenney Vacuum Cleaner Patent Sustained 

In the District Court .of the United States a permanent 
injunction has been issued against the Innovation Electric 
Co., Inc., enjoining this company from making or selling 
vacuum cleaners, it being held that the manufacturers were 
infringing on a patent granted to David T. Kenney on March 
19, 1907 and at present held by the Vacuum Cleaner Co., The 
injunction is temporarily suspended pending appeal. This is 
the basic vacuum cleaner patent and the court points out 
that the "fundamentally important proposition was the va- 
cuum idea as contrasted with the air-current theory." The 
claim which was infringed was for "a cleaner comprising a 
suction chamber provided with a narrow inlet slot, — the slot 
"being bounded and defined by lips which lie in the contact 
surface of the cleaner." The court held that it makes no dif- 
ference whether this slot is wide or narrow so long as the 
■dirt was removed by air being drawn through the fabric into 
the suction chamber of the cleaner. 

New Plant in Service 

The addition to the factory of The Robbins & Myers Co., 
at Springfield, Ohio, which was started early in 1916, was com- 
pleted September 1st. The equipment is now being installed 
and a part of it is in operation. The new building is of the 
same construction as the older buildings, concrete with steel 
window sashes and wood floors. It is 62 feet in width, 436 
feet in length and has five floors, showing a total of about 
135,000 square feet. With the completion of this building 
ground has been broken for another building which will be 
erected immediately adjoining the building just completed. 

Substitutes for Copper 

for the substitution of iron, aluminum and zinc for copper in 
■electrical machinery. In general the trend is to prohibit the use 
of copper in hazardous locations, such as in chemical or explos- 
ives factories. Copper is allowed where compactness or light 
weight is essential, as in very small machines, or where losses 
would be excessive as in very large machines. 

Thus for direct current machines up to 2 kw. all windings may 
be of copper, from 2 to 10 kw. the field coils must be of alum- 
inum, from 35 to 175 kw., zinc field coils and aluminum auxiliary 
pole and armature windings ; above 175 kw. aluminum main and 
auxiliary field windings and copper armatures. Commutators 
to be of iron from 2 to 175 kw., otherwise of copper. On all ma- 
chines 10 deg. C. Additional temperature rise is allowed during 
the war. — Electrical Engineering, (London) August 17. 

4$t ♦$» <§» 

In order to encourage the use of larger lamps the depart- 
ment of Light of Kansas City, Kansas, will sell all lamps up 
to and including 100 watts at the price of 19 cents. The loss 
on lamps sold below cost is expected to be recovered through 
increased sales of current. 



P®ffg©H®ll§ 
E. R. Kelsey, advertising manager of the Toledo Railways & 
Light Company, operated by Henry L. Doherty & Company, who 
has just recovered from a three months illness, is looking for 
the man who sent him a box of cigars on the day of the ap- 
pendicitis operation. A card that accompanied the cigars read — 
"You will enjoy these cigars as I understand you are going to 
smoke soon." 

Mr. Ray Palmer, formerly Commissioner of Gas and Electri- 
city for the City of Chicago, has recently been made President 
and General Manager of the New York and Queens Electric 
Light and Power Company, Long Island City, N. Y. He is a 
graduate of the University of Wisconsin and has had many 
years' experience in traction and consulting work. 

Dr. P. G. Nutting has been made director of the Research 
Laboratory of the Westinghouse Electric & Manufacturing Com- 
pany at East Pittsburgh. Dr. Nutting is noted for his contri- 
butions to the science and art of illumination, and has been 
with the Eastman Kodak Company for the last three years. 

W. F. Raber, vice-president and general manager of the Ar- 
kansas Valley Railway and Power Company, Pueblo, Colo., was 
elected a member of the Executive Committee of the Colorado 
Electric Light, Power and Railway Association in annual conven- 
tion at Glenwood Springs, September 22-23. 

Robert Montgomery, manager Commercial Department of the 
Louisville Gas & Electric Company, Louisville, Ky., has been ap- 
pointed chairman of the Louisville Advertisers Club committee 
having in chage arrangements for Advertisers' Week, October 
2-6. 

September 15 was the twenty-fifth anniversary of the entrance 
into the electrical and utility field of Frank W. FrUeauff, of 
Henry L. Doherty & Company and vice-president of the Cities 
Service Company. In consequence Mr. Frueauff was the re- 
cipient of many congratulatory messages and also "American 
Beauties" from the members of the Doherty Organization in 
New York and Denver. 

In June, 1891, Mr. Frueauff graduated from the East Denver 
High shool and the next day, laying aside the ribboned diploma, 
he put in an application with the old Denver Electric Company. 
As the doors of this concern were not opened to him he occupied 
the summer by working elsewhere. On September 15 he began 
his career as public utility operator, although at the time the 
position was termed lamp boy. The Denver Electric Company 
was later merged with the Denver Gas Company, which in turn 
became the present corporation — the Denver Gas & Electric Light 
Company. 

D. C. Green, formerly connected with the organization of H. 
M. Byllesby & Company as local manager at two Oregon and 
Washington properties, has been ppointed general manager of the 
Fort Smith Light & Traction Company, Fort Smith, Arkansas, 
succeeding H. C. Hoagland who has been managing that property 
in connection with his work as manager of the Muskogee Gas 
& Electric Company for some time past. Hr. Hoagland will con- 
tinue as manager of the Muskogee Gas & Electric Company. 
The change will take effect September 26. 

Donald McDonald, manager of the Louisville Gas & Electric 
Company has been elected a director of the Louisville Industrial 
Foundation, and has been appointed vice-president by the board. 



Mathias Pfatischer, inventor of electrical devices pertaining to 
navigation, died at Roselle, N. J., on September 10. He helped 
to develope the single phase a. c. motor, and received the John 
Scott medal of the Franklin Institute in 1908 for the invention of 
the auxiliary-pole variable-speed d. c. motor. He was a member 
of the A. I. E. E., and a number of other technical societies here 
and in Germany. 






■■mi 



j"' " ;;: "; : :i!i;r aiiiiiiiiii 




IPFOffaCl 



JL/ 






j- rj 



[ r)'c- 



Monthly Review of New Aj 



fSlOElS, 



•3 



.osoit nanfl gpecialittis ©2 HSaiown Value 



The Names of Manufacturers Not Appearing in This Section Will Be Gladly Supplied on Request 



\\ hen a motor is to be attached to a domestic appliance already 
in service, simplicity is one of the most important points of de- 
sign. "When the method of attachment can be such that the pur- 
chaser can put the motor in place without the services of a me- 
chanic, the sale is more easily made for the initial cost is lower 
and the motor will be installed and working during the first 
flush of enthusiasm which accompanies its purchase. One of the 
best features of the sewing-machine motor just put on the mar- 
ket by the Shelton Electric Company of New York City is that 
it can be connected to 90 per cent, of all machines by pimply 
putting it in place on the table with its friction pulley in contact 
with the hand wheel. 




As will be seen from the illustration, the motor is hinged to 
a supporting stand in such a manner that its weight holds the 
pinion and the wheel firmly in contact. Cork is used for the pin- 
ion, so that there is no slip at ordinary loads. However, should 
anything go wrong, slip would occure, thus protecting the 
mechanism. The motor is of the universal type, wound for eith- 
er no or 220 volts, and consumes about 33 watts. Control is 
secured in a positive manner by a small rheostat moved by pres- 
sure of the operator's foot. Normally it holds the circuit open, 
and as pressure is increased the motor speed is raised in six 
3t any one of which it may be operated indefinitely. As 
illustration of the power available it was found impossible to 



hold the needle-bar of a sewing-machine when its controller 
was set to the third speed. 

It is a fact that the average woman cannot tell offhand the 
direction in which the hand wheel of her sewing-machine motor 
turns. With some motors it may be necessary to change the 
connection to correct the direction of rotation — a job which few 
purchasers care to try. Reversal of the Shelton motor is secured 
by the simple expedient of turning it end for end on its stand, 
withdrawing the pinion from the hollow shaft, and placing it at 
the other end. A buffer or an emery wheel may be substituted 
for the driving pinion in the same manner. Both of these are 
furnished with the motor. The finish throughout is nickel, and 
the outfit, including eight feet of cord from the foot-switch to 
the attachment plug, retails at $13.00. 

♦> ♦ ♦> 

3KT®w SEsKslamsat ©saHO, 

The manufacturer of a line of electrical cooking appliances 

has placed on the market a three-heat "Radiant Grill." This grill 

operates from any lamp-socket, and cooking can be cMhe both 

above and below the glowing coils. It is equipped with three 

heats in such a way that it is a very simple matter to adjust the 

heat to the user's needs. The composition switch-plug is 
simply inserted at the different points in the plug receptacle 

marked "High", "Medium" and "Low," using 600, 300 and 150 
watts respectively. By a unique arrangement the switch-plug is 
attached at the base of the appliance, the receptacle being near- 
ly concealed. It is claimed cool contact is absolutely assured by 
having the receptacle thus removed from nearness to the coils 
The burner is supplied with a heating element of very rugged 
design, of the open-coil-reflector type. It is made of exception- 




ally heavy gauge resistance wire and supported by high-grade 
mica insulated cross-bars. These bars are reinforced and pro- 
tected by metal cross rods which form a very strong grating for 
the cooking surface. The frame is made of heavy pressed steel, 
and every part is finished in highly polished nickel. The grill 
has four wide, fibre tipped feet which provide a very firm 
base, and prevent any mar or injury to the very highest polished 
surfaces. It is furnished with two dishes, deep stew-pan with 
broiling grid, and shallow dish. There is also reflector (to con- 
centrate heat on one operation) which may be used as a cover, 
and for a cake griddle. Each dish is equipped with black, al- 
ways-cool, ebonized wood handles, which assure comfort and 
convenience in handling. These dishes may be used either above 
or below the coils. Ordinary cooking utensils may also be used 
on this grill. 

The complete outfit is priced at $6.00. 



5^ 



ELECTRICAL AGE 



October, iqi6 



The 20,000 ampere d. c. circuit breaker, pictured on this page 
is the most recent solenoid operated type of circuit breaker devel- 
oped by the General Electric Company for controlling direct 
current circuits of unusually high capacity. The normal contin- 
uous rating is 20,000 amperes. This circuit breaker is one oi 
four of the same capacity built for the Aluminum Company of 
America for installation at Massena, N. Y. The closing and 
opening movements under normal conditions are controlled by 
a single-pole double-throw control switch mounted remote from 
the breaker on the switchboard or in any other convenient loca- 
tion. On overload or short circuit the breaker opens automatic- 





Fig. 2. 



Fig. 1. 



ally by means of a direct-acting trip. The breaker is mounted on 
a 21^ inch slate panel, and the solenoid mechanism is support- 
ed by a steel base. 

The use of solenoid-operated and other types of distantly- 
controlled circuit breakers simplifies station wiring, reduces 
length of main cables, and economizes space at the point from 
which operations are controlled. 

Solenoids which operate this and other large carbon or oil 
breakers require much larger curents for their operation than 
can be interrupted by control switches without ruinous arcing. 
In such cases a relay, such as the one illustrated is used between 
the control switch and the solenoid. The rugged construction of 
these relays is evident from Fig. 2. No detailed description is 
necessary, but it is worth while pointing out that the moving arm 
turns upon a pivot which carries no current, as it is strapped by 
a flexible copper cable. Due to the spring support of the mov- 
able contact, it "wipes" the fixed contact in closing. For hand 
operation of the relay, its plunger can be raised by lifting on the 
ensulating button at the bottom. 



In all cases the prime advantage of the portable electric drill 
lies in "carrying the tool to the work." This advantage is aug- 
mented by speed with which the work can be done and the fact 
that the tool frequently is utilized for work which formerly re- 
quired special machinery. 

The efficiency of a portable electric drill when substituting for 
expensive machinery is demonstrated in the plant of the Sterling 
Engine Company of Buffalo, New York. Here a portable elec- 
tric drill is used to drill 0.25 inch oil holes in drop forged crank 
shafts and the holes drilled through the shaft at an angle of 
29 deg. The drill is attached to an inexpensive frame made iv- 
the Sterling Works. Provision is made for moving the drill ver- 





tically and horizontally and also for swinging the drill e : ther right 
or left to an angle of 29 deg. 

The two operations of drilling and reaming "in place" are used 
to a considerable extent in automobile assembly work and, with 
the exception of holes involving micrometer limits, the portable- 
electric drill is used altogether for these operations; also where 
a true hole is required free from chatter, such as bed plate bolts 
for marine engines, or column bolts which have to be reamed 





in place to secure a perfect fitting bolt an operation that cannot 
be done with a reciprocating type portable tool or by hand. The 
electric drill and reamer can better perform this operation ow- 
ing to its smooth transmission of power. 

In timber rafting the construction of a crib requires 0.875 i n - 
holes drilled at 3 ft. spacing through two or three 10 in. or 12 
in. timbers. This drilling was formerly done by an auger driven 
by belting on a three-sectio flexible boom, somewhat like three- 
sections of a folding foot rule, with the pulleys at the ends of 
joints. This permitted the auger to be moved quickly from end to 
end of the timber. This required a boiler, an engine, a man to run 
them and the man at the auger. The portable electric drill 
abolished the whole outfit, one man now doing a former days 
work in an hour. 

♦ ♦> »> 

MLwtw% ©slw^si Film I&ewSsid©* 

The rewinder illustrated, was devised to assure absolute safety 
in the winding and rewinding of mo'ving picture films, and is 
the only machine approved by the National Board of Fire Un- 
derwriters that entirely encloses the film when rewinding. This 
machine is driven by an enclosed Westinghouse motor, selected 
as best adapted for the work both from principle of operation and 
construction. The cost of operation is said to be less than 5 
cents a day based on a 12 hour performance. 



October, 1916 



ELECTRICAL AGE 



57 



As shown by the illustration this rewinder is very simple. 
It is supported by two uprights which in turn rest upon an iron 
base, giving proper rigidity without undue weight. There are 
two magazines, one larger than the other. Each is a separate 
enclosed compartment, with a cast aluminum cover or protector 
designed to conform to the shape of the reels. The larger mag- 
azine is used for the reels during rewinding; the smaller one 
contains the operating mechanism. 

The machine will take reels of 2,500 feet or less of any make, 
and will operate only when the magazine covers are closed, 
unless set for examination or inspection of the film. This fea- 
ture makes it fool-proof, checking the possible explosion of ex- 




posed films due to carelessness. The attention of the operator is 
not required at the end of a film as the machine will auto- 
matically stop when the film has been completely rewound. 
Should the film break while the machine is in operation the re- 
winder will automatically stop at the point where torn and al- 
low splicing of the film, after which it will proceed to rewind 
the balance of film on reel. 

Operators and owners are often give a great deal of annoy- 
ance by the presence of "rain" on the screen. This is caused by 
dust and particles of dirt which collect on the face of a film 
during rewinding, when such rewinding is done in the ordinary 
way. As the Horting rewinder winds the films under cover 
perfect pictures are assured as no dust can get on the film. 
It has an additional advantage, in that it protects films from 
mutilation and does away with unnecessary cutting of film, 
as the perfect rythm of rewinding prevents tears and breaks dur- 
ing projection. 

* 4» 4$ 

Safety Switch 

The effect of "Safety-First" agitation has been shown recent- 
ly in the development of a number of safety switches, of which 
one of the most interesting is here shown. This type, known as 
the "Square D" has the switch and cut-out unit completely en- 
closed in a metal box provided with a hinge cover which is 
held closed with a simple spring catch. The switch is operated 
by a crank handle located outside the box. The switch may also 
be locked in the "off" position to prevent accident when repairs 
are in progress. Means are also provided to lock or seal the 
cover shut to prevent unauthorized persons overfusing the 
switch or tampering with live connections. 

The "Square D" enclosed switch is also recommended for the 
use of central stations as entrance service equipment where me- 
tered service is given. It effectually prevents the theft of cur- 



rent which is generally accomplished by wiring around the 
meter. The switch terminal and fuse are under lock and key, 
and while the electric current user can turn the current on or 
off at will by means of the handle outside the box, the current 
carrying parts and wiring remain inaccessible. Meter trims for 
joining the switch box and meter are available for any type of 
current meter. 




The type of switch illustrated has a pressed-steel case, and is 
intended for voltages from 125 to 600, and for currents up to 
300 amperes. A cast-iron type is also made which is operated by 
pushing or pulling a knob. The box cannot be opened unless the 
switch is in the "off" position. Around the edge of the remov- 
able front plate is a rubber gasket to make the box fire, water, 
and fumed proof, thus enabling the use of the box in damp or 

hazardous localities. 

*•♦ *v ♦** 

V V V 

Po&e-CBaanger. 2©ir Bdll Ringing 

The supplying of a low voltage 
current for the operation of bells, 
annunciators, electro-m a g n e t i c 
trips, etc., is frequently attended 
with considerable annoyance, as 
well as expense, especially where 
primary batteries are depended 
upon. Where alternating current 
is available the installation of 
one of the many excellent bell 
ringing transformers now on the 
market has solved this problem in 
a most satisfactory and econom- 
ical manner, but where direct cur- 
rent only may be had, the en- 
gineer who would tap the power 
mains to secure a dependable low 
voltage for his bells, etc., has 
been obliged to install either a 
motor generator or some form of 
potentiometer. To meet the de- 
mand for a dependable means for 
supplying low voltage power a 
New York concern has brought out a new type of transformer 
in which a small current taken from the no volt D. C. lighting 
circuit is caused, by means of a vibrating mechanism, to traverse, 
alternately, and in reversed direction, two primary coils of a 
static transformer. There may then be taken from the secondary 
winding an alternating current of low frequency and any de- 




58 



ELECTRICAL AGE 



October, 1916 



sired voltage which is peculiarly well adapted to operate bells, 
annunciators and kindred devices. 

The breaking contacts in the bells, which are a frequent source 
of trouble, may be entirely eliminated where this transformer 
is used, as the frequency of the current alternations will produce 
the proper vibrating effect desired ; yet, on account of the low 
frequency of the secondary current, the ordinary vibrating bells 
and buzzers, with breaking contacts, will operate perfectly with 
this curent. 

These transformers have been in use for more than a year 
but the manufacturers have withheld them from the market until 
assured that they could be absolutely depended upon. Careful 
micrometer measurements of the contacts after long service in- 
dicate a contact life of five years and then it will be necessary 
to renew contacts only. This transformer has been tested and 
approved by Underwriters' Laboratories. The conduit for the 
primary wires may be brought direct to the case, knockouts being 
provided on both sides. The dimensions are : height, 18 in. ; 
depth, 6 in. ; width, 7 in. ; weight, 55 lbs. 

♦ ♦ ♦> 

EstLsliistiOia Htfpiilut©!' ©2 LiMipsw^dl ©sisagst 

After a considerable amount of engineering and experimental 
work with a view to improving the electrical performance and 
mechanical details, the Westinghouse Electric & Mfg. Company 
has placed on the market the improved design feeder voltage reg- 
ulator illustrated. This is a single phase induction regulator, 
known as the type C, for 2300 volts, 60 cycles, 10 per cent, reg- 
ulation, and it is standardized in all ratings from 554 kva. to 
69 kva. The refinements secured in this new design have increas- 
ed the reliability of the regulator in service and have simplified 
and decreased the expense of the wiring necessary for installing 
accessories for automatic operation, in addition to improving 
the electrical efficiency. Figure 1 shows the regulator removed 
from tank. 

The rotor is wound with form-wound coils, as shown by Fig- 
ure 2, and constitutes the primary element. The short circuiting 
coils in the rotor are formed from a large number of turns of 




r3 



effects for which they are provided. The core is of the frameless 
construction so largely used for induction motors. Thus the 
cross section of the stator core is increased without a correspond- 
ing increase in size of other parts and of floor space, resulting in 
a decrease of iron loss and exciting current. Further, the in- 
sulating oil in which the regulator is immersed in the tank comes 
in direct contact with all surfaces of the stator core with more 
efficient cooling effect. 

In a regulator, the insulation of windings is of vital importance 
because of the severe conditions of operation. The coils for both 
primary and secondary are therefore carefully insulated and 
impregnated, and are assembled in open slots, where they are 
held by fibre wedges driven in small grooves at the top edges of 
the slots. Heavily insulated steel bracing rings are assembled 
around the exposed ends of the stator coils at both ends of the 




Fig. I. Regulator Removed from Tank 



relatively 'small size enamelled copper wire, thus reducing the 
watts loss in these windings without decreasing the neutralizing 



Fig. 2. Rotor of Induction Regulator 

core. These rings are bound to the coils with cord, and greatly 
stiffen the coils against distortion from mechanical shock caused 
by current surges in the feeder during periods of line disturbance 
or short circuit. This feature is an important one, increasing the 
protection to the coil insulation and the factor of safety of the 
regulator in service. 

An electrically controlled switch or auxiliary relay for the 
operating motor, formerly mounted separately from the regula- 
tor, is now mounted directly on the regulator top cover and in- 
cludes the limit switch. This arrangement cuts down the num- 
ber of wires required in the control circuit for automatic opera- 
tions, and simplifies and lessens the expense of installation. The 
chance of failure in the control circuit is correspondingly lessen- 
ed as well, and inspection of the wiring is made easy. 

The operating motor is provided with a quick acting magnetic 
brake as heretofore, but the operating mechanism has been 
changed, so that the regulator now requires only 10 seconds for 
the complete range of travel from maximum buck to maximum 
boost, 20 per cent, regulation. 

The regulator is made as a unit and may be quickly removed 
from the tank by simply unbolting the top cover, thus making in- 
spection and repairs comparatively simple. The tank is formed 
from sheet steel walls with oxy-acetylene welded seams and with 
top and bottom flanges cast on to the walls. This type of tank 
is the same as that used with Westinghouse oil insulated self 
cooled transformers. It is strong with undue weight, and free 
from oil leakage. Due to the large surface exposed, the radia- 
tion quality is necessarily very high. 

* * * 

Faucet-Type Water Heater 

Experience has shown that the greatest source of expense in 
heating water electrically is the supplying of heat which is 
radiated from the storage boiler and the piping system. Unless 
the pipes are carefully lagged — a condition difficult and ex- 
pensive to secure — fully as much heat will be wasted as is de- 
livered in the water flowing from the faucet. On this account 
a heater located at the point of utilization will promote the 
economy which is so desirable in all electrical heating. 

An ingenious device for this purpose has been placed on the 
market by a New England manufacturer. His heater, which is 
illustrated, contains a cylindrical porcelain body perforated to al- 
low the water to flow through it freely. In the same passages 
are coils of resistance wire. There is a switch which is con- 
trolled by turning the handle which turns on the water. When 
this handle is in the neutral position both water and current 
are cut off; when thrown to the right, both are turned on, and 
the temperature of the water is regulated by the amount which 



October, 191 6 



ELECTRICAL AGE 



59 




passes through the heater. With the handle to the left, however, 
the current is not turned on, and thus cold water can be drawn 
from the same faucet. For installation in a new house, this ap- 
pliance will save the cost of the present system of pipes for hot 
water. It has the further merit of supplying water at any tem- 
perature desired, up to the boiling point, at a turn of the handle 



* 



* 



Fitting for Bell-Ringing Transformers 

A wiring device called "The Trancolet" is expected by the 
makers to fill the long-felt want for a fitting to bridge the gap 
between conduit and the high-tension terminals of a bell-ringing 
transformer. Heretofore it has been necessary to leave the 
leads exposed in this space, making a needlessly conspicuous 
exhibition of wire-splices. 

The Trancolet consists of two parts ; the base which is de- 
signed to screw on the transformer and the outlet fitting ; to- 




*■.".'.; ft vy fiv97£r:ia 
WfOt*W .5/57/'/ 



gether with the cap to cover same. The base is apertured to 
correspond with the opening of standard outlet fittings, and 
to receive the primary bushings of the transformer. When in- 
stalled the base is first placed on the transformer and fitting, 
the joint is then made with the service, after which the cap 
is screwed in place. 

Eesides insuring absolute protection to the wiring the Tran- 
colet permanently grounds the transformer case to the conduit 
<;m. 



"Geyser" Family Washer 

Under the name of The Geyser, the Capital Electric Company, 
of Chicago, is marketing a cylinder type of washer with an all- 
metal tank and frame, electrically welded. The cylinder, which 
is removable, is of triple plated metal, and is easy to keep clean 
and sanitary. Due to the absence of chains, belts, and gears, 
this cylinder is easily removable thus making it possible to keep 
washer tank clean without great effort. The wringer is reversi- 
ble, has safety release, and can be used at the same time as the 
washer, or independently. A Y^ horsepower Westinghouse motor 
operates both washer and wringer. Levers on the top edge of 
the washer control both, and a snap switch is provided for turn- 
ing on current. 

By the method employed in the Geyser, the clothes are always 
completely under water in a cylinder free to revolve, and a 
powerful circulation of hot suds is forced through them. Thus, 
as the clothes are not stirred around and lifted out of the water 
they do not become matted together, and are not strained or 
torn by rubbing or plunging. The washer is small but roomy. 




The one illustrated, known as the family size, has a capacity of 
6 sheets. A home laundry size is made, having a capacity of 9 
sheets, and a smaller one for light washing, called the Baby 
Geyser, which is only 14 inches wide but has a capacity of 3 
sheets. It is admirable suited for use in bathroom or kitchen. 

v *** ▼ 

Candle Lasnp 2©r ©©Mering 

The time-honored means for soldering wire-joints involves 
the use of a candle, although other forms of heat-production, 
such as the gasoline and alcohol torch or the hot soldering- 
iron, have been used, each has so great disadvantages that 
linemen and installers prefer the old-fashioned candle. Its 
heat is just great enough to allow of easy soHering, wHle 



6o 



ELECTRICAL AGE 



October, 1916 



it is not powerful enough to anneal or crystallize the wires. 
Numerous wire-breaks on aerial lines can be traced to these 
causes. 

A Pacific Coast inventor has just put on the market an 
improved form of holder which protects the flame 
from draughts, and yet allows it to be brought close up to 

1 




the wire which is to be heated. In use, the device is placed 
on the wires by raising the cap 16 a sufficient distance to un- 
cover the slot 20 as shown in Fig. 3 and 4, sliding it on the 
wire the cap is then let drop so that its slots 21 seats over 
the projecting wire, thus all draft is excluded at this point and 
the device is held suspended and the hands of the operator 
left free for the soldering operation. Tubular solder may 
then be inserted through the hole in the top and rubbed 
against the wire. The candle may be lighted in strong winds 
since it is so well protected by the housing. A substantial 
economy in candles is effected, since all the melted tallow 
is saved and there is no loss by abrasion when the outfit is 
thrown into a tool-bag. 

* ♦> * 

Mfloa© ni FfiSteena=2ia©B& (S£a®3k@ C©fflg 

In the protection of electrical apparatus against lightning a 
good coke coil is almost as important as a good arrester. The 
high frequency or steep wave front of lightning and other surges 
builds up an excessive voltage between the ends turns of elec- 
trical apparatus connected to the line as well as a high voltage 
to ground. A choke coil connected ahead of the apparatus will 
take the place of these end turns and the strains will thus occur 
across turns whose insulation is especially designed to stand it. 
Even if the insulation of some of th«;se turns does break down 
no harm will result, as in the case of a transformer, as the air 
insulator is self-healing and the coils have no short circuit en- 
ergy to maintain an arc between turns. 

A good choke coil must have sufficient inductance to choke 
back the greater part of each high voltage surge, and high in- 
sulation to ground. It must also have high mechanical strength 




so that it can support its own weight without sagging and can 
resist the stresses due to line short circuits when they occur. 

The Westinghouse Electric & Mfg. Company has recently add- 
ed to its line of 15-inch choke coils a new line of smaller coils 
o-inches in diameter. Both sizes are listed for outdoor or in- 
door mounting up to 130,000 volts, with a separate line of 9- 
inch coils for indoor mounting up to 49,000 volts. These coils 
are of the typical Westinghouse construction and are made up 
of a helix of aluminum rod in the 200 and 400 ampere capacities 
and of copper in capacities of 600 amperes and above. 



A typical feature of their design is the thorough bracing of 
each turn of the coils, which gives them all the rigidity neces- 
sary to withstand the stresses due to line short circuits. The 
bracing of the turns makes it unnecessary to reduce the diameter 
of the center of the coil and thus sacrifice much of the induct- 
ance in order to prevent sagging. Another notable feature is 
the construction of the insulator supports which (except in the 
case of the 9-inch outdoor coils below 49,000 volts) permits in- 
verting the insulators so that the coils can be mounted either up- 
right or suspended from the ceiling. 

In the case of the very high voltage coils where built up in- 
sulator columns are used, the porcelain units are bolted together 
and it is therefore easy to replace broken porcelains or add 
more units when desired. 

The 9-inch coils, now offered for the first time, have as much 
inductance as is ordinarily used, and can be applied in a great 
many installations where lightning conditions are not abnormally 
severe and where the apparatus to be protected has good modern 
insulation. The 15-inch coils have about 5 to 7 times the induct- 
ance of the 9-inch coils and afford correspondingly greater pro- 
tection. They are the largest helical coils now on the market 
for lightning protection and should be used wherever lightning 
conditions are very severe or where apparatus is not 'new and 
rugged. For the protection of high-voltage motors and genera- 
tors connected directly to transmission lines even larger choke 
coils are vitally necessary. 



A new phantom loading box, known as their type F, has been 
designed by a company which has had many years' experience 
in this work. As will be seen in Fig. 1, the instrument is of at- 
tractive appearance, having bakelite moulded top and operating 
handle. The secondary current in amperes is marked on the 
stationary outer circle, and an arrow on the moving part in- 
dicates the value set for. Reference to Fig. 2 shows, in the bot- 
tom of the box, the small transformer which reduces line volt- 
age to 5 volts for currents above 5 amp., and to 10 volts on the 
lower part of the scale. This is done to offset the greater drop 
through the current coil of a small meter. 





The instrument is calibrated with a definite pair of low-tension 
leads, which should not be altered. Current steps are 0.1, 0.2, 
0.5, I, 2, 5, 7-5. 10, 15, 20, 25, 35, 50, 75- A power-factor of near- 
ly unity at all loads is secured. The Type F meter is particular- 
ly suitable for use with a rotating standard test meter. 

In use, the potential of the line is connected to the circuit 
through a cord and special plug put in the holes marked "no" 
or "220" (See Fig. 1) according to the voltage. The wires are 
also connected to the potential coil of the standard watthour 



October, 1916 



ELECTRICA 



AGE 



V>I 



meter. Connection is made from the heavy secondary binding- 
posts to the current coils of both meter in series. The desired 
load is then indicated by short-circuiting various resistances, 
located in the metal cage, by means of the sector and hand-wheel 
and readings are taken in the usual manner. 

* 4» * 

New Electric Washer 

A Western Manufacturer has recently placed a new washer 
on the market, known as the "Wonder," which is sold with a 
five-year guarantee. The tub is made of heavy cold rolled 
polished copper, tinned on the inside. The legs are of steel tub- 
ing with steel braces. They are copper plated and polished to 
match the finish of the tub. A stand is made for the tub which 
folds back out of the way when not in use. The wringer is re- 
versable and is provided with ball bearings. The gears are fully 
enclosed. The operating mechanism of the washer is provided 




with ball bearings and is so constructed that the gear is automa* 
tically disconnected when the cover of the tub is raised. The 
water capacity of the washer is 17 gallons, and it weighs 115 
pounds. It is belt driven by a l /% horse-power motor, manufac- 
tured by The Robbins & Myers Company, Springfield, Ohio. 
The motor is a splash-proof design which is made especially for 
washing machine service. 

Electrolytic Lig&ita&iU&g Jkrregfce^s 

The Westinghouse Electric & Manufacturing Co., as a re- 
sult of research work, which is carried on continuously for 
the purpose of increasing the efficiency of electrolytic light- 
ning arresters, has made several 
improvements in its line of such 
apparatus and now offers the 
two forms illustrated, designat- 
ed as types A and AK. The type 
A arrester is designed for volt- 
age up to 2,450 and is furnish- 
ed for indoor mounting only ; 
the type AK is for operation on 
alternating current at 2,000 volts 
and above, particularly where 
generators are to be protected. 
The electrolytic lightning arrester offers a very high resis- 
tance to the flow of current at normal voltages and very 
low resistance to current at abnormal voltages, the change 
in resistance being instantaneous with the charge in voltage. 
It also acts as a condenser, so that its effective resistance to 
current at low or normal frequencies is great, but to currents 
at high or abnormal frequencies such as the frequencies of 
static disturbances, it is small. These two properties are due 
to films electrochemically deposited on aluminum trays in the 
arrester. 




Type A Arrester 



While designed for direct current service in railway or 
lighting power houses and substations, the present form of 
type A arrester with spark gap may be used for low-voltage 
alternating current installations. It is similar in construction 
to the type AK except that no charging resistance is required. 
The same aluminum trays are used, and these are mounted in 
an iron tank of ample strength, and of such size as to pro- 
vide sufficient oil for cooling purposes under all possible 
operating conditions. As the size of aluminum plate exposed 
to the electrolyte is twice that of any other alternating cur- 
rent aluminum arrester, this arrester exceeds in discharge ca- 
pacity any other arrester for similar sevice. It is not limited 
to any particular kilowatt capacity of circuit. It is furnished 
with a fuse mounted on top of the tank with a gap for in- 
sulating the arrester from the line. This gap can be easilj 
short circuited for charging purposes, which operation should 
be performed once a day. The arrester can be operated on 
direct current with the gap closed, but in this case the leak- 
age current disintegrates with the aluminum trays and the 
electrolyte, giving them a much shorter life than when a gap 
is used. 

The type AK arrester consists of a system of nested, alu- 
minum, double cone or cup-shaped trays, supported on porce- 
lain and secured in frames of treated wood, arranged in a 
steel tank. The system of trays is electrically connected be- 
tween line and ground and between line and line. These 




Type A K Arrester 

trays contain a liquid electrolyte which forms a film on their 
surfaces. This film prevents flow of current at normal vol- 
tages but forms a free path for abnormal voltages or static 
discharges. The distinctive features about this arrester are: 
A new inorganic electrolyte that is more stable chemically, 
less affected by heat, and which causes less dissolution of the 
film between charging periods than any electrolyte previously 
on the market; double cone shaped aluminum trays, the area 
exposed to electrolyte being double that of any other ar- 
rester; trays spaced by porcelain pieces and not touching 
wood; ventilating duct in center of tray stack for additional 
circulation of oil; tank linings of bakelite micarta, impervious 
to moisture; charge and discharge resistance on all arresters, 
and fuses included. 

Type AK arresters for outdoor service are the same as the 
indoor arresters except that the outdoor arresters are pro- 
vided on terminals. The outdoor arresters are not furnished 
for voltages of less than 10,000, as for voltages below this 
the horn gaps cannot, with safety, be set close enough to- 
gether out of doors to take advantage of the freedom of dis- 
charge of the electrolytic element. If the horn gaps are set 
too close they are short circuited by rain. 

Horn gaps are furnished on all type AK arresters, they are 
readily adjustable for any line voltage and so arranged that 
the bridging necessary for charging is easily accomplished. 



62 



ELECTRICAL AGE 



October, 1916 



On indoor arresters, for voltages below 9,900 volts, bridging 
is accomplished by tilting one horn of each pair until a 
phosphor bronze strip attached to each movable horn comes 
in contact with the corresponding horn and short circuits the 
gap. A spring insures the return of the movable horns to 
their normal position after charging. For charging arresters 
on circuits of 10,000 volts and higher the proper adjustment 
of the gap is obtained by setting a stop on the horizontal bar 
that turns one of each pair of horns about on its own axis. 
When properly adjusted for operation the horns are slightly 
offset. When the arresters are to be charged the horns are 
swung back until they are in the same plane. The horns, 
when opened to their widest extent, serve as a disconnecting 
switch and insure safety to those working about the arrestee 
Charge and discharge resistance connected between the 
main horn gap and the arrester proper is furnished with all 
type AK arresters. These resistance units consist of rod 
resistors in shunt with small spark gaps. The resistor is of 
a composition known as "Koppat," the resistance possessing 
the quality of remaining practically uniform under all condi- 
tions of service. The shunt gaps are between small horns. 
In the low voltage arresters one resistance rod and one shunt 
gap are used. In the higher voltage arresters, two of each 
are used in series. 

Condenser arresters have been in use for over three years 
on direct current lines of voltages up to 5,000 with almost 
perfect success, so they can no longer be considered an ex- 
perimental proposition. These arresters can also be used on low 
voltage alternating current circuits, but they are not yet avail- 
able for 2200 volts alternating current or higher. A condenser 
arrester has the same protective effectiveness on alternating 
current as on direct current circuits, and its development for 
alternating current service is dependent simply on commercial 
conditions. 



Makers of display devices will be much interested in a new 
flasher called the "Tu-Way." This is designed to energize two 
circuits alternately by moving a central contact between two 
points. Heretofore it has been impracticable to operate such a 
device thermally, and motor-operated flashers have been too ex- 
pensive for the multitude of displays which need current alter- 
nately in two circuits. 

The principal which makes positive contact on either side is 
most ingenious. By reference to the illustration, the long V- 
shaped wire is heated by passage of current through the ■ spiral 
which surrounds it. As it expands it allows the coiled spring 
to draw the bar to the left. At the end of this bar will be seen 
a U-shaped piece which carries a. strip of sheet steel. This strip 
is held bowed out toward the contact-point which it touches. As 




the pressure against this point becomes heavier, the steel sudden- 
ly snaps over and bows out in the other direction. The move- 
ment of its center is enough to bring it into contact with the 
other point, and current now flows through the other circuit. 
The heating coil is then out of circuit and the wire cools, con- 
tracts, and draws the contact bar up against the contact tighter 
and tighter until it snaps over to the other contact. 

All contacts are of platinum-iriduirm, ensuring long life; a 
condenser is also connected across the contacts. These have a 
capacity of 1.50 amperes. The retail price of the device is $10.00 
to the public. 

There is no danger of the spring losing its elasticity, as the 
current density is very small, due to its liberal design. 




SHELTON SEWING MACHINE 

MOTOR — $15.00 



The logical motor for your customers to 



use 



Universal — runs on either alternating or direct 
current direction of rotation changed instantly 
to suit the design of the machine. 

Serves other purposes — wheels for polishing 
and grinding are included with each outfit. 

Backed by guarantees — made by the largest 



Quickly attached — place motor under hand- 
wheel of any sewing machine — screw plug into 
nearest socket. 

Easily operated — six speeds at will by a foot- 
operated controller. 

Economical of power— no belt losses — no waste 
power while motor is running idle. 

small-motor works in the world — marketed by 
the makers of the well-known "Shelton" 
vibrators, hair-dryers and sterilizers. 

Be ready with a "Shelton" when your 
customers want a sewing-machine 
motor- — it will yield returns both in 
money and satisfaction. 



SHELTON ELECTRIC COMPANY, 



Boston: 101 Tremont St. 



New York: 30 E. 426! St. 



FT. WAYNE, INDIANA 



San Francisco: 62 Post St. 





Technical Journal Company, Inc., New York 

Copyright — All rights reserved 



Vol. 49 



NOVEMBER, 1916 



No. 5 



Bet 



By 



\ ©taaaeaaii 



The New York Edison Company maintains a Bureau of 
Home Economics to care for the point of contact between 
the company and the home-maker, and as an intermediary 
between manufacturers and the public. The Bureau reaches 
housekeepers with purely educational material, given out in 
the form of articles for womens' magazines, lectures and 
demonstrations before clubs, a cooking-school held in the 
Bureau's demonstration room, and letters to selected lists of 
patrons. It tests new appliances under actual working con- 
ditions, advising the manufacturer of the results, and sug- 
gesting possible improvements. A great number of devices 
are on display, and the Bureau maintains a completely equip- 
ped electrical kitchen. At the annual Electrical Show the 
Bureau has a large exhibit. 

IERHAPS the most characteris- 
tic feature of central-station 
commercial work is the 
amount of time and money 
spent on purely educational 
publicity. Especially is this 
true in the domestic applica- 
tions of electricity. There is 
no more conservative institu- 
tion than the family kitchen, 
and the housewife lags be- 
hind everybody else in doing 
things electrically. Hence it 
is necessary to use every 
means to reach her with the 
message that the electrical 
way is the best way of per- 
forming most of her house- 
hold tasks. The channels through which information 
is conveyed vary widely, depending on the community 
and the amount of money available for the work. One 
oi the most interesting recent developments has been 
the testing department for domestic appliances of 
which the Bureau of Home Economics of the New 
York Edison Company is perhaps the best example. 
While the cost of the Bureau as a whole is beyond the 
means of all but a few companies, yet there are many 
single activities which fit so nearly the needs of in 
dividual communities that the necessary expense can 
well be justified. 

According to Miss Anne Broome, Manager of the 
Bureau, her organization performs two distinct func- 
tions. First, it furnishes a point of personal contact 




with the Company's domestic patrons, and second, it 
acts as an intermediary between the public and the 
manufacturers of electrical goods. Its quarters occupy 
an entire floor of the Company's building on Forty- 
second Street, in the heart of the shopping and theatre 
district. The staff includes the manager, who reports 
to the Commercial Manager, an Assistant Manager, a 
special cooking instructor, seven demonstrators, and a 
maid. 

Toward the public, the Bureau takes the attitude 
that its mission is purely educational. It tries, first of 
all, to teach the best modern ways of doing things in 
the home. Of course, the methods used are all elec- 
trical, but no special effort is made to push electrical 
devices, nor does the Bureau make any direct sales. 
Every piece of apparatus bears a tag, giving the mak- 
er's name and address, and the selling price. It is 
suggested to an inquiring patron that she communicate 
with her nearest dealer. When so requested, the 
Bureau will give an order to ship the goods C. O. D. 
It is felt that the knowledge that the Bureau has 
nothing to sell makes the public feel freer to come for 
information before determining to purchase, and it al- 
lows the demonstrators to recommend the most suit- 
able apparatus without regard to make. 




Furniture Does Much to Create a Favorable Impression 



26 



ELECTRICAL AGE 



November, 191 6 



During the winter of 191 5-16 the Bureau held a ser- 
ies of seven lecture-demonstrations on cooking, which 
were arranged in an ingenious way. The suggestion 
was made to a prominent New York club-woman that 
she organize a "Home Economics Division" of the 
Federated Women's Clubs. This she was glad to un- 
dertake, and by appearing personally before the local 
•organizations she interested about two hundred wom- 
en of the progressive sort who, once converted, make 
most useful friends for electricity in the home. The 
new Division met seven times, at monthly intervals in 
the Bureau's demonstration room, listening first to a 
talk on some phase of home management by a speaker 




Visitors May Sec it "Done Electrically" 

which they secured. Then one of the Bureau's repre- 
sentatives spoke on electrical methods in the home, 
including the preparation of many appetizing dishes. 
Afterward, the audience had opportunity to examine 
the wide variety of appliances on display, the corps 
of demonstrators being on hand to answer their ques- 
tions. 

For the coming season the Bureau's activities will be 
widened by the introduction of two new plans. A reg- 
ular cooking school will be held in the company's 
building, free of charge to all. This will be in charge 
of a special cooking instructor, who will give six lec- 
tures on particular classes of foods and their prepara- 
tion, and four on the preparation and service of com- 
plete meals. For this purpose tables carrying indi- 
vidual equipment of the usual school type will be in- 
stalled, and for larger work the regular kitchen will be 
available. 

The equipment of this kitchen is intended to be a 
model for a family of six to eight people. It occupies a 
space of 13 ft. by 8 ft. at one end of the demonstration 
room, yet has working space large enough for three 
people to prepare a meal without confusion. The ap- 
paratus installed is as follows : 

Apparatus Size Cost 
Westerburg & Williams refrig- 
erating system % h. p. $350.00 

AVestern Electric two-disc range 

with movable oven 2,000 watts 35-OQ 

Buzzini Warming Table (also 

used as kitchen table) 805 watts 125.00 

Westinghouse Automatic 

Range with oven, broiler and 

three outside discs .6,850 watts 105.00 



Rapid Dishwasher (can also be 

used as kitchen table) 2 9-85 

Reynolds Power Unit (for turn- 
ing all kitchen utensils which 

are usually turned by hand) . . % n - P- 35-°° 

Hamilton - Beach Drink Mixer 
for beating eggs, making 

mayonnaise, etc 50 watts 12.50 

Sprague Electric Works Ozon- 
ator for counteracting odors . . 75 watts 75-QO 
In order to carry information to a larger circle, the 
Bureau is preparing to give lectures before womens' 
clubs throughout its territory. As. in its other work, 
the aim will be to teach the preparation of certain dish- 
es and the performance of certain tasks, the desirability 
of electricity being suggested only by inference. These 
lectures will include foods prepared with lamp-socket 
devices, such as chafing-dishes, two-plate kitchenette 
ranges, percolators, etc. There is a great field for this 
in New York on account of the large number of people 
who have no regular kitchen facilities, and who now 
depend on restaurants for their meals. It is felt that 
many of these people can be induced to prepare at least 
the lighter meals themselvs, if they can be shown how 
little trouble it is to "do it electrically." There will be 
other lectures on kitchen arrangement, laundry and 
cleaning and domestic refrigeration. 

With the assistance of the Company's "Follow-up 
Bureau" sales-promotion letters are sent out to select- 
ed lists of customers. One of the most successful ap- 
peals was that of a letter announcing that Santa Claus 
had left some of his wares on display before he put 
them in his pack, and that if kiddies and grown-ups 
too would come they might tell him what they'd like 
to have left in their stocking. Over twelve per cent, of 
those written to responded, and their elders played 
with the electric trains and motors as eagerly as did 
the children. 

A much wider form of publicity is the furnishing of 
suggestions or entire articles for women's magazines. 
The Bureau feels that the time and effort is well spent 




Youngster and Oldsters Were Delighted 

for the national magazines reach many of their own 
patrons, and it is glad to make this contribution to the 
good of the industry. 

The service of the Bureau to manufacturers is ren- 
dered by making, free of charge, tests on new appara- 
tus under actual service conditions. When a new type 
{Continued on page 55) 



.November. 191 6 



ELECTRICAL ACE 



27 



De 



irr'J 7mM§ 



v'ri \£& 



By C. E. Clewell, Assistant Professor of Electrical Engineering, University of Pennsylvania 



Fig. 1 



IT IS hardly necessary to use the word decorative in the 
* above title in connection with home lighting, since the 
lighting effects in the home should practically always be 
decorative, and the plans and methods followed should be 
looked upon as constituting an art 
and should receive careful study 
just as the plans for the physical 
interiors of rooms and halls in 
the well designed home are made 
the object of careful study from 
the artistic point of view by the 
successful architect. 

One of the greatest criticisms 
which can be made of most of the 
older home lighting, and unfor- 
tunately of many modern cases as 
well, is the excessive attention 
which has been directed towards 
decorative fixtures and the fact 
that too little thought has been 
given to the way and means for 
obtaining decorative lighting. Ex- 
amples of this are to be found on 
ever} - hand and one of the prin- 
cipal objects of this article is to 
set forth some of the steps which 
have been taken to improve these 
conditions. 

It should not be inferred from 
the foregoing paragraphs that 
utility is to be entirely neglected and over-ruled by considera- 
tions of appearance in the average conditions of home lighting. 
The illumination of each particular room has its peculiar re- 
quirements and these should be carefully studied and provided 
for when selecting the lighting equipment.. At the same time 
appearance need not be sacrificed because, in the main, by judici- 
ous planning, average home lighting conditions can be made high- 
ly efficient and effective and also pleasing from the decorative 
standpoint. 

Difficult to Set Standards 

One of the peculiar features of home lighting is the fact that 
each individual property owner or house holder, in general, con- 
siders himself his own best illuminating engineer. The archi- 
tect or the builder installs the kind of fixtures in the various 
rooms which happens to appeal to his own individual taste or 
hly more to his financial limitations, and then the tenant of 
the house feels free to modify the size of lamps in given fix- 
tures to suit his own fancy. 

Tim Mate of affairs has quite naturally led to a widely diver 
gent set of conditions in home lighting and also to wide-spread 
abuse of the most simple and obvious principles of good illum- 
ination. Again, the numerous types of residence structures 
make it almost, if not entirely impossible to standardize the 
lighting of given rooms in residence lighting work. About all 
that can be done is to suggest ways and means which have been 
found useful in obtaining good lighting effects in such typical 
as the living room, and the like, in the hope that such sug- 
,e information may assist those who have similar problems 
■ :ve, in obtaining equally successful results. 

It should be apparent that the exceedingly diverse nature of 
the homes in a community, their many and varied arrangements 
of room' and the various shapes and sizes of given rooms in a 




certain class, are all conditions which probably make home light- 
ing one of the most important branches in the entire lighting 
field, and one in which there is a unique demand for originality 
and for the exercise of judgment on the part of the designer. 

It is unfortunate that so often 
the choice of lighting fixtures and 
the system of illumination for a 
new home lies in the hands of one 
but little acquainted with the ele- 
ments to be sought if good illum- 
ination is to be secured. Upon 
such, the responsibility of future 
improvements in this field largely 
rests. At the same time the ten- 
ant often desires to purchase a 
new fixture or to modify existing 
fixtures for producing new results. 
From this standpoint, his own 
eduation up to the possibilities in 
the situation become an important 
and prominent factor. 

While rules covering general 
cases arc rather difficult to make, 
there are several features which 
have been the object of consider- 
able study with materially improv- 
ed results. One of these is con- 
cerned with recent developments 

Fig. 2 in 

Table and Stand Lamps 

The older types of table and stand lamps have been, in many 
cases, characteristically and fundamentally bad. Composed of 
an upright stand, as is so often the case, with an art glass shade 
resting on some form of support at the top of this stand, the 
bare lamps distributed beneath the shade, not only result in a 
poor distribution of light under the lamps, but are often mount- 
ed at such unfortunate distances below the shade, as to make 
the filaments themselves visible to occupants in various parts of 
the room. Older table lamps have therefore usually possessed 
poor light distribution characteristics and have produced glare, 
thus failing to meet two of the most important conditions re- 
quired in good lighting. 

Figs. 1 and 2 are shown as examples of marked improvements 
found in the better table lamps now available. The finished 
table lamp in Fig. 2 has an artistic semi-transparent shade 
mounted over the unit composed of the lamp and its glass 
reflectors. The art shade (not shown) conceals the parts 
of the lighting units shown in the illustrations and gives the 
lamp as a whole a finished and pleasing appearance. 

In Fig. 2 either the ordinary Mazda or a gas filled lamp is 
placed in a vertical position at the top of the stem. This lamp 
is mounted in a glass reflector which sends part of the light di- 
rectly to the ceiling of the room through an opening in the outer 
art shade, and by direct transmission through the glass reflector, 
the art shade is illuminated. Moreover, a useful but diffused 
part of the light is transmitted downwards at oblique angles so 
that a considerable portion of the total light is thus transmitted 
to the table surface and to adjoining part of the room. Any 
given point in the room is thus, in general, illuminated partly 
by light transmitted directly through the glass reflector and 



28 



ELECTRICAL AGE 



November, 1916 



partly by light reflected by the ceiling due to that part which is 
sent upward by the reflector immediately surrounding the lamp.* 
The light may be furnished altogether by the lower cluster of 
lamps (upper unit turned off), in which case practically all the 
light on the table surface is directly transmitted through the 
lower bowl. Again, the upper unit may be used alone, thus 
sending a large proportion of the light to the ceiling and thence 
to the table surface ; or both may be used together, thus giving 
a combination effect. This scheme removes, or at least greatly 
reduces the difficulties found in the older and inferior table 
lamps, and it produces an illumination which is soft and free 
from glare and at the same time so distributes it that the result 
is more efficient as well as more pleasing. In the unit shown in 
Fig. 2 a rheostat is made a part of the lamp so that the light may 
be reduced at will. 

Use of Opaque Reflector 

Fig.. 2 shows a somewhat different arrangement Here an 
opaque shade (interior of mirrored glass) surrounds the prin- 
cipal lamp, sending its light to the ceiling and producing in the 
room an effect practically identical with that of the total indi- 
rect system. Small lamps mounted below this opaque shade, 
but which are inside of the silk outer shade, give an artistic 
setting to the unit as a whole by illuminating the outer silk 
shade. Fig. 3 furnishes an excellent idea of a living room 
equipped with a table lamp of the kind shown in Fig. 2. Note 
particularly in Fig. 3 that most of the illumination results from 
ceiling reflection, and yet the small lamps under the silk outer 
shade furnishes enough direct light to give a sense of warmth 
and cheerfulness to the interior. 

One of the most common mistakes made in earlier residence 
lighting was the adaptation of the older gas fixtures to electric 
lamps by merely mounting an electric lamp at the end of each 
of the arms of the gas fixture. This natural, although bad prac- 
tice of continuing the design of electrical fixtures along the old 
lines which had been developed for gas lighting, led to many 
examples of the worst possible home lighting. It is not uncom- 
mon, even now, to find many fixtures with badly exposed Mazda 
B or even Mazda C lamps at the ends of fixture arms, at or near 
the centre of the room, the lamps being so low as barely to clear 
the heads of those who may stand immediately below the fix- 
ture. 

The gradual adoption of the numerous examples of semi-in- 
direct fixtures has been a most welcome change. Fig. 4 is select- 
ed merely as one of many cases which might be shown, where a 

*Fig. 1 refers to products of the Geo. C. Lynch Co., N. Y., 
and Fig. 2 refers to a table lamp of the National X-Ray Reflec- 
tor Co., Chicago. 



semi-indirect fixture, in this case usng an Alba bowl, is mount- 
ed near the ceiling in a living room. This is an excellent illus- 
tration of semi-indirect home lighting and in this case it should 
be noted that a considerable portion of the illumination is due 
to ceiling reflection, but at the same time, there is a direct trans- 
mission of light through the bowl, thus giving possibly more 
warmth to the fixture than could otherwise be realized. 

The foregoing examples are merely suggestive. Many others 
of equal interest might be discussed with profit, and in using 
these special cases outlined, it has been the object to describe 
briefly the main features and to point out some of the most im- 
portant points which should be secured. Where the comfort and 
convenience of such a vast number of people are involved 
throughout the homes of the country, it follows that all efforts 
made by central station solicitors and by others to improve the 
conditions of the illumination in such places, should go just so 
far towards the betterment of the ideas of those who use the 
light, concerning the nature of the items which can be used to- 
day in the production of good illumination results. 



In connection with the reopened rate case of the New York 
Edison Company before the Public Service Commission, Mr. 
John W. Lieb, v : ce-president and general manager, has made an 
interesting statement of his company's position. Under the rate 
schedule which went into effect May 1, 1915, presumably for 
three years, there was a net saving to consumers of about $2,100,- 
000 per year. This is a revenue loss to the company which, had 
it not been for a tremendous increase in sales, would have meant 
a net revenue loss on the year's growth. This increase is too 
ephemeral to give it any standing in the case. 

Of the class whose bills average less then $2.00 per month, 
there are 45,000 on the lines. If a rate less than the present 8c 
were to go into use it would be necessary to have a minimum 
bill, which would "shake out all the little fellows" — resulting 
probably in a net revenue loss. 

In order to show a profit in the face of rising prices, it has 
been necessary to practise rigid economies, even to the curtailing 
of salary advances. Earnings for the year ending May 31 last 
show an excess of but $1,885,000 over interest and dividends, 
which is only 3 per cent, on more than $60,000,000 which the 
company claims as the excess of assets over funded debt and 
capital stock. If it be granted that this excess of value be en- 
titled to interest at 8 per cent, the shortage in the last year 
is $3,000,000. Since 1900 the annual dividend has been less than 
4 per cent. 




Indirect Lighting from the Lamp of Fig. 1 



Semi-Indirect Lighting 



November. 1916 



ELECTRICAL AGE 



29 



flST* 









^w 



By Cai2S©ff(ifl 
Assistant Engineer Empir 

This article is continued from the October issue in 
which Mr. Hartley covered the general aspects of the 
work. 
Having covered, in a general way, the precautions neces- 
sary to prevent service interruptions on cables exposed to the 
rather rough mercees of subway contractors, and the nature 
of the difficulties encountered in locating duct-runs in cramp- 
ed quarters, it may be of interest to tell of some places where 
reconstruction was particularly difficult. One of the most 
unusual jobs was the crossing at Church and Cortlandt 
Streets, so we will take that up first. 




adway and 27th Street. Iron-Pipe Telephone Ducts Below 

Other Pipes 

The Cortlandt Street System 

This crossing, which is almost in a class by itself, in that : t 
possesses certain features of design not found in any other 
subway, is known as the Cortlandt street syphon, and is so 
called on account of its resemblance to what is termed, in 
sewerage practice, an inverted syphon. The subway, con- 
sisting of 127 ducts, extends from a manhole on the east side 
of Church street, under the structure of the rapid transit 
subway to a manhole on the west side of Church street, and 
its construction in this form was made necessary by reason 
of the following: 

Before the rapid transit line on Church street was built 
there was a subway of 100 ducts running west on Cortlandt 
street from the Central office, and carrying, among others, the 
main trunk cables to New Jersey and points beyond. On 
the west side of Church street, between Dey and Cortlandt 
streets, there was a line consisting of 27 ducts. Upon plan- 
ning for restoration at this inter section, it was discovered 
that owing to the underground station of the Hudson & Man- 
hattan R. R. Co. and the new subway line, it would be im- 
repla.ce these ducts in their original location, or in 
the street. They were therefore relocated in the only remain- 
ing space, namely, under the sidewalk on the east side of 
Church street, and close to the building line. This made it 
necessary to add 27 ducts to the original 100 crossing Church 
street, or a total of 127 ducts to be carried icross a narrow 
intersection containing, besides the usual water, gas, and 
steam mains, and elevated railway, a street-car line, the rapid 
transit tunnel, and part of the Cortlandt street station. There 
is a elearance of less than five feet between the top of the 
subway roof and the street surface, and it was obviously 



©afty 

e City Subway Company 

impossible to bring across this shallow, congested section a 
subway of such size. There was but one way out, and it 
was a case of "get out and get under." The principal fea- 
tures of the design of this work are as follows: 

On either side of Church street, just outside the walls of 
the rapid transit tunnel, a special manhole was built. These 
manholes are 18 feet and 2 inches long by 8 feet wide, with a 
clear headroom of 16 feet and 6 inches. They are of heavily 
reinforced concrete, and are each provided with four castings, 
to permit of access to all of the compartments into which the 
hole will be divided by the racking and stowing of the com- 
plete cable plant. The duct-bank, consisting of 127 3^ inch 
wrought iron pipes incased in concrete, is solid throughout 
the greater part of its length, but before entering the man- 
holes it is split in two parts (6 wide and 10 deep) and each 
of these is in turn halved, so that the ducts enter the man- 
holes, from the bottom, in four separate clusters. The prob- 
lem of racking the cables from this entering direction was 
solved by carrying the ducts up in a pyramidal form, so that 
they are stepped up from the outside toward the center, the 
lowest ones being 18 inches above the floor, which places the 
open ends above the elevation of mean high water. These 
openings are further protected by hoods fitting around the 
cables and over the pipes. Special center racks and methods 
of racking are employed, as the cables are brought up ver- 
tically, and then bent over into a horizontal position. In 
place under the subgrade of the rapid transit tunnel, the top 
of the subway is 25 feet below the surface of the street. 

The wrought iron pipes which form this subway, issuing 
from the bottoms of the manholes in a vertical position, are 
bent to a very short radius in order to bring them to the 




N. W. Corner Broadway and Broome Streets. Manhole Under 

Construction. 

horizontal. It is the customary practice, as noted before, 
to make such bends in wrought iron pipe with the bending 
machine. On this particular job, however, they were hot- 
bent, each to its predetermined radius, as shown on a draw- 
ing prepared by the Public Service Commission. This was 
made necessary by reason of the great number required (254 
bends) and the short radii used, some being only 3$^ feet. 
Reconstruction at Broadway and 43d Street 
One of the most important points, and one of the most 
difficult, from the constructional viewpoint of the rapid tran- 
sit contractor, along the routes of the new dual system, is at 



3<> 



ELECTRICAL AGE 



November, 191 6 



Broadway and Forty-second street. Here — for example — the 
existing rapid transit subway runs, in part, under the Times 
Building, and the new Broadway and Seventh avenue lines 
form a connection with the old system, also crossing under- 
neath it to continue up Seventh avenue. 

This intersection of Broadway and 426. street is the govern- 
ing point in the studies for restoration and new subways 
along the Broadway line. It was necessary to determine ac- 
curately just what could be accomplished there, and for this 
reason a two-block-long subway was built (from 41st to 43d 
streets) in advance of rapid transit construction. This sub- 
way is unique principally in its location, which is between the 
car tracks, preliminary studies having indicated that to be the 
only possible space in which to build a subway of the number 
of ducts desired, namely, fifty-two. 

The formation of the ducts leaving the manhole at 41st 




Southeast Corner, Broadway and Pearl Streets. Empire City . 

Ducts on Top 

street and running north on Broadway is six wide by nine 
high, which, with 3^2 inch wrought iron pipe, requires a 
apace 34 by 48 inches. At 42d street, where the line crosses 
over the present rapid transit subway structure, it was neces- 
sary to charge this formation to 13 wide by 4 high, and even 
when thuL flattened the top of the conduit is only 17 inches 
below the street surface. On the north side of 42d street, two 
gas mains — a 20 inch and a 12 inch — were relocated, and a 
specially designed sleeve was placed on a 12 inch water main, 
in order to permit of the passage of our structure; and fur- 
ther on, between 42d and 43d streets, it became necessary 
again to change the duct formation, and to split the subway 
in two parts to enable it to pass a 20 inch water main. 

Added to these difficulties, there was the fact that this work 
must be performed entirely at night, or between the hours 
of 10.30 P. M. and 7 A. M. The volume of traffic at this 
intersection is enormous, and, as a matter of fact, it was 
not possible to accomplish much, on the surface, until after 
midnight, owing to the after-theatre traffic. Every morning, 
upon finishing work, the excavation was planked over, and 
reopened the next night. 

There is a certain phase of this subject of electrical sub- 
way construction in its relation to rapid transit work which, 
is worthy of consideration. It is the peculiar nature of 
the engineering work involved in the solving of the problems 
presented in this restoration of subsurface structures. Many 
engineering works of seeming difficulty, possessing spectacu- 
lar features calculated to arouse and claim the interest not 
only of the general public, but of the technical world as well, 
are, in reality, comparatively simple in their design and con- 
struction. Ofttimes the magnitude of the undertaking car- 



ries an appeal which overshadows lesser works involving, 
more than likely, engineering problems of greater difficulty. 
Most engineering structures may be designed, and built as 
designed, without let or hindrance. But he who enters here 
leaves design behind. It may be said without fear of con- 
tradiction that in all this rapid transit work, involving as it 
does the expenditure of hundreds of millions of dollars, and 
the construction of mile after mile of tunnel, the most 
baffling and puzzling features are to be found in the sub- 
surface restoration situations. Many an engineer, expert and 
capable in designing a bridge, for instance, would be at a 
loss when confronted with an intersection which is an ap- 
parently hopeless tangle, offering not a loophole of escape. 
Yet there are many such intersections, and they present real 
engineering difficulties which arise most unexpectedly, and in 
the twinkling of an eye. Their solution, as we say, requires 
a highly specialized form of engineering experience. To suc- 
cessfully handle this work, the engineer must have a 
knowledge of the practical application of engineering as ap- 
plied to sewer and waterworks construction, gas and steam- 
main installation, and, of course, the construction of electrical 
conduits. Much of this must be obtained by experience on 
this particular work, the exact duplicate of which is nowhere 
else to be found. 



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Bell Telephone News 



.November. 1916 



ELECTRICAL AGE 



31 



& 



%m<z 



By Uayair<fi 22. CBanrSlsty 



This is the third and last of a series of articles by Mr. 
Christy on the general subject of Patents. 

HE who owns a patent may, unless by word or deed he has 
obliged himself to do otherwise, freely sell it or any frac- 
part of it, or he may grant license under it to whomever and 

to as many as and on such terms as he pleases. 

One who is with others a joint owner of a patent cannot sell 
it all. He cannot restrain his co-owners and those authorized by 
them from enjoyment of the invention; but, in other respects, 
his rights are full and complete. And, whether his share be a 
half, a tenth, or a hundredth, he may (subject, as already ex- 
plained, to possible restraint under prior dominant patents) make 
and use and sell the thing patented ; he may assign his share in 
the patent to others ; he may grant licenses under it. Of course, 
in respect to any and all these things, the owner of part of a 
patent may have bound himself by contract with his co-owner : 
T "or example, he may have received his share on condition not 
to sell it without the consent of his co-owners ; or he may have 
agreed to share with them his profits. Such contracts are good 
and enforceable. But, with recognition of this, the fact remains 
that, unless specifically prevented by such a contract, the owner 
of a fractional part of a patent may deal freely with his portion 
of the title and with the invention. 

The transfer of a patent, of the legal title ; or the transfer of 
any fractional part of the legal title; or the transfer of the ex- 
clusive right to make, use, and sell within a certain specified 
territory — any such transfer is an assignment, and must, if it is 
to be effective, be made in writing and the writing must be re- 
corded. 

Making an Assignment 

Assignment may be made while application for a patent is 
pending, and in anticipation of the grant, or it may be made after 
the patent has been granted. 

There are no particular words in which assignment must be 
made ; the essential thing is that the words used shall express 
the clear intention to assign. The pamphlet published by the 
Patent Office, containing the Rules of Pratice, contains also 
forms of assignment which may safely be followed. It is quite 
common that assignment is made on conditions or under cir- 
cumstances which rended the published from insufficient; and in 
such case a man desiring to make assignment should consult his 
lawyer. 

The written assignment must be recorded in the Patent Office, 
and must be recorded within three months of its date; other- 
wise, it is of no effect against a subsequent purchaser for value 
without notice. That is to say, if A sells his patent to B, and the 
assignment is not recorded, and then more than three months 
later A sells the same patent to C, and C pays money for it, and 
C has no knowledge of the earlier transaction with B, then C 
gets the patent. 

Of course, in the case just mentioned, A could never challenge 
B's right; it is only the bona fide purchaser, a stranger to the 
first imperfect assignment, who can act in disregard of it. And 
so, if A should undertake to sell his patent to B by word of 
mouth only, B, no doubt, would acquire a right as against A — 
A could never challenge B's right to use the invention. But B 
would not acquire legal title. B could never sue some one else 
for infringement. 

Granting a License 

But, while transfer of the title or of a fractional part of the 
title to a patent must be in writing, the mere grant of a right to 
be invention — that is to say, a license — need not be (though 
ordinarily it is) in writing, nor need it be recorded. 

The grant of any right under a patent, less than the whole 
monopoly or than a fractional part of the whole monopoly is 



a license. To illustrate: The conveyance of the exclusive right 
for the State of New York to make and use and sell the inven- 
tion is an assignment ; for the thing conveyed is, within the ter- 
ritory defined, the monopoly. But the conveyance of exclusive 
right for the State of New York to make and use, without the 
right to sell; or of exclusive right to sell, without the right to 
make, is a conveyance of something less than the whole monopo- 
ly; and, so, of course, the conveyance of a right, not exclusive, 
to make and use and sell, is conveyance of something less than 
the whole monopoly, and is not assignment. It is a license, and 
nothing more. 

A license may be granted in writing, as has been said, but it 
need not be. Like other contracts, if may be proved indepen- 
dently of ' any writing. Indeed, it is not necessary that it be 
granted in so many deliberate words. It may come into being by 
implication, and in consequence of the acts of the parties con- 
cerned, as will presently appear. 

Some notes and comments on this general subject are pertin- 
ent: 

When an Employee Signs a Contract 

A man enters the employ of a manufacturing company, and 
when he does so he makes a contract — signs a contract in writ- 
ing- — in which he agrees that, in case he makes an invention, it 
shall belong to the company; the company will pay the cost of 
the patent, and the inventor will assign the patent to the com- 
pany. The employment begins, the employee makes an inven- 
tion, makes application for a patent, and a patent is granted. 
The patent belongs to the employee ; he is the owner, the legal 
title is his. But there are rights under the contract which the 
employee will not advisedly disregard. The company, though 
it has not yet the title, has the right to obtain the title ; it is the 
equitable owner ; it may, if the employee is recalcitrant, go into 
court, and on proper showing the court will require the employee 
to transfer his patent to the company. 

Note, the employee was not required to sign the contract at 
the start, but he signed it; he wanted the job badly enough to 
enter the contract. Having made it, he must abide by the con- 
sequences. If, violating his contract, he assigns the patent to 
someone else, he will be answerable for breach of his contract; 
and, unless the purchaser has acted in good fa'th and has paid 
a valuable consideration, the company may follow the patent 
and get it back again. 

Right to Invention Without Contract 

Such a situation is common. But there is a commoner one. 
The employee enters his employment with no agreement respect- 
ing future inventions. He is a trained and intelligent man. He 
becomes acquainted with the employer's methods and operations, 
and he makes an invention pertaining to the business. He builds 
a machine for the practice of the invention ; in doing this he 
spends the employer's time and the employer's money. The ma- 
chine operates, and its product goes to the company's wareroom 
and is sold in regular course. The employee obtains a patent. 
Can he then restrain his employer from using the invention? 
No, not on the facts stated. He has by his very acts put his em- 
ployer in the position of a licensee ; he has by his acts created an 
implied license in favor of his employer, and that license he has 
no power to revoke. 

This subject of implied license incident to employment is 
not simple ; every case must be determined on its peculiar facts 
and circumstances. The general principle is that in this matter 
the employee is bound by his own acts, and if he has so acted 
as to confirm a license in his employer, he cannot take away by 
direct act what he has conferred by implication. But the right 
^o created will not be any greater or more extended than the 



32 



ELECTRICAL AGE 



November, 1916 



facts justify. And it it is a matter of a single machine, in a 
shop where many such are used, the employer's right will be 
limited to a single machine, unless there lies in the circumstances 
an implication that the employer may use more So, again, if the 
employer operates a number of plants geographically separated, 
there must be peculiar and positive basis for an implied license 
extending to all the plants. 

Here again the advice of a lawyer will in particular cases be 
required. 

License by Implication 

License by implication is very common in patent law, and 
under various circumstances. Here is another instance : A 
man gets a patent for a cork-screw. Under the patent he has ex- 
clusive right to make such a cork-screw, to use such a cork- 
screw, and to sell such a cork-screw. He may see fit to hold his 
patent and make none. If someone else makes one, if another 
sells it, if still another use it, the patentee has a distinct and 
separate cause of action against each of the three ; each has in- 
fringed the patent. But if the patentee himself makes one of the 
cork-screws (or causes it to be made for him) and sells it with- 
out restriction, then it may be used and resold without limit, and 
neither the man who sells nor the man who uses it infringes 
the patent. Why? Because the original sale carries with it by 
implication a right in the purchaser to use and resell, without 
limit. But there is no implication about making more of them. 
The purchaser, though he may use and sell what he has bought, 
may not lawfully make another. To do that would be to infringe 
the patent. 

Transferability of License 

If I give another the right to use my patented process, if I 
sell to another my patented machine and license him to use it, 
my license in either case may enjoy the invention and sell the 
product. But, unless I expressly say so, he may not convey to a 
third person the right which I have conveyed to him ; if he 
should die, the right would die with him. No heir could in- 
herit it. That is to say, a license is not transferrable, unless by 
the express authority of the licensor. 

On the other hand, if I sell in open market, to whomever 
chooses to buy, my patented article, the implied license to use 
goes with the article into whose hands soever it may come. The 
first purchaser may sell, and sale after sale may follow, and 
always and everywhere the right to sell and the right to use will 
attend the article — because this was implied in the original pub- 
lic sale. 

The Work of an Inventor 

It is common thought (and the thinking is loose) that inven- 
tors generally fail of their reward; that the invention is gobbled 
up by some rich and conscienceless "corporation" which throws 
the inventor a penny and then proceeds to fill its coffers with 
rich rewards. Doubtless iniquities of that sort have been com- 
mitted, but they are of rarer occurance by far than people think. 
Very often an invention though made and patented is still far 
from the status of commercial utility and success. Often ex- 
perimentation remains to be done — with large expenditures of 
time and money — often the building of machinery and equipment 
is required, the establishing of commercial conditions ; engineer- 
ing problems have to be worked through, new and ancillary in- 
ventions made; often the final test of meeting and satisfying 
and continuing to satisfy public demands has to be endured. 
All these, and such like, matters need to be taken into account 
before it can be said how much a patent is worth. 

Ordinarily, in the eye of the inventor, his invention is of 
transcendent importance ; it looms larger to him than anything 
else in the world. "There are millions in it" he thinks and says. 
May be there are — and, may be, there is just nothing in it at all. 
If the inventor then is determined to sell his patent outright, 
let him realize that he is not justified in asking millions for it; 
he must set his price at some compromise figure, between the 
millions he believes to be in it and the nothing at all which (after 
all) may be the outcome. 



In many, indeed in most, cases the fair way is to dispose of a 
patent on a royalty basis — so much for every article sold, or 
such a percentage of net profits. Such an arrangement makes 
the money return contingent on and proportionate to commercial 
success. A certain amount of money paid down when the pat- 
ent is transferred, with a royalty besides, may be best of all. 
A Suggestion to Inventors 

But it often happens that the inventor has no money, or can- 
not afford to put money into a possibly profitless patent. A 
patent lawyer is often asked to give advice in such a case. He 
will ordinarily advise the inventor to put his invention in black 
and white, draw and describe it on paper, show the description to 
others, have them date and witness the papers. Then, having 
done this by way of precaution, the inventor may take his in- 
vention to some one who deals in such matters and ask him 
whether he cares to interest himself — whether he cares to con- 
sider the purchase of a patent thereon. The truth is, one is 
never protected against a thief, but we all of us every day run 
the risk of being robbed. And in this matter of invention 
(which, after all, is only property of a certain sort) one must, 
as in other matters of property, act reasonably. 

It is a remark which every lawyer hears — referring to some 
article in commercial use — "I invented that twenty years ago." 
The remark is made with a certain mental attitude on the 
speaker's part of irritation, and a clearly indicated feeling of 
the injustice of fate. But again, the feeling is often too hastily 
entertained. It does not follow that because a thing is com- 
mercially used it is a commercial success. A great deal of money 
has been dug of the mountains of Colorado, but, someone sug- 
guests, how much money has been put into the mountains of 
Colorado? People are apt to forget that very large sums of 
money have been put into patents (It has cost $35,000,000 and 
more to pay merely the government fees on patents thus far ob- 
tained), and to think only of the money (and it is great) that 
has been got out of patents. 

When all is said and done, the whole patent system is intended 
"to promote science and useful arts." Patents are intended to 
aid industry. In point of fact many (probably most) of the 
patents granted are of no importance whatever. But in mak- 
ing this observation, we must not lose sight of the fact that the 
important and valuable patents are, on the whole, very valuable ; 
that the patent system does indeed accomplish its intended pur- 
pose ; that, so far as men can see, the patent system has had a 
large part in making American industry secure, and in bringing 
America into the front rank of the nations in science and the 
useful arts. 

4» <j> <$• 

Labor Dilution as practised in the new industrial organiza- 
tion of England is a form of scientific management. Early in 
the war many skilled men enlisted from iron and steel plants 
and shipbuilding yards. "Dilution" was invented to meet the 
situation. 

The idea is that all available skill should be completely utiliz- 
ed. In each plant that the government found necessary to con- 
trol for military purposes the task of each employee seems to 
have been studied. Wherever a man was engaged upon any 
operation beneath his best skill, he was given a task which 
utilized his entire ability and a less skilled man who was really- 
adapted was given his old job. Men were also shifted from one 
establishment to another. Finally, women were placed in the 
plants for operation for which they were sufficiently skilled, or 
which required no special training. In 150 to 300 establishments 
controlled by the government on the Clyde fourteen thousand 
women were introduced. The Nation's Business. 

<g> 4> <$» 

At a special election the establishment of a municipal light 
and water plant at Coeur d'Alene, Idaho, was blocked by the 
voters' refusal to authorize a bond issue of $280,000. 



November, 191 6 



ELECTRICAL AGE 



33 



Mj la JL lL@2QEisim©ia 




An electric-sign campaign and how the manufactur- 
er's representative didn't sell them — and then did. This 
is the first of a series of articles by Mr. Lemmon, who 
is sales manager of the Reno Power, Light & Water Co. 

The new sales manager wished to put on a sign campaign. 
It might as well be admitted right here that the sales manager 
was in fact "new." While he had been in the employ of the 
company some years it had been in an entirely different capacity. 

His company had just decided to handle appliances and to or- 
ganize a new-business department of three, including the sales 
manager. Only he was called commercial agent. "Sales man- 
ager" is a title he assumed because a short experience proved 
that it made a much better impression upon that portion of the 
public with whom he came in contact. "Agent" is synonymous 
with "peddler" in many minds, and to these people, at least, a 
letter signed "sales manager" carried with it a complimentary 
degree of authority. 

His qualifications were merely an assumed knowledge of ad- 
vertising methods, (because he had been a newspaper man pre- 
vious to his reformation), a somewhat varied experience in 
public policy matters, and the completion of two correspondence 
courses in salesmanship — but no experience. His two assistants 
were equally new in the work, one having been in the account- 
ing department and the other in the purchasing end. The de- 
partment was obviously created to give these three old employees 
something to do during a slump in general conditions. The 
manager's instructions were brief : 

"Go to it. Get the business. Don't bother me with any of 
your troubles — I don't want to hear them. Get your estimate 
of the year's expenses in by Saturday." 

Dignifying the Doorstep Work 

The two newly-made salesmen didn't take kindly to a house- 
to-house canvas. The sales manager didn't know how to handle 
the situation ; but he believed that a little diplomatic delay would 
straighten out this stumbling block. In the meantime he parrot- 
ed a lot of words regarding the dignity of salesmanship, the 
real service the house-to-house man was giving the lady upon 
whom he called ; told the boys that Washington and Napoleon 
peddled books from door to door, (only he always avoided the 
word "peddled"), and otherwise wasted oratorical talent. 
Strange to say neither of his hearers seemed fired with ambition 
to emulate either the Father Of His Country or the First Con- 
sul. Also underneath it all the two assistants ill concealed their 
•pinions of the manager's wisdom in elevating their fellow 
employee to a position in which he presumably had some au- 
thority over them — an authority not earned by either superior 
knowledge or ability. 

How the Campaign Started 

Because the sales manager wasn't really capable he temporized 
and stalled, and planned some other method of selling. Hence 
the sign campaign. His town of twelve thousand people sup- 
ported ten electric signs, four of which were illuminated only on 
bonfire occasions, such as the annual state fair and when Bryan 
came to town. Also he had a friend who was western repre~ 
sentative of a large sign manufacturer. It was obvious that 
neither the sales manager nor his force knew anything about 
selling signs so the Western representative was called on to 
furnish a man who did. 

"1 am sending our Mr. Kingsley to you — one of the best 

salesmen in the country," wrote the sign man, "and he can sell 

ns around anybody you ever saw. Considering the population 

of your city you should sell twenty-five new signs at an everage 

price of $250." 



Twenty-five new signs! The joke was too good for the sales 
manager to keep to himself. 

"I'll bet you a box of cigars your paragon doesn't actually 
sell over five signs in our city," he wrote to the sign man. 

"You're on, and another that he sells over twenty," was the 
telegraphic reply. This challenge was accepted with the mental 
reservation that the extreme penalty would not be exacted. "I 
may be green at selling signs, but I do know the business men of 
my home town," he chuckled. 

Enter Mr. Kingsley 

One morning the sign salesman arrived and presented his 
card. He was attired in the latest. He wore more dollars worth 
of quiet clothes that the sales manager ever hoped to possess 
and so neat that he was almost a walking affront. He said 
"good morning," and that was about all he did say. He was 
as quiet as in a sick room after the visitors have departed. 
Even when told of the absurd wager his manager had made on 
him he didn't seem to appreciate the joke and only ventured a 
courtesy smile. 

The first day out he sold a sign to a moving picture house for 
fifteen hundred dollars. This appeared to be a fair day's bus'- 
ness but then the picture house had long wanted a sign and had 
been held in line for just this occasion. A week went by and no 
more sign sales. Then another signless week passed. One or 
the other of the local salesmen went with him every day to pick 
up points as. they could. Those boys reported that Kingsley 
didn't seem to be much of a salesman after all. They said he 
couldn't even talk. In fact, if anyone wanted a sign he would 
have to sell it to himself. 

The sales manager wrote the western sign representative 
designating his favorite brand. The western representative 
came back with an offer of an additional wager based on 
twenty-five sales. 

The Sales Manager Takes a Hand 

The sales manager concluded to introduce the sign salesman 
for a day and guided him to the hardest proposition he could 
think of — a druggist who employed spiders and flies only, to do 
his show window decorating, because they worked without pay. 

"Why haven't you a big, fine electric sign in front of your 
place" was Kingsley's approach. "You don't want to buy a 
gas stove to-day do you?" filled the sales manager's mind as the 
warning conveyed by lesson number one on what not to saw 
It seemed to him that Kingsley hadn't improved it much — (That 
was because he was new — he knows better now.) When his 
mind reverted to the conversation again the druggist was vigor- 
ously enumerating a varied and extensive stock of reasons why 
he didn't want an electric sign. The initial cost was too much, 
the operation and maintenance were too high, the benefits were 
nothing, and besides everybody in the city knew where he had 
been for over thirty years. "There is no use saying anything 
about it. I am busy to-day. Good-bye. I don't want ." 

Almost, But Not Quite 

"Excuse me just a moment," said Kingsley. At this point a 
scarf pin in the salesman's cravat had worked out to the point 
where it was about to fall on the floor. The druggist and the 
sales manager noticed it at the same time, but the druggist was 
first to speak — 

"Pardon me, but you are about to lose your scarf pin," and he 
stepped up close and readjusted it. Kingsley was profuse in 
his thanks, relating many tender associations connected with the 
pin to emphasize the value he placed upon it. 

The druggist did not seem so busy. Kingsley asked his ad- 
vice regarding a cold remedy, purchased a bottle, chatted a bit 



34 E L E C T R I 

about the affect of the war on chemical prices and started for the 
door. 

"You see I have been here so long that I don't need a sign. 
Everybody knows me and my place." 

"Probably everybody knows of Heinz' 57 varieties. Heinz 
spends hundreds of thousands of dollars refreshing their mem- 
ory. Heinz is a successful firm. It doesn't waste money." 

The druggist abandoned this position and took up another. 
He said he couldn't afford to pay $400 or $500 for a sign and 
neither could he afford to pay $15 or $20 a month for its opera- 
tion. The sales manager exercised considerable self-restraint 
and said nothing, but he inwardly fretted that Kingsley did not 
correct these over-estimates. The druggist, sure of his ground 
in the absence of denial, used his arguments over and over 
again, with increasing vehemance, Kingsley apparently on the 
defensive without any defence at hand. In fact <t appeared that 
Kingsley was rather unfortunate in the few words he did ven- 
ture for they seemed to encourage the druggist to even more 
extravagent figures. Finally in the midst of another tirade about 
an investment of $500 the sign salesman interrupted with — 

"A sign will cost $225 installed." 

The druggist paused a bit, somewhat confused, and then 
burst out — 

"No business like this can stand $20 a month for an electric 
sign. No sir." 

"To operate that sign 
five hours a night, in- 
cluding new lamps, as 
the old one burn out, 
will cost you $5.25 per 
month. How much 

newspaper space can you 
purchase for $5.25? How 
many people will see 
your sign every day and 
night?" And only then 
did he disclose that the 
sign would be paid for 
on installments covering 
three years. The sales 
manager wondered how 
many salesmen would re- 
serve this seemingly in- A Glimpse of the 
troductory point for the last. 

The conversation went on. Kingsley baiting his man into ex- 
travagent objections; gently dispelling them at the proper time 
with facts, and finally the dotted line bore the signature. 

How He Did It 

He anticipated no possible objection — contrary to the advice 
of the correspondence courses — but encourated his victim to 
make all he could think of, and then skillfully led him into a 
position he could not maintain in support of them. In other 
words he made a selling argument out of every objection of- 
fered. He probably used less than five hundred words, while 
the druggist used several thousand. 

His trick with the stick pin was a stock one. He purchased 
these pins by the dozen at the ten-cent store and had learned to 
work them out with his coat. It is human nature that having 
performed a service for a stranger we feel kindly toward him. 

Had the druggist not given him an opening when he started 
to walk out he would have departed, but the next day would 
have called and purchased something else. Sooner or later the 
subject of signs would be brought up by the druggist. He 
did in fact sell the sign to himself, and so did the others. 
Kingsley made no arguments ; he merely corrected the misappre- 
hensions existing in the mind of his victim. 

It was a new one to the sales manager. It wasn't according 
to the book, but it worked. It seemed to him that it might be 
a very dangerous method in the hands of a less skilled salesman ; 
but later he found it extremely effective. It requires primarily 




C A L AGE November, 1916 

a knowledge of all the facts relating to the goods, and a ter- 
mendous amount of self restraint to direct the conversation to 
the inevitable end. "I can't lose a sale by talking too little" said 
the sign salesman, "for I always go back. I can easily lose one 
by talking too much." 

Never Let Him Say "No" 

One of his rules seemed regular. "Don't let the customer say 
'no'. Let him think it as much as he pleases, but never allow 
him to strengthen his resistence with the spoken word. Leave 
him before this happens and he is yours later." 

When the number of signs sold had reached thirty-seven the 
sales manager wrote the western representative of the sign com- 
pany to select his cigars and have the bill sent in. The reply 
was by wire : 

"I never smoke. Admit that Kingsley can sell signs and the 
debt is paid." -• 

<$> 4> 4» 

Til© Hiw Tsfk Uleetxie&i Hhow . 

A description of an electrical show boils down to two things : 
a list of the exhibitors and their displays, and an appreciation 
of the decorative and lighting effects. Neither of these have 
much real significance for the man who does things. We have 
therefore asked Mr. George B. Parker, General Manager of the 

Electrical Ex position 
Company, to. tell or read- 
ers something of what 
lies behind the scenes — 
what makes the show 
successful. 

"The first show was 
held in Madison Sqare 
Garden, ten years ago. 
We had about six months 
to prepare plans, line up 
exhibitors and get the 
necessary publicity. So 
successful was the first 
show that we formed a 
permanent organization 
and immediately began 
to plan for the next year. 

New York Show ■ Now we have most of the 

exhibit space contracted for before the preceding show is 
over. We gave five exhibitions in the Garden, and this is our 
fifth in Grand Central Palace. 

"Back of the Electrical Exposition Company are the central 
station interests of the city. Support of this sort is both proper 
and essential, for the central station should assume the burden 
of education which will continue to sell current to the user of 
electric devices, while the manufacturers' and dealers' opportun- 
ity ceases with the sale. The New York central stations, how- 
ever, do not make a charity proposition out of it ; their con- 
tribution is limited to buying exhibit space at regular rates and 
also tickets at a special price. Two tickets go to every patron on 
the lines and a great number are distributed in other ways. 
These consumers' tickets are good only on a definite day, to 
ensure a distribution of the crowd over the slack days of the 
week. Each permits the holder to buy an indefinite number at 
one half the usual price. In spite of this gratis distribution, 
there is quite a large percentage of admissions at the full price 
of fifty cents. 

"As to the spirit of the show, that is intended to be educa- 
tional from start to finish. Exhibits of the Government and the 
State, such as models of battleships, wireless and signalling 
sets, rapid-fire guns, census tabulating machines, and canal 
models, attract great crowds. This year we had a Complete set 
of silk mill machinery; a printing plant; an electrically oper- 

(Continued on page 49) 



I 



r ! i ■ i T " c r r T |i - 1 1 rj i : 1 1 1 ■ r ^ ■ : : ! j i ' i i i ! i i : i h i r ri r 1 1 t 1 1 n i n ■ ? r r r r I : ti j ; : | ; I i | ] i ■ ■ f: r r r : 1 1 ! I ■ 1 1 . i ; = : ■ ■ : 1 1 ; 



llllilU! 






','■'!:, III,"'. - 



IIIIIIJJ!iif;l[llllllllilllJiN:iii!!li!!! : :;:.;:.'i. .-■.::.■■ 



D 






A most interesting experiment in rate-making is 
about to be undertaken by the Peoples Gas Light & 
Coke Company, of Chicago. Providing the necessary 
legal approval be secured "the company proposes that 
after deducting all normal operating expense as here- 
tofore from gross income ; and after deducting bond in- 
terest and 6 per cent, on any future securities issued 
under authorization of the State Public Utilities Com- 
mission in exchange for new capital — the remaining 
earnings shall be divided between the company and the 
consumers in the following manner: 85 per cent, to 
the company and 15 per cent, to the consumers." 

There is in this proposal a recognition of the best 
present-day public opinion — that a utility is the trustee 
of the public's investment in plant and organization 
for public service. Under this conception it is evident 
that the public as well as the investors have an interest 
in the prosperity of the enterprise. A utility can serve 
its patrons best when it is prosperous, although there 
are many who seem to wish that the company be kept 
the verge of bankruptcy. When consumers have a 
stake in the net earnings, there will be a large body of 
people who will oppose in private conversation any 
sentiment of opposition to the utility. A body of sup- 
port of this nature is particularly desirable in the pres- 
ent case, when under already adverse public opinion, 
it is necessary for the company to change the quality 
of gas from one exceedingly expensive to manufacture 
to another one lower in cost but also lower in illu- 
minating quality when used in open-flame burners. 

As far as the company is concerned, the scheme is an 
excellent one. If concessions must be made they 
should not be such as will kill initiative. To formulate 
and put through schemes of business-getting and cost 
saving means hard thought, exhausting effort and 
^reat responsibility. If each economy is to be follow- 
ed by a reduction in price, the busy manager may well 
ask himself if the game is worth the candle. The public 
has no inherent right to share in any savings ; it con- 
tributes nothing but its patronage, and even that is had 
only at a cost of an energetic Sales Department. If 
utilities had contented themselves with things as they 
were ten years ago it is not improbable that the stock- 
holders would have been just as well off to-day, but the 
public would be paying a much higher price for in- 
ferior service. 

From the only figures at present available it is not 
elear how the security holders will come out of the 
deal. Bondholders will of course be unaffected, but 
from figures in the company's 191 5 report it would 



seem that the dividend rate must be reduced from eight 
to perhaps six per cent, for the present net revenue will 
not stand the cut. If approval is given to change from 
water-gas to coal-gas, sufficient savings may be ef- 
fected to make up for the loss in revenue. It is in- 
teresting to note that subsequent issues of stocks will 
receive six per cent, dividends before any payments are 
made to present stockholders or the consumers. This 
is a wise provision for future financing, since any new 
stock will be practically preferred as to dividends over 
the present issue. 

What the paying public will think of the scheme 
only time will tell. On' the basis of 191 5 business, the 
refund would amount to but 2.82 per cent, on consum- 
ers' bills, a small sum to the residence consumer, whose 
"weight of numbers" is most important in the forma- 
tion of public opinion. For the sake of public utilities 
as a whole, we hope that this experiment may prove an 
acceptable solution of the problem. Continued agita- 
tion for public ownership, fostered mostly by persons 
unfamiliar with public service problems, needs to be 
offset by every available means. The present scheme, 
that of voluntary partnership between owners of capi- 
tal and patrons served, is much more likely of success 
than a forced co-operation of the entire body of tax- 
payers to provide, through municipal ownership, ser- 
vice for only a part of the community. Its success will 
be the more significant as showing that the best rates 
are not the lowest nor the highest, but lie at a point 
beween where there is the greatest return to the own- 
ers in dividends, as to the patrons in continued high- 
standard service. 



«s* 



There are two reasons why we work. The first one 
— because we need the money — calls for no comment. 
As old as labor itself are appeals to men to do more and 
better work for the sake of a bigger pay-envelope : 
when there is a close relation between the two, as in 
the newer bonus and piece-rate systems, satisfactory 
results are secured readily enough. But when the boss 
tries to get us to do better work for "the pleasure that 
is in it," he has a pretty hard task. 

Now we will have to admit that with lots of en- 
thusiasm or when a crowd is watching, it is a good 
deal easier to do great deeds. Unfortunately, we get 
tired, and we have to work along where nobody will 
ever know how well or how poorly the job was done. 
That is the time to remember the story of the wire- 
layer "somewhere in France" who had come back alive, 
as by a miracle, from a particularly dangerous job of 



36 ELECTRICAL AGE November, 1916 

. repair work between the lines where a false move interest, such as the securing of a larger order by a 
meant discovery and death. Though he often had to manufacturing company, should be given the shop 
lie motionless while a star-shell lighted the field, he force by bulletins at least simultaneously with its re- 
kept on until he found the break, repaired it and crept lease to the press. When the management tells its em- 
back to the lines. Some curious correspondent ques- ployees as soon as it tells anybody else it makes them 
tioned him as to "how he did it"— to which he replied : feel that they are not kss i mportant to it than the gen- 
"I said to myself, 'Jinimy, m y boy, that girl at home eral public. 

has her eye on you, and you're doin' this for her!' and \ • ,„.',, 

t -j it.-* t 1 j r* t 4-u » So much for some of the things publicity will do 

every time I said that I crawled a bit farther. ? . . . 

T , . c r T . 1 , • • , «m , 1 „ among employees. It must not be forgotten that it 

It is a far cry from Jimmy and his girl back home fe ^ J . . •„" 

,, ,. , , 1 • • „ „ is never a substitute for genuine good will as shown 

to the corporation employee and his company paper . . ...... , , , 

, . , , r , „ ,, » , r e T1 by the provision of proper facilities, reasonable hours 

but the cases are after all the same. Approval of fellow J r • •. • • •> 

men, spoken or silent, when a man's name appears in and £ ood P a y- J ust as m advertising, if the advertiser 

a house-organ with praise for good work, is something does not "deliver the goods," his printers' ink is spread 

which everyone values. The success of these often in vain - No intelligent man can be deceived by fine 

most unpretentious sheets and the interest with which words > and a figurative slap on the back is no substi- 

they are read is the best of justification for their exis- tute for a merited increase of pay. But let other con- 

tence. Their effect cannot, of course, be measured di- ditions be right, and publicity among his fellows for 

rectly for it is seldom that anyone will think that he good work will set any man "on his toes" to do it 

did this or that because he hoped he might be praised a g" am - 

.-11 *& *fc ' Jfa 

publicly. On the other hand, the conviction that the 

right thing is the only thing that a decent man could €@Mteal Station VS B®®!®! 1 

do, is the most powerful force in our daily lives, and Two contributors to this issue, Mr. Parker and Mr. 

when a man is shown that his "crowd" think certain Bullen, touch upon that sore spot in the electrical 

things are right, he is very likely to do them, even merchandising field— competition between central sta- 

against inclination. Just this is what the house-organ tion and dealers in the sale of appliances. Mr. Bullen 

does, for it puts the stamp of public approval on men shows the undesirability of competition to the general 

who have done what was right. g° od o£ the industry, while Mr. Parker says that in the 

"Company spirit" is no less desirable for the small particular case of the electrical show with central sta- 

concern than the large, but many managers feel that tion backing, the good will of the dealers is essential to 

the expense of a house-organ would be more than they success. 

could afford. Fortunately, the smallness of such an Previously we have had occasion to point out that 

organization makes it possible to use a simple and in- the interest of the consumer is service— that what 

expensive publication — a mimeographed leaflet or he buys is so many units of light, heat or power. Ki- 

even a typewritten notice on bulletin-boards. A good lowatt hours mean nothing to him apart from his 

example in another field is the military "Orders of the monthly bill — what concerns him is the ability to do 

Day" read to each command every morning ; mention something at the turn of a switch. There is no logical 

in one of these for gallantry is a most coveted honor, reason why the central station's responsibility should 

The important thing is not how the news is published, cease at the meter, rather than at the appliance, save 

but what is published. that fairly satisfactory results have been secured so far 

One of the essentials of such a publication is that by allowing the consumer to buy appliances of what- 

it shall deal with facts, adding only a few terse com- ever sort seemed most desirable at the time of pur- 

ments. The story of how Bill Smith used his "First- chase. During the last few years the public has been 

Aid" training to patch up a party of injured automobil- educated to demand more and more service f@r its 

ists is more likely to bring the rest of the force to money — free delivery by merchants is a case in point. 

"First-Aid" classes than editorial exhortations. It is It is safe to say that it is only a matter of time to be 

well to talk about economy, but what "gets under the educated in electrical methods until the householder 

skin" is how a certain district keeps its unoccupied will insist on having the same unfailing readiness-for- 

time down by having inside jobs ready for the line service from her electrical appliances as from the gas 

crews on rainy days. or coal stove or the broom and dish-pan. That means 

Another point to which more attention might be giv- maintenance expense and the central station is the 
en is the interest of employees in the success of the logical agency to give it. Central stations might prop- 
operations of certain departments or the company as a erly insist in some say as to the quality and reliability 
whole. In one power-station a bulletin with change- of the apparatus they have to repair, and use this as an 
able figures gives the kilowatt-hours generated during argument for selling or renting it. If the dealers are 
the last month and the unit cost. To the lowering of to combat this, they must sell only the very best, as- 
this figure every station employee can contribute and sume some responsibility for its performance, and 
the change of a unit in the last decimal place can be show readiness to co-operate in every way with their 
made of as much significance as a home run in the local central station in placing and keeping equipment 
ninth inning when the score is tied. Other matters of on its' lines. 





■ ■ 



Operation 

cation 



A Sse©D?£l ©2 Ifcisssssftsii FffacSils® asiufl Jk<gtuaal Sssp<sfftesnces off Practical Men. 



Il'tesiintefill Il^Siprngs 



IPffusalk CosurMl 



On account of the wide variation in engine speed, 
special devices are used to secure either constant voltage 
or constant current. Merits and defects of the various 
systems are shown. Mr. Conrad, who is an electrical en- 
gineer of the Westinghouse Electric & Manufacturing 
Company, presented this paper before the Detroit-Ann 
Arbor Section of the A. I. E. E. 

The electrical equipment of the present day automo- 
bile covers practically the whole range of electrical de- 
velopment, comprising, as it does, primary and secon- 
dary generating apparatus, with distributing and con- 
trol for the devices which perform the various func- 
tions required. The applications to which electrical 
apparatus has been particularly suited comprise igni- 
tion of the explosive mixture in the engine cylinder, 
lighting, motor drive for engine starting and signalling 
devices. The special nature of the duties required of 
each particular device has resulted in the development 
of designs particularly suited to these conditions, and 
these special designs presented the greatest problem 
in the application of electrical devices to the automo- 
bile. 

The primary source of electrical energy consists of 
a generator driven by the gasoline engine. As this en- 
gine has an operating speed range which may extend 
from I to 25, and in some cases even more, it requires 
a generator with some method of output control which 
shall permit of operation over this wide range of speed. 
The control schemes in use may be divided into two 
classes : — current and voltage control. In the current 
control type, the regulation may be obtained by: com- 
pound field winding, the series coil being connected 
for a drooping characteristic ; by exciting the shunt 
field winding through an auxiliary brush, displaced 
from the normal commutating position ; and by the use 
of an auxiliary regulating device which controls the 
generator field current. 

Current Control By Series Winding 

Of the above, the compound wound, or bucking ser- 
ies type as it is sometimes called, is the simplest, and 
probably the most reliable, but it is at a disadvantage 
in regard to weight, as compared to the auxiliary brush 
type, on account of the extra room required for the 
series field winding. It gives a characteristic curve in 
which the current rises rapidly at first, approaching the 
normal value at a certain speed which is determined as 
corresponding to the average car operating speed. 
Above this speed, the rise is very gradual, giving ap- 
proximately constant current. By connecting the lamp 
load inside of the series field, the output can be increas- 
ed while the lamps arc being operated, thereby com- 
pensating to a certain extent for the increased require- 
ments of night over day operation. 



Regulation by Field Distortion 

The auxiliary or third brush type operates through 
the effect of field distortion on the voltage between one 
of the main brushes and the auxiliary brush. This 
system has the advantages that the generator can be 
designed on the line of a simple, shunt wound genera- 
tor. It, therefore, gives a minimum of weight and cost. 
The exact position of the auxiliary brush is important, 
and the voltage impressed on the field circuit is such 
that the contact drop of the brush is a large percentage 
of the same. This type of machine is, therefore, rather 
sensitive to the condition of the brushes, and is not 
quite as stable in performance as the reverse series 
type. It gives a characteristic curve which, at the 
lower speed, is similiar to that of the reverse series 
type. At speeds above the normal operating point, 
however, the current can be made to fall off rather 
than increase. This, in a measure, has a certain ad- 
vantage in that the maximum output can be obtained 
at speeds corresponding to the every day operation of 
the car, while if the car is operated at continuous high- 
er speeds, as in extended touring, the output will be 
lowered, and thereby prevent excessive over-charging 
of the battery. These two systems of control require 
that a battery shall be at all times connected to the 
generator circuit, as they are essentially constant cur- 
rent systems, and in addition, their stability of opera- 
tion depends on being connected to a circuit in which 
the current will vary widely with a slight variation of 
voltage. This is particularly true in regard to the third 
brush type. In the case of the reverse series type, it 
would be possible to operate the generator without a 
battery, provided a lamp or equivalent load consum- 
ing the normal output which the generator is designed 
to give, is used. In the case of the third brush type. 
however, the instability is such that it would not oper- 
ate at any given output unless connected to a load hav- 
ing the characteristics of a storage battery. This, how- 
ever, is no real objection, as the necessity of continu- 
ous current supply, independent of the operation of the 
engine, requires in all cases the use of a storage bat- 
tery. 

Auxiliary Regulator Controlling Shunt Field 

In the auxiliary regulator type, a mechanical device 
is used which varies the resistance of the shunt field 
circuit. The operation of the regulator is usually con- 
trolled by variation of the generator current, it in- 
creasing the field resistance on an increase of generator 
current, and decreasing the field resistance with a de- 
crease of generator current, although in one type the 
change of field resistance is made proportionately to 



3» 



ELECTRICAL AGE 



November, 191 6 



the speed, the regulator being eentrifugally-operated. 
The design as a whole is so proportioned that when 
the generator is connected to a battery, the regulator 
will give the field values necessary to enable the gen- 
rator to deliver the normal current to the battery cir- 
cuit. Of course, with this arrangement, the regulator 
will go through its cycle of operations whether cur- 
rent actually flows in the circuit or not, so that it does 
not actually determine the generator output, unless 
all the conditions are normal. In the case of the regu- 
lator with current control, any change of conditions 
which would result in a higher or lower current will 
give a corresponding change in field strength to bring 
about a proper adjustment of generator current. This 
arrangement can be made to give a constant current 
at all speeds above a certain minimum, and has the 
apparent advantage that the operation can be perfect- 
ly stable on any type of load. As the regulator, of 
course, entails an additional mechanical device, it may 
be a question as to whether it has any advantages as 
compared to the inherently regulating types previous- 
ly mentioned, as the final generator performance is 
practically the same in each case. 

Regulation for Constant Voltage 

In the constant voltage system it has, in all cases, 
been necessary to employ a separate regulating device. 
This regulator functions similar to the usual type of 
voltage regulators supplied with the ordinary power 
generator. In order to permit of operation in connec- 
tion with a storage battery, it is necessary that the 
regulator give a characteristic to the generator in 
which the voltage droops slightly with increase of cur- 
rent. Should the regulator maintain constant potential 
at the generator terminals, it would entail an abnor- 
mally large current delivery to a discharged battery, 
thereby loading the generator to a dangerous limit. 
This type of machine, while possessing the disadvan- 
tage of implying an additional mechanical part has a 
compensating advantage in that it gives an ideal per- 
formance to the generator equipment. 

Comparative Advantages of the Two Systems 

In the constant current system it : .s necessary that 
the output be adjusted to a value which is estimated 
as the maximum average output required under the 
various conditions for which the car is intended to 
operate. The fact that the constant current system has 
given satisfaction has been mainly due to the charac- 
teristic of the storage battery, of being able to absorb 
an amount of energy considerably in excess of that 
which may be returned to the system. It is, of course, 
necessary that the energy delivered to the battery be 
equal to that which the battery re-delivers to the sys- 
tem plus the incidental losses. It is possible, however, 
to greatly increase the input of the battery without do- 
ing any great harm", other than decomposition of the 
battery solution. There is, of course, a limit to the ex- 
tent in which this condition can exist, and the constant 
potential system, therefore, can be expected to give 
wider range of application and more generally satis- 
factory service. With a proper adjustment of the char- 
acteristic curve given by the regulator and generator 
as a unit, the battery will be charged at the highest 
possible rate, as determined by the generator capacity, 
when it is in a discharged condition, and this rate will 
be automatically lowered as the battery reaches a 
charged condition. It is also possible to operate with- 
out the battery and without any particular regard to 
the nature of the load, although this, of course, may 
be considered as an emergency feature. It ensures a 



long life to the storage battery and more constant volt- 
age at the lamp terminals. The system, of course, has, 
as mentioned above, the disadvantage of requiring 
more apparatus which is subject to disarrangement 
and the accompanying higher cost of equipment. 

A Special Type of Storage Battery 

The next step in the generating system is the stor- 
age battery. As in the case of the generator, it has 
been necessary to design a particular type of battery 
to give satisfactory performance under the abnormal 
load factor to which the generating system is subject- 
ed, the conditions on the automobile being such that 
the generator in the case of the constant current sys- 
tem is designed to give an output corresponding to the 
average load which is expected to be on the system. 
The current demand, however, will vary from that re- 
quired by ignition, and by the lamps, which is of the 
order of the generator output, and which may be stated 
as being in the neighborhood of 60 watts, to that re- 
quired by the starting motor in starting the engine, 
which may be as high as 3,000 watts. In order that 
a battery in which the ampere hour capacity corres- 
ponding to that required by the current demands when 
the engine is not operating should be able to give the 
excessive output required for starting the engine, it 
has been necessary to design a battery having extreme- 
ly low internal resistance. This implies the use of a 
large number of very thin plates, and the elimination 
of separators which offer any appreciable resistance, 
such as the rubber separators used on the electric 
vehicle types of batteries. 

Lighting 

The lighting problem has been solved by the low 
voltage tungsten lamp,* and in fact, it is doubtful if 
electric lighting on the automobile would be practical 
with the ordinary carbon filament lamps. As it is, the 
lamp is practically standard, and but little change may 
be expected in the near future. The use of gas filled 
lamps in place of vacuum lamps for headlights is com- 
ing in, although they have but little real advantage, 
other than the permitting of the use of high candle 
power lamps with the generating and battery equip- 
ment now supplied. The use of this high candle power 
lamp, however, is questionable, owing to the effect of 
the intrinsic brilliancy of the filament and intensive il- 
lumination on other users of the road. 
Ignition by Magneto 

Of all the the translating devices, ignition is prob- 
ably the most important, as upon its uninterrupted op- 
eration depends the performance of the car. On the 
earlier types of automobiles, the electrical equipment 
was exclusively devoted to the function of ignition, 
which resulted in the development of the present day 
magneto as a complete unit, this device combining in 
itself the function of a generator with timing and high 
tension transforming apparatus. In its latest form, it 
consists of a generator of the permanent magnet type 
having an armature which constitutes an induction 
coil. The circuit through the primary winding is con- 
trolled by an interrupter, which serves to interrupt this 
circuit at predetermined times, thereby setting up high 
voltage impulses in the secondary winding, which, by 
means of a distributor, are distributed to the various 
cylinders in the proper order. The magneto has reach- 
ed its highest development in Europe, and although 



*See an article "Automobile Lamps and Lighting," 
by A. R. Dennington, in the September issue of Elec- 
trical Age. 



November. 1916 



ELECTRICAL AGE 



39 



there are large numbers of them now manufactured in 
this country, it can hardly be said that they are the 
equal of the European types, especially those of Ger- 
man manufacture. 

Storage Battery Ignition 
Extension of the electrical equipment to other uses 
has brought out ignition systems in which the main 
generator and battery is employed as a source of elec- 
trical energy, the ignition unit itself consisting of the 
timing and high tension transforming device, the tim- 
ing device being an interrupter and distributor operat- 
ing synchronously with the engine, the interrupter 
serving to interrupt the primary circuit of an induction 
coil, and the distributor distributing the high tension 
impulses from the secondary of this induction coil 
to the various cylinders in the proper order. So far 
as actual performance is concerned, either type can be 
made to give the same results ; the self-contained mag- 
neto having the advantage that it is an independent 
unit, and, therefore, not influenced by any conditions 
existing in the balance of the electrical equipment. It 
has the disadvantage of requiring to be operated at a 
given minimum speed before it will deliver sufficient 
energy to ignite the charge, and, therefore, does not 
give good starting conditions of the automobile en- 
gine. The auxiliary unit, which is operated from the 
main generator and battery, is able to deliver the ig- 
niting spark at very low speeds, as it obtains its energy 
from the battery. It has the disadvantage, however, 
that it is more difficult to deliver as much energy to 
the spark plug as the magneto type, and still give good 
performance over a wide speed range ; this being due 
to the fact that in the magneto, the voltage applied to 
the induction coil increases with speed, thereby com- 
pensating to an extent for the shorter time allowable in 
which to charge this coil. In the case of the auxiliary 
or battery system, the voltage applied is, of course, 
constant at all speeds; thereby giving a sparking 
energy which falls off with increase of speed to a great- 
er extent than in the case of the magneto. This condi- 
tion, however, can to a large extent be compensated 
for in the design of the unit by some means such as 
the use of a resistance in series with the primary cir- 
cuit, which has the property of increasing in value 
considerably with an increase of current, thereby pre- 
venting an excessive rise of current at the lower 
speeds. It is also, in some cases, performed mechani- 
cally by a centrifugal device which varies the resis- 
tance in the primary circuit, with variation of speed. 

Electric Starting Schemes 

The installation of electric starting of the gasoline 
engine is probably one of the factors which has most 
to do with the popularization of the automobile. It 
has introduced problems in motor design which are 
quite different from those encountered in the usual 
electric motor. The motor which is used for engine 
starting must have an exceedingly high output for a 
very short time, and its proportions be such that it 
will give a comparatively high stalling torque. As de- 
veloped, it is of the ordinary series type, and owing to 
the low voltage employed, it is possible to use strap 
windings, so that a very high space factor is obtained 
in the windings. The output of the average starting 
motor ranges from one-fourth to one horse power, and 
it is probably able to deliver this output for a period 
of possibly one-half hour. As the generator is inopera- 
tive during the period over which the starting motor is 
required to operate, it is possible to combine the func- 
tions of generator and starting motor in one piece of 



apparatus. This has been carried out in several ways, 
the two principal systems being: — 

1st: — One in which the generator and motor wind- 
ings are both placed in the same structure, the arma- 
ture having two windings, each with its own commuta- 
tor, the design being such that the operation as a gen- 
erator is at much lower speed than as a motor, a cor- 
responding change of gear ratio being made when 
operating as a generator or motor. 

2nd: — In this arrangement, the machine operates as 
a generator or motor, depending on whether its speed 
is above or below the value required to generate the 
battery voltage, the gear ratio at times remaining 
constant. With the engine standing still, on closing 
the circuit, the machine will act as a motor, starting 
up the gasoline engine. When the engine operates un- 
der its own power, driving the generator above the 
critical speed, the operation will be reversed and the 
power delivered to the battery. This scheme, of 
course, implies a larger torque at the motor shaft than 
in the previous system, owing to the limitations of 
gear ratio, to permit of the engine being operated at 
the higher speeds. 

Selection of Voltage 

As to the details of the installation, there are several 
factors which have been the subject of considerable de- 
velopment and which have been worked out along dif- 
ferent lines. One of these is the question of the volt- 
age to be employed. This voltage has ranged from 6 
to possibly as high as 40 volts. 

The choice of voltage is determined by the kinds of 
lamps, size of battery, and design of generator and 
motor. The higher voltages permit of more conven- 
ient proportions of generator and motor, especially in 
those systems in which a single unit performs the func- 
tions of both generator and motor. With the separate 
units, the development has been towards the lower 
voltage, namely: — 6 volts. This has been made pos- 
sible by the use of single turn strap windings for the 
motor and by the use of low resistance brushes now 
available, which do not entail an appreciably larger 
loss than in the case of brushes used with the higher 
voltages. As regards the lamps and battery, the ad- 
vantage is distinctly with the lower voltage ; the low 
voltage lamp with its corresponding shorter and 
thicker filament being better able to stand the vibra- 
tion of the car. The efficiency of these lamps can also 
be made